Haroen Soebratie

In de naam van Allah, de Barmhartige, de Genadevolle.


The Tafsir of Al-Qur'an

47. Muhammad (De Profeet Muhammad)
48. Al-Fath (De Overwinning)
49. Al-Hujurat (De Kamers)
50. Qaf
51. Ad-Dzariyat (Zij die doen Opwaaien)
52. At-Tur (De Berg)
53. An-Najm (De Ster)
54. Al-Qamar (De Maan)
55. Ar-Rahman (De Erbarmer)
56. Al-Waqi`ah (De Dag der Opstanding)
57. Al-Hadid (Het IJzer)
58. Al-Mudjadilah (De Twistster)
59. Al-Hasjr (De Bijeenkomst)
60. Al-Mumtahanah (Zij die ondervraagd wordt)
61. As-Saff (De Slagorde)
62. Al-Jumu`ah (De Vrijdag Bijeenkomst)
63. Al-Munafiqun (De Huichelaars)
64. At-Taghabun (De Oplichterij)
65. At-Talaq (De Echtscheiding)
66. At-Tahrim (Het Verbieden)
67. Al-Mulk (Het Koninkrijk)
68. Al-Qalam (De Pen)
69. Al-Haqqah (De Waarheid)
70. Al-Ma'aaridj (De Trappen)
71. Nuh (De Profeet Nuh)
72. Al-Jinn
73. Al-Muzzammil (De Omhulde)
74. Al-Muddattsir (De Ommantelde)
75. Al-Qiyamah (De Opstanding)
76. Al-Insan (De Mens)
77. Al-Mursalat (De Uitgezondenen)
78. An-Naba (De Aankondiging)
79. An-Nazi`at (De Uitrukkenden)
80. `Abasa (Hij Fronste)
81. At-Takwir (Het Oprollen)
82. Al-Infithar (De Splijting)
83. Al-Mutaffifin (De Zwendelaars)
84. Al-Inshiqaq (De Verscheuring)
85. Al-Buruj (De Sterrenstensels)
86. At-Tariq (De Verlichtende Ster)
87. Al-A`la (De Hoogste)
88. Al-Ghasjiyah (De Opstanding)
89. Al-Fadjr (De Dageraad)
90. Al-Balad (De Stad)
91. Ash-Sjams (De Zon)
92. Al-Lail (De Nacht)
93. Ad-Duha (Het Ochtendlicht)
94. As-Sjarh (De Verruiming)
95. At-Tin (De Vijgeboom)
96. Al-`Alaq (De Bloedklomp)
97. Al-Qadr (De Waardevolle)
98. Al-Bayyinah (Het Duidelijke Bewijs)
99. Az-Zalzalah (De Beving)
100. Al-`Adiyat (De Rennende Paarden)
101. Al-Qari`ah (De Daverende)
102. At-Takathur (De Wedijver om Meer)
103. Al-`Ashr (De Tijd)
104. Al-Humazah (De Lasteraar)
105. Al-Fil (De Olifant)
106. Al-Quraish
107. Al-Ma`un (De Levensbenodigdheden)
108. Al-Kautsar (De Overvloed)
109. Al-Kafirun (De Ongelovige)
110. An-Nashr (De Hulp)
111. Al-Masad (De Touwvezels)
112. Al-Ichlaas (Het Zuiveren)
113. Al-Falaq (De Dageraad)
114. An-Nas (De Mensen)


The Tafsir of Surah Muhammad (De Profeet Muhammad) (Chapter 47)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

1. Which was revealed in Al-Madinah
2. The Reward of the Disbelievers and the Believers Allah says
3. The Command to strike the Enemies' Necks, tighten Their Bonds, and then free Them either by an Act of Grace or for a Ransom
4. Merit of the Martyrs
5. Support Allah's Cause, He will then support You
6. Admonition and Fire for the Disbelievers; Paradise for Those Who have Taqwa
7. The Worshipper of the Truth and the Worshipper of Lust are not Equal
8. Description of Paradise and Its Rivers
9. The Description of the Situation of the Hypocrites and the Command to maintain Tawhid and seek Forgiveness
10. The Situation of the True Believer and the Sick-Hearted when the Command for Jihad was revealed
11. The Command to reflect upon the Qur'an
12. Condemning Apostasy
13. Exposing the Hidden Secret of the Hypocrites Allah says
14. Nullifying the Disbelievers' Deeds and the Command to chase Them
15. Showing the Triviality of the Worldly Life and encouraging Spending

1. Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In de naam van Allah, de Barmhartige, de Genadevolle.

[الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَضَلَّ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ - وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ وَءَامَنُواْ بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ كَفَّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَـتِهِمْ وَأَصْلَحَ بَالَهُمْ - ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ اتَّبَعُواْ الْبَـطِلَ وَأَنَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اتَّبَعُواْ الْحَقَّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ كَذَلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ أَمْثَـل َهُمْ ]

(1. Zij, die (de Waarheid) verwerpen en mensen van Allah's weg afleiden, hun werk zal Hij vruchteloos maken.)
(2. Maar zij, die geloven en goede werken doen en in hetgeen aan Mohammed is geopenbaard, geloven - dit is de Waarheid van hun Heer - hun fouten zal Hij van hen wegnemen en hun toestand verbeteren.)
(3. Dat is omdat de ongelovigen de leugen volgen, terwijl de gelovigen de Waarheid van hun Heer volgen. Zo deelt Allah aan de mensen hun toestand mede.)

2. The Reward of the Disbelievers and the Believers Allah says

[الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ]

(Those who disbelieve) meaning, in the Ayat of Allah.

[وَصُدُّواْ]

(and hinder (men)) Others.

[عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَضَلَّ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ]

(from the path of Allah, He will render their deeds vain.) meaning, He renders their deeds vain and futile, and He denies them any rewards or blessings for them. This is similar to His saying,

[وَقَدِمْنَآ إِلَى مَا عَمِلُواْ مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَآءً مَّنثُوراً ]

(And We will approach what they have done of deeds and make them as dispersed dust.) (25:23) Allah then says,

[وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَاتِ]

(And those who believe and do righteous good deeds,) Which means that their hearts and souls have believed, and their limbs and their hidden and apparent acts have complied with Allah's Law.

[وَءَامَنُواْ بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ]

(And believe in that which has been sent down to Muhammad) Adding this statement to the previous one is a method of adding a specific meaning to a general one. This provides proof that after Muhammad's advent, believing in him is a required condition for the true faith. Allah then says,

[وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ]

(For it is the truth from their Lord.) which is a beautifully placed parenthetical clause. Thus, Allah says,

[كَفَّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَـتِهِمْ وَأَصْلَحَ بَالَهُمْ]

(He expiates from them their sins and amends their Bal.) Ibn `Abbas, said, "This means their matter.'' Mujahid said, "This means their affair.'' Qatadah and Ibn Zayd both said, "Their condition.'' And all of these are similar in meaning. It has been mentioned (from the Prophet ) in the Hadith of the responding to one who sneezes,

يَهْدِيكُمُ اللهُ وَيُصْلِحُ بَالَكُم

(May Allah guide you and rectify your (Bal) affairs.) Then Allah says,

[ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ اتَّبَعُواْ الْبَـطِلَ]

(That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood,) meaning, `We only invalidate the deeds of the disbelievers and overlook the sins of the righteous, and amend their affairs, because those who disbelieve follow false- hood.' Meaning, they choose falsehood over the truth.

[وَأَنَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اتَّبَعُواْ الْحَقَّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ كَذَلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ أَمْثَـلَهُمْ]

(while those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah set forth for the people their parables.) Thus He makes the consequence of their actions clear to them, and He shows them where they will end in their next life -- and Allah knows best.

[فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَضَرْبَ الرِّقَابِ حَتَّى إِذَآ أَثْخَنتُمُوهُمْ فَشُدُّواْ الْوَثَاقَ فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَآءً حَتَّى تَضَعَ الْحَرْبُ أَوْزَارَهَا ذَلِكَ وَلَوْ يَشَآءُ اللَّهُ لاَنْتَصَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَـكِن لِّيَبْلُوَ بَعْضَكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ وَالَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَلَن يُضِلَّ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ - سَيَهْدِيهِمْ وَيُصْلِحُ بَالَهُمْ - وَيُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ عَرَّفَهَا لَهُمْ - يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِن تَنصُرُواْ اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ - وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَتَعْساً لَّهُمْ وَأَضَلَّ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ - ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَرِهُواْ مَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ ]

(4. Wanneer gij de ongelovigen (in oorlog) ontmoet, treft dan hun nek en wanneer gij overwinnaar zijt, bindt hen dan vast. En wanneer de oorlog opgehouden is, laat hen dan vrij uit gunst of voor een losprijs. Zo zij het. En indien Allah wilde, had Hij hen Zelf kunnen bestraffen. Doch Hij wilde sommigen uwer door anderen op de proef stellen. En degenen die terwille van Allah worden gedood, hun werken zal Hij zeker niet vruchteloos maken.)
(5. Hij zal hen leiden en hun toestand verbeteren.)
(6. En hen in het paradijs, dat Hij hun heeft bekend gemaakt, toelaten.)
(O gij, die gelooft, indien gij de zaak van Allah steunt zal Hij u helpen en standvastig doen blijven.)
(8. Maar de ongelovigen wacht vernietiging en Hij zal hun werken vruchteloos maken.)
(9. Dat is omdat zij, hetgeen Allah heeft geopenbaard, haten, daarom maakte Hij hun werken vruchteloos.)

3. The Command to strike the Enemies' Necks, tighten Their Bonds, and then free Them either by an Act of Grace or for a Ransom

Guiding the believers to what they should employ in their fights against the idolators, Allah says,

[فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَضَرْبَ الرِّقَابِ]

(So, when you meet those who disbelieve (in battle), smite their necks) which means, `when you fight against them, cut them down totally with your swords.'

[حَتَّى إِذَآ أَثْخَنتُمُوهُمْ]

(until you have fully defeated them,) meaning, `you have killed and utterly destroyed them.'

[فَشُدُّواْ الْوَثَاقَ]

(tighten their bonds.) `This is referring to the prisoners of war whom you have captured. Later on, after the war ends and the conflict has ceased, you have a choice in regard to the captives: You may either act graciously toward them by setting them free without charge, or free them for a ransom that you require from them.' It appears that this Ayah was revealed after the battle of Badr. At that time, Allah reproached the believers for sparing many of the enemy's soldiers, and holding too many captives in order to take ransom from them. So He said then:

[مَا كَانَ لِنَبِىٍّ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ أَسْرَى حَتَّى يُثْخِنَ فِي الاٌّرْضِ تُرِيدُونَ عَرَضَ الدُّنْيَا وَاللَّهُ يُرِيدُ الاٌّخِرَةَ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ - لَّوْلاَ كِتَـبٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ سَبَقَ لَمَسَّكُمْ فِيمَآ أَخَذْتُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ ]

(It is not for a Prophet to have captives of war until he had made a great slaughter (among the enemies) in the land. You desire the commodities of this world, but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. Allah is Mighty and Wise. Were it not for a prior decree from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took.) (8:67-68) Allah's saying,

[حَتَّى تَضَعَ الْحَرْبُ أَوْزَارَهَا]

(...until the war lays down its burden.) Mujahid said: "Until `Isa bin Maryam (peace be upon him) descends.'' It seems as if he derived this opinion from the Prophet's saying,

لَا تَزَالُ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أُمَّتِي ظَاهِرِينَ عَلَى الْحَقِّ حَتْى يُقَاتِلَ آخِرُهُمُ الدَّجَّال

(There will always be a group of my Ummah victorious upon the truth, until the last of them fight against Ad-Dajjal.) Imam Ahmad recorded from Jubayr bin Nufayr who reported from Salamah bin Nufayl that he went to the Messenger of Allah and said, "I have let my horse go, and thrown down my weapon, for the war has ended. There is no more fighting.'' Then the Prophet said to him,

الْانَ جَاءَ الْقِتَالُ، لَا تَزَالُ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أُمَّتِي ظَاهِرِينَ عَلَى النَّاسِ، يُزِيغُ اللهُ تَعَالَى قُلُوبَ أَقْوَام، فَيُقَاتِلُونَهُمْ وَيَرْزُقُهُمُ اللهُ مِنْهُمْ حَتْى يَأْتِيَ أَمْرُ اللهِ وَهُمْ عَلَى ذلِكَ، أَلَا إِنَّ عُقْرَ دَارِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الشَّامُ، وَالْخَيْلُ مَعْقُودٌ فِي نَوَاصِيهَا الْخَيْرُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَة

(Now the time of fighting has come. There will always be a group of my Ummah dominant over others. Allah will turn the hearts of some people away (from the truth), so they (that group) will fight against them, and Allah will bestow on them (war spoils) from them (the enemies) -- until Allah's command comes to pass while they are in that state. Verily, the center of the believers' abode is Ash-Sham. And goodness is tied around the horses' foreheads till the Day of Resurrection.) An-Nasa'i also recorded this narration. Allah then says,

[ذَلِكَ وَلَوْ يَشَآءُ اللَّهُ لاَنْتَصَرَ مِنْهُمْ]

(Thus, and had Allah so willed, He could have taken vengeance against them;) which means that had He so willed, He could have taken immediate vengeance against the disbelievers with a chastisement or exemplary punishment directly from Him.

[وَلَـكِن لِّيَبْلُوَ بَعْضَكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ]

(but (He lets you struggle) so as to test with one another.) meaning, He has ordered Jihad and fighting against the enemies in order to try you and test your affairs. Allah also expresses His wisdom by the legislation of Jihad in the following two Surahs, Al `Iman and At-Tawbah, in which He says,

[أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَـهَدُواْ مِنكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّـبِرِينَ ]

(Or did you think that you would enter the Paradise before Allah had made evident those of you who fight in His cause and made evident those who are steadfast) (3:142)

[قَـتِلُوهُمْ يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّهُ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ وَيُخْزِهِمْ وَيَنْصُرْكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيَشْفِ صُدُورَ قَوْمٍ مُّؤْمِنِينَ - وَيُذْهِبْ غَيْظَ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَيَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَى مَن يَشَآءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ ]

(Fight them; Allah will then punish them by your hands, disgrace them, grant you victory over them, satisfy the breasts of a believing people, and remove the fury of their (the believers') hearts. Allah turns in forgiveness to whom He wills; Allah is Knowing and Wise.) ( 9:14-15)

4. Merit of the Martyrs

Since it is customary during wars that many of the believers die, Allah says:

[وَالَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَلَن يُضِلَّ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ]

(But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.) which means that He would not let their good deeds go to waste, but would rather multiply and increase them. Some of them will continue being rewarded for their good deeds for the entire length of their stay in Al-Barzakh. This has been mentioned in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad on the authority of Kathir bin Murrah, who reported from Qays Al-Judhami, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah's Messenger said,

يُعْطَى الشَّهِيدُ سِتَّ خِصَالٍ عِنْدَ أَوَّلِ قَطْرَةٍ مِنْ دَمِهِ: تُكَفَّرُ عَنْهُ كُلُّ خَطِيئَةٍ، وَيَرَى مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ، وَيُزَوَّجُ مِنَ الْحُورِ الْعِين، وَيَأْمَنُ مِنَ الْفَزَعِ الْأَكْبَرِ، وَمِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ، وَيُحَلَّى حُلَّةَ الْإِيمَان

(As the first drop of his blood gushes forth, a martyr is granted six merits: all of his sins are forgiven, he is shown his place in Paradise, he is married to wide-eyed Huris, he is secured from the great fear (on Judgement Day) and the torment of the grave, and he is adorned with the adornments of Iman.) Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith. Abu Ad-Darda', may Allah be pleased with him, reported that Allah's Messenger said,

يُشَفَّعُ الشَّهِيدُ فِي سَبْعِينَ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِه

(A martyr is allowed to intercede for seventy members of his household. ) This was recorded by Abu Dawud, and there are numerous other Hadiths mentioning the merits of the martyrs. As for Allah's saying,

[سَيَهْدِيهِمْ]

(He will guide them) meaning, He will guide them to Jannah. This is similar to Allah's saying,

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَاتِ يَهْدِيهِمْ رَبُّهُمْ بِإِيمَانِهِمْ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهِمُ الاٌّنْهَـرُ فِي جَنَّـتِ النَّعِيمِ ]

(Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous good deeds, their Lord will guide them because of their Faith: beneath them rivers will flow in the Gardens of Pleasure.) (10:9) Allah says,

[وَيُصْلِحُ بَالَهُمْ]

(and amend their condition.) meaning, their situation and affairs.

[وَيُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ عَرَّفَهَا لَهُمْ ]

(And (He will) admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them.) It means that He has acquainted them with Paradise and guided them to it. Mujahid said: "The people of Paradise will be guided to their houses and dwellings and whatever sections Allah has ordained for them in it. They will not make mistakes in this, nor will they ask anyone for directions to their dwellings -- as if they had dwelt in it from the time they were first created.'' Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah's Messenger said,

إِذَا خَلَصَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ مِنَ النَّارِ حُبِسُوا بِقَنْطَرَةٍ بَيْنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ، يَتَقَاصُّونَ مَظَالِمَ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا، حَتْى إذَا هُذِّبُوا وَنُقُّوا أُذِنَ لَهُمْ فِي دُخُولِ الْجَنَّةِ، وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ إِنَّ أَحَدَهُمْ بِمَنْزِلِهِ فِي الْجَنَّةِ أَهْدَى مِنْهُ بِمَنْزِلِهِ الَّذِي كَانَ فِي الدُّنْيَا

(After the believers securely pass the Fire (on the Day of Judgement), they will be held back upon a bridge between Paradise and the Fire. There, they will have any acts of injustice that they committed against one another in the life of this world rectified. After they are completely purified and cleansed (from injustice), they will be admitted into Paradise. By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, each one of them will find his way to his dwelling in Paradise better than he found his way to his dwelling in the worldly life.)

5. Support Allah's Cause, He will then support You

Allah then says:

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِن تَنصُرُواْ اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ ]

(O you who believe! If you support (the cause of) Allah, He will support you and make your foothold firm.) This is similar to His saying,

[وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ]

(Indeed, Allah will surely support those who support Him (His cause).) (22:40) That is because the reward is comparable to the type of deed that is performed. Thus, Allah says here,

[وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ]

(and make your foothold firm.) Allah then says,

[وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَتَعْساً لَّهُمْ]

(But as for those who disbelieve -- misery awaits them) This misery is the opposite of making firm the footholds of the believers who support the cause of Allah and His Messenger . It has been confirmed in a Hadith that Allah's Messenger said,

تَعِسَ عَبْدُالدِّينَارِ، تَعِسَ عَبْدُالدِّرْهَمِ، تَعِسَ عَبْدُالْقَطِيفَةِ، تَعِسَ وَانْتَكَسَ وَإِذَا شِيكَ فَلَا انْتَقَش

(Misery awaits the servant of the Dinar; misery awaits the servant of the Dirham; misery awaits the servant of velvet. Misery awaits him, and degeneracy; and if he is pricked by a thorn, may he not find anyone to pull it for him.) This means may Allah not cure him. Then Allah says,

[وَأَضَلَّ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ]

(and (Allah) will make their deeds vain.) meaning, He will nullify them and make them fruitless. Thus, Allah says,

[ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَرِهُواْ مَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ]

(That is because they hate that which Allah has sent down;) which means that they did not want or like what Allah revealed.

[فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ]

(so He made their deeds fruitless.)

[أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَيَنظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ دَمَّرَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلِلْكَـفِرِينَ أَمْثَـلُهَا - ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَأَنَّ الْكَـفِرِينَ لاَ مَوْلَى لَهُمْ - إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْخِلُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يَتَمَتَّعُونَ وَيَأْكُلُونَ كَمَا تَأْكُلُ الاٌّنْعَـمُ وَالنَّارُ مَثْوًى لَّهُمْ - وَكَأَيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ هِىَ أَشَدُّ قُوَّةً مِّن قَرْيَتِكَ الَّتِى أَخْرَجَتْكَ أَهْلَكْنَـهُمْ فَلاَ نَـصِرَ لَهُمْ ]

(10. Have they not traveled through the earth and seen what happened in the end to those before them Allah destroyed them completely, and a similar (awaits) the disbelievers.) (11. That is because Allah is the Protector of those who believe, whereas the disbelievers have no protector.) (12. Certainly Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous good deeds, into Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise); while those who disbelieve enjoy their life and eat as cattle eat; but the Fire will be their abode.) (13. And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out We have destroyed, with none to help them!)

6. Admonition and Fire for the Disbelievers; Paradise for Those Who have Taqwa

Allah says,

[أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُواْ]

(Have they not traveled) meaning, those who associate partners with Allah and deny His Messenger .

[فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَيَنظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ دَمَّرَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ]

(through the land and seen what happened in the end to those before them Allah destroyed them completely,) which means that Allah punished them because of their denial and disbelief, and saved the believers from among them. That is why He says,

[وَلِلْكَـفِرِينَ أَمْثَـلُهَا]

(and a similar (end awaits) the disbelievers.) Then Allah says,

[ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَأَنَّ الْكَـفِرِينَ لاَ مَوْلَى لَهُمْ ]

(That is because Allah is the Protector of all those who believe, whereas the disbelievers have no protector.) After the battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb, the commander of the idolators at that time, inquired about the Prophet , Abu Bakr, and `Umar, may Allah be pleased with them. When he heard no response, he announced: "Verily, those three have died!'' `Umar then responded to him: "You lie, O enemy of Allah! Allah has indeed saved those who will displease you. Indeed, those whom you mentioned are all alive!'' Abu Sufyan then said: "Well, today makes up for (the defeat on) the day of Badr, and the war has its ups and downs. And indeed, you are going to find mutilation (in the bodies of your dead) that I did not command, nor did I prohibit.'' Then he turned around chanting: "Glory to Hubal (their greatest idol), Glory to Hubal.'' Allah's Messenger said:

أَلَا تُجِيبُوهُ؟

(Aren't you going to respond to him) The Companions said: "What should we say, O Messenger of Allah'' He said:

قُولُوا: اللهُ أَعْلَى وَأَجَل

(Say: "Allah is Most High and Most Glorious.'') Then Abu Sufyan said: "We have Al-`Uzza (their second idol), and you have no `Uzza. (honor).'' Allah's Messenger said:

أَلَا تُجِيبُوهُ؟

(Aren't you all going to respond to him) They said: "What should we say, O Messenger of Allah'' He said:

قُولُوا: اللهُ مَوْلَانَا وَلَا مَوْلَى لَكُم

(Say: "Allah is our Protector, and you have no protector.'') Allah then says,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْخِلُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ جَنَـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ]

(Verily, Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous good deeds into Gardens through which rivers flow.) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection.

[وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يَتَمَتَّعُونَ وَيَأْكُلُونَ كَمَا تَأْكُلُ الاٌّنْعَـمُ]

(Whereas those who disbelieve enjoy their life and eat as cattle eat. ) Which means that the disbelievers enjoy their worldly life and eat in it like animals, munching and gnawing (with greed). They have no concern other than that. Thus, it has been confirmed in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,

الْمُؤْمِنُ يَأْكُلُ فِي مِعىً وَاحِدٍ، وَالْكَافِرُ يَأْكُلُ فِي سَبْعَةِ أَمْعَاء

(A believer eats with one intestine, and a disbeliever eats with seven intestines.) Then Allah says,

[وَالنَّارُ مَثْوًى لَّهُمْ]

(but the Fire will be their abode.) meaning, on the Day of their Reckoning. Allah then says,

[وَكَأَيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ هِىَ أَشَدُّ قُوَّةً مِّن قَرْيَتِكَ الَّتِى أَخْرَجَتْكَ]

(And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out) meaning, Makkah.

[أَهْلَكْنَـهُمْ فَلاَ نَـصِرَ لَهُمْ]

(We have destroyed, with none to help them!) gThis is a great threat and severe warning to the people of Makkah because they rejected Allah's Messenger , who was the chief of the Messengers and the last of the Prophets. If Allah had destroyed the previous nations because of their denial of their Messengers, what then would those (people of Makkah) expect that Allah would do to them in the worldly life and the Hereafter And if the torment were to be lifted off some of them in this life by the blessing of the presence of the Messenger, the Prophet of Mercy, the torment will be stored for them in their next life, as Allah says,

[يُضَاعَفُ لَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ مَا كَانُواْ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ السَّمْعَ وَمَا كَانُواْ يُبْصِرُونَ]

(Their torment will be doubled! They could not bear to hear (the preaching), and they used not to see (the truth).) (11:20) Concerning Allah's saying,

[مِّن قَرْيَتِكَ الَّتِى أَخْرَجَتْكَ]

(than Your town that has driven you out) This means, `its people who have driven you (Muhammad ) out from amongst them (the people of Makkah).' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, that when Allah's Messenger left Makkah (at the time of Hijrah -- migration), and he reached the cave and hid inside it, he looked back toward Makkah and said,

أَنْتِ أَحَبُّ بِلَادِ اللهِ إِلَى اللهِ، وَأَنْتِ أَحَبُّ بِلَادِ اللهِ إِلَيَّ، وَلَوْلَا أَنَّ الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَخْرَجُونِي لَمْ أَخْرُجْ مِنْك

(You are the most beloved to Allah among Allah's lands, and you are also the most beloved to me among Allah's lands. Were it not that the idolators have driven me out from you, I would never have left you.) Ibn `Abbas then said, "The worst of enemies is he who transgresses against Allah in His own sacred place, who kills a person who is not trying to kill him, or who kills because of Jahiliyyah vengeance. Allah then revealed to His Prophet ,

[وَكَأَيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ هِىَ أَشَدُّ قُوَّةً مِّن قَرْيَتِكَ الَّتِى أَخْرَجَتْكَ أَهْلَكْنَـهُمْ فَلاَ نَـصِرَ لَهُمْ ]

(And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out have We destroyed, with none to help them!)''

[أَفَمَن كَانَ عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّهِ كَمَن زُيِّنَ لَهُ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ وَاتَّبَعُواْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ - مَّثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِى وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ فِيهَآ أَنْهَارٌ مِّن مَّآءٍ غَيْرِ ءَاسِنٍ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِّن لَّبَنٍ لَّمْ يَتَغَيَّرْ طَعْمُهُ وَأَنْهَـرٌ مِّنْ خَمْرٍ لَّذَّةٍ لِّلشَّـرِبِينَ وَأَنْهَـرٌ مِّنْ عَسَلٍ مُّصَفًّى وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَتِ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ كَمَنْ هُوَ خَـلِدٌ فِى النَّارِ وَسُقُواْ مَآءً حَمِيماً فَقَطَّعَ أَمْعَآءَهُمْ ]

(14. Can then he, who stands on clear evidence from his Lord, be like those for whom their evil deeds are beautified for them, while they follow their own lusts) (15. The description of Paradise which is promised to those who have Taqwa, (is that) in it are rivers of water that are not Asin, rivers of milk the taste of which never changes, rivers of wine delicious to those who drink it, and rivers of refined honey; and therein for them are all kinds of fruits, and forgiveness from their Lord. Can this be likened to those who abide eternally in the Fire and are given to drink boiling water that severs their intestines)

7. The Worshipper of the Truth and the Worshipper of Lust are not Equal

Allah says:

[أَفَمَن كَانَ عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّهِ]

(Can then he, who stands on clear evidence from his Lord...) This means a person who is upon clear vision and certainty concerning Allah's commands and His religion, because of the guidance and knowledge that Allah has revealed in His Book, and because of the pure nature upon which Allah has created him.

[كَمَن زُيِّنَ لَهُ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ وَاتَّبَعُواْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ]

((Can he) be likened to those for whom their evil deeds are beautified for them, while they follow their own lusts) which means that they cannot be equal. This is similar to Allah's saying,

[أَفَمَن يَعْلَمُ أَنَّمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَبِّكَ الْحَقُّ كَمَنْ هُوَ أَعْمَى]

(Can he who knows that what has been revealed unto you from your Lord is the truth be like him who is blind) (13:19) And,

[لاَ يَسْتَوِى أَصْحَـبُ النَّارِ وَأَصْحَـبُ الْجَنَّةِ أَصْحَـبُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمُ الْفَآئِزُونَ ]

(Not equal are the people of the Fire and the people of Paradise. The People of Paradise will be the successful ones.) (59:20)

8. Description of Paradise and Its Rivers

Allah then says:

[مَّثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِى وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ]

(The description of Paradise which is promised for those who have Taqwa...) `Ikrimah said,

[مَّثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ]

(The description of Paradise) "This means its description.''

[فِيهَآ أَنْهَارٌ مِّن مَّآءٍ غَيْرِ ءَاسِنٍ]

(In it are rivers of water that are not Asin,) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah all said, "It does not change.'' Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, and `Ata' Al-Khurasani all said, "It is not foul-smelling.'' The Arabs say Asin if its (water) scent changes.

[وَأَنْهَارٌ مِّن لَّبَنٍ لَّمْ يَتَغَيَّرْ طَعْمُهُ]

(rivers of milk, the taste of which never changes,) which means that the milk is of utmost whiteness, sweetness, and richness. It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet "Their milk did not come out of the udders of cattle.''

[وَأَنْهَـرٌ مِّنْ خَمْرٍ لَّذَّةٍ لِّلشَّـرِبِينَ]

(rivers of wine delightful to those who drink it, ) hich means that the wine does not have a bad taste or foul smell like that of the worldly life. Rather, it is good in its appearance, taste, smell, and effect, as Allah says,

[لاَ فِيهَا غَوْلٌ وَلاَ هُمْ عَنْهَا يُنزَفُونَ ]

(it (the wine) has no bad effects, nor does it cause intoxication.) (37:47) and,

[لاَّ يُصَدَّعُونَ عَنْهَا وَلاَ يُنزِفُونَ ]

(From which (the wine) they will have no headache, nor will they be intoxicated.) (56:19)

[بَيْضَآءَ لَذَّةٍ لِّلشَّـرِبِينَ ]

(white, delicious to the drinkers.)(37:46) It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet , "Their wine was not pressed under men's feet.''

[وَأَنْهَـرٌ مِّنْ عَسَلٍ مُّصَفًّى]

(and rivers of refined honey;) which means that the honey is of utmost purity and pleasant color, taste, and smell. It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet , "Their honey did not come out of the bellies of bees.'' Imam Ahmad recorded from Hakim bin Mu`awiyah who narrated from his father that Allah's Messenger said,

فِي الْجَنَّةِ بَحْرُ اللَّبَنِ وَبَحْرُ الْمَاءِ وَبَحْرُ الْعَسَلِ وَبَحْرُ الْخَمْرِ، ثُمَّ تُشَقَّقُ الْأَنْهَارُ مِنْهَا بَعْد

(Verily, there is in Paradise a lake of milk, a lake of water, a lake of honey, and a lake of wine. The rivers then gush out of them. At-Tirmidhi reported this narration in his section of the Description of Paradise, and he said, "Hasan Sahih. In the Sahih, it is recorded that Allah's Messenger said,

إِذَا سَأَلْتُمُ اللهَ تَعَالى فَاسْأَلُوهُ الْفِرْدَوْسَ فَإِنَّهُ أَوْسَطُ الْجَنَّةِ، وَأَعْلَى الْجَنَّةِ، وَمِنْهُ تُفَجَّرُ أَنْهَارُ الْجَنَّةِ، وَفَوْقَهُ عَرْشُ الرَّحْمن

(When you ask Allah, ask Him for Al-Firdaws, because it is the central and highest part of the Paradise, and from it gush the rivers of the Paradise and above it is the Throne of the Most Merciful.)Allah says,

[وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَتِ]

(...and therein for them are all kinds of fruits, ...) This similar to His saying,

[يَدْعُونَ فِيهَا بِكلِّ فَـكِهَةٍ ءَامِنِينَ ]

(They will call in it for every kind of fruit in peace and security.) (44:55) And His saying,

[فِيهِمَا مِن كُلِّ فَـكِهَةٍ زَوْجَانِ ]

(In them will be every kind of fruits in pairs.) (55:52) Allah says

[وَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ]

(. ..and forgiveness from their Lord.) meaning, in addition to all of the above. Allah says,

[كَمَنْ هُوَ خَـلِدٌ فِى النَّارِ]

(Can this be likened to those who abide eternally in the Fire) meaning, `can those that We have described their position in the Paradise be like those who will abide eternally in the Fire' They are not equal, and nor are those who will be in the high ranks (in the Paradise) and those who will be in the lowest depths (Hell).

[وَسُقُواْ مَآءً حَمِيماً]

(and are given to drink boiling water) meaning, extremely hot; so hot that it is unbearable.

[فَقَطَّعَ أَمْعَآءَهُمْ]

(that severs their intestines) meaning, that will cut their insides -- both bowels and intestines. We seek refuge in Allah from that.

[وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَسْتَمِعُ إِلَيْكَ حَتَّى إِذَا خَرَجُواْ مِنْ عِندِكَ قَالُواْ لِلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ مَاذَا قَالَ ءَانِفاً أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَاتَّبَعُواْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ - وَالَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْاْ زَادَهُمْ هُدًى وَءَاتَـهُمْ تَقُوَاهُمْ - فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلاَّ السَّاعَةَ أَن تَأْتِيَهُمْ بَغْتَةً فَقَدْ جَآءَ أَشْرَاطُهَا فَأَنَّى لَهُمْ إِذَا جَآءَتْهُمْ ذِكْرَاهُمْ ]

[فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلأاللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ]

(16. And among them are some who listen to you till when they go out from you, they say to those who have received knowledge: "What is it that he has said just now "Such are men whose hearts Allah has sealed because they followed their lusts.) (17. And as for those who accept guidance, He increases them in guidance and bestows on them their Taqwa.) (18. Do they then await except that the Hour should come upon them suddenly But already there have come (some of) its portents; and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their reminder) (19. So know that La ilaha illallah and ask forgiveness for your sin, and also for (the sin of) believing men and women. And Allah knows well your moving about, and your place of rest.)

9. The Description of the Situation of the Hypocrites and the Command to maintain Tawhid and seek Forgiveness

Allah describes the hypocrites' stupidity and limited understanding. They used to sit before Allah's Messenger and listen to his words without understanding anything. Then when they left from his presence,

[قَالُواْ لِلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ]

(they say to those who have received knowledge) from the Companions

[مَاذَا قَالَ ءَانِفاً]

("What is it that he has said just now'') meaning, at this moment. They did not understand what he said, nor did they care about it. Allah says,

[أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَاتَّبَعُواْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ]

(Such are the men whose hearts Allah has sealed because they followed their lusts.) which means that they had neither sound understanding nor correct intentions. Allah then says,

[وَالَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْاْ زَادَهُمْ هُدًى]

(And as for those who accept guidance, He increases them in guidance) which means that those who seek guidance, Allah facilitates it for them; He guides them to it, makes them firm on it, and gives them more of it.

[وَءَاتَـهُمْ تَقُوَاهُمْ]

(and bestows on them their Taqwa. ) meaning, He inspires them to their righteous guidance. Allah then says,

[فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلاَّ السَّاعَةَ أَن تَأْتِيَهُمْ بَغْتَةً]

(Do they then await except that the Hour should come upon them suddenly) meaning, while they are unaware of it.

[فَقَدْ جَآءَ أَشْرَاطُهَا]

(But already there have come (some of) its portents;) meaning, the signs of its approach. This is similar to Allah's saying,

[هَـذَا نَذِيرٌ مِّنَ النُّذُرِ الاٍّوْلَى - أَزِفَتِ الاٌّزِفَةُ ]

(This is a warner of the warners of old. The approaching Day has drawn near.) (53:56-57) And His saying,

[اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ ]

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has split.) (54:1) And His saying,

[أَتَى أَمْرُ اللَّهِ فَلاَ تَسْتَعْجِلُوهُ]

(The command of Allah is coming, so do not be impatient for it.) (16:1) And His saying,

[اقْتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَـبُهُمْ وَهُمْ فِى غَفْلَةٍ مُّعْرِضُونَ ]

(The people's Day of Reckoning has approached while they turn away in heedlessness.) (21:1) Thus, the Messenger's advent is one of the signs of the Hour, because he is the Finality of the Messengers. With him, Allah has completed the religion and established the evidence against all people in a way that was never done by a previous Prophet. Allah's Messenger has most clearly informed about the signs and indications of the Hour, as we have discussed elsewhere. Al-Bukhari recorded from Sahl bin Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, that he saw Allah's Messenger bring his index and middle fingers together while he said,

بُعِثْتُ أَنَا وَالسَّاعَةَ كَهَاتَيْن

(I have been sent before the Hour as these two (fingers).) Allah continues,

[فَأَنَّى لَهُمْ إِذَا جَآءَتْهُمْ ذِكْرَاهُمْ]

(and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their reminder) meaning, how would remembering benefit the disbelievers when the Hour comes upon them This is similar to Allah's saying,

[يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَذَكَّرُ الإِنسَـنُ وَأَنَّى لَهُ الذِّكْرَى]

(On that Day will the human being remember, but what would that remembrance avail him then) (89:23) And His saying,

[وَقَالُواْ ءَامَنَّا بِهِ وَأَنَّى لَهُمُ التَّنَاوُشُ مِن مَّكَانِ بَعِيدٍ ]

(They will say (in the Hereafter): "Now we believe in it!'' But how could they claim belief from such a far place) (34:52) Allah then says,

[فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلأاللَّهِ]

(So know that La ilaha illallah) This is a declaration that there is no true God except Allah. It is not something that is easy for him to command the people to have knowledge of. That is why Allah connected it with,

[وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ]

(and ask forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and women.) In the Sahih, it is recorded that Allah's Messenger used to say,

اللْهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي خَطِيئَتِي وَجَهْلِي وَإِسْرَافِي فِي أَمْرِي وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي، اللْهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي هَزْلِي وَجِدِّي، وَخَطَئِي وَعَمْدِي، وَكُلُّ ذلِكَ عِنْدِي

(O Allah, forgive my sin, my ignorance, my immoderation in my affairs, and all that You know better about my (faults) than myself. O Allah, forgive for me my joking, my seriousness, my unintended error, and my deliberate (mistakes) -- and I have done of all that.) It is also reported in the Sahih that he used to say at the end of the prayer,

اللْهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي مَا قَدَّمْتُ وَمَا أَخَّرْتُ، وَمَا أَسْرَرْتُ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُ، وَمَا أَسْرَفْتُ، وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي، أَنْتَ إِلهِي لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا أَنْت

(O Allah, forgive for me what I have previously done, what I may commit in future, what I have committed secretly, what I have committed openly, what I have done excessively, and all sins that You know better than me. You are my God. There is no (true) God except You.) It is also recorded in the Sahih that he used to say,

يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ تُوبُوا إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ، فَإِنِّي أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْهِ فِي الْيَوْمِ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّة

(O people! Repent to your Lord! Verily, I ask Allah for forgiveness and repent to Him more than seventy times every day.) Allah then says,

[وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ]

(And Allah knows well your moving about, and your place of rest.) means, He knows how you behave during the day, and where you settle at night. This is similar to His saying,

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَتَوَفَّـكُم بِالَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ]

(It is He Who takes your souls by night and knows all that you do by day.)(6:60) And He says,

[وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ فِي الاٌّرْضِ إِلاَّ عَلَى اللَّهِ رِزْقُهَا وَيَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسْتَوْدَعَهَا كُلٌّ فِى كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ ]

(And there is no moving creature on earth but its provision is up to Allah, and He knows its dwelling place and its deposit (before birth and after death) -- all is in a clear register.) (11:6)

[وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَوْلاَ نُزِّلَتْ سُورَةٌ فَإِذَآ أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ مُّحْكَمَةٌ وَذُكِرَ فِيهَا الْقِتَالُ رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ نَظَرَ الْمَغْشِىِّ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ فَأَوْلَى لَهُمْ - طَاعَةٌ وَقَوْلٌ مَّعْرُوفٌ فَإِذَا عَزَمَ الاٌّمْرُ فَلَوْ صَدَقُواْ اللَّهَ لَكَانَ خَيْراً لَّهُمْ - فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَن تُفْسِدُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُواْ أَرْحَامَكُمْ - أَوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ فَأَصَمَّهُمْ وَأَعْمَى أَبْصَـرَهُمْ ]

(20. Those who believe say: "Why is not a Surah sent down (for us)'' But now that a decisive Surah is sent down mentioning fighting, you can see those in whose hearts is disease (of hypocrisy) looking at you with the look of one who is about to faint for fear of death. But it was better for them.) (21. Obedience and good words. And when the matter is resolved, then if they had been true to Allah, it would have been better for them.) (22. So would you perhaps, if you turned away, spread corruption on earth, and sever your ties of kinship) (23. Such are the ones whom Allah has cursed, so that He has made them deaf and blinded their vision.)

10. The Situation of the True Believer and the Sick-Hearted when the Command for Jihad was revealed

Allah mentions that the believers were hoping that Jihad would be legislated. But when Allah ordained it, many of the people turned back, as Allah says,

[أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ كُفُّواْ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَءَاتُواْ الزَّكَوةَ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً وَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبْتَ عَلَيْنَا الْقِتَالَ لَوْلا أَخَّرْتَنَا إِلَى أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ قُلْ مَتَـعُ الدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالاٌّخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقَى وَلاَ تُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً ]

(Have you not seen those who were told: "Restrain your hands (from fighting), establish the Salah, and give Zakah.'' But then when fighting was ordained for them, you find a party of them fearing the people as they fear Allah or more. They said: "Our Lord! Why have You decreed fighting upon us If only You have postponed us for a short period.'' Say: "The enjoyment of this world is little. The Hereafter is far better for him who had Taqwa of (Allah), and you will not be dealt with unjustly, even as much as a thin thread (inside a date's pit).'')(4:77) Similarly, Allah says here,

[وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَوْلاَ نُزِّلَتْ سُورَةٌ]

(Those who believe say: "Why is not a Surah sent down (for us)'') means, a Surah containing an order to fight. Then He says,

[فَإِذَآ أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ مُّحْكَمَةٌ وَذُكِرَ فِيهَا الْقِتَالُ رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ نَظَرَ الْمَغْشِىِّ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ]

(But now that a decisive Surah is sent down mentioning fighting, you can see those in whose hearts is disease looking at you with the look of one who is about to faint for fear of death.) meaning, due to their fear, terror, and cowardice concerning meeting the enemies. Allah then encourages them by saying,

[فَأَوْلَى لَهُمْطَاعَةٌ وَقَوْلٌ مَّعْرُوفٌ]

(But it was better for them, obedience and good words.) which means that it would have been better for them to listen and obey in that present situation.

[فَإِذَا عَزَمَ الاٌّمْرُ]

(When the matter (of fighting) is resolved.) which means when the situation becomes serious and the time of fighting truly arrives.

[فَلَوْ صَدَقُواْ اللَّهَ]

(if they had been true to Allah,) meaning, by making their intentions sincerely for Him.

[لَكَانَ خَيْراً لَّهُمْ]

(it would have been better for them) Allah then says,

[فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ]

(So would you perhaps, if you turned away) meaning, from Jihad and you withdrew from it.

[أَن تُفْسِدُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُواْ أَرْحَامَكُمْ]

(spread corruption on earth, and sever your ties of kinship) which means, would you then go back to your old practices of the time of ignorance: shedding blood and severing kinship ties Allah then says,

[أَوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ فَأَصَمَّهُمْ وَأَعْمَى أَبْصَـرَهُمْ ]

(Such are the ones whom Allah has cursed, so He has made them deaf and blinded their vision.) This involves a general prohibition of spreading corruption on earth, and a specific prohibition of severing the ties of kinship. In fact, Allah has commanded the people to establish righteousness on earth, as well as to join the ties of kinship by treating the relatives well in speech, actions, and spending wealth in charity. Many authentic and sound Hadiths have been reported through numerous routes of transmission from Allah's Messenger in this regard. Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah's Messenger said,

خَلَقَ اللهُ تَعَالَى الْخَلْقَ فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ مِنْهُ قَامَتِ الرَّحِمُ فَأَخَذَتْ بِحَقْوِ الرَّحْمنِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَقَالَ: مَهْ، فَقَالَتْ: هذَا مَقَامُ الْعَائِذِ بِكَ مِنَ الْقَطِيعَةِ، فَقَالَ تَعَالَى: أَلَا تَرْضَيْنَ أَنْ أَصِلَ مَنْ وَصَلَكِ وَأَقْطَعَ مَنْ قَطَعَكِ؟ قَالَتْ: بَلَى، قَالَ: فَذَاكِ لَك

(After Allah completed creating the creation, the womb stood up and pulled at the lower garment of the Most Merciful. He said, 'Stop that!' It replied, 'My stand here is the stand of one seeking refuge in you from severance of ties.' Allah said, 'Would it not please you that I join whoever joins you and sever whoever severs you' It replied, 'Yes indeed!' He said, 'You are granted that!') Abu Hurayrah then added, "Read if you wish:

[فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَن تُفْسِدُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُواْ أَرْحَامَكُمْ ]

(So would you perhaps, if you turned away, spread corruption on earth, and sever your ties of kinship)'' Then Al-Bukhari recorded it with another wording which states that the Messenger of Allah said,

اقْرَءُوا إِنْ شِئْتُمْ

[فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَن تُفْسِدُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُواْ أَرْحَامَكُمْ ]

(Read if you wish: (So would you perhaps, if you turned away, spread corruption on earth, and sever your ties of kinship)) Muslim also recorded it. Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Bakrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah's Messenger said:

مَا مِنْ ذَنْبٍ أَحْرَى أَنْ يُعَجِّلَ اللهُ تَعَالَى عُقُوبَتَهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا، مَعَ مَا يَدَّخِرُ لِصَاحِبِهِ فِي الْاخِرَةِ، مِنَ الْبَغْيِ وَقَطِيعَةِ الرَّحِم

(No sin deserves that Allah hasten its punishment in the worldly life, in addition to what He reserves in the Hereafter for those who commit it, more than injustice and severance of the ties of kinship.) This was also recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Sahih.'' Imam Ahmad recorded from Thawban, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah's Messenger said,

مَنْ سَرَّهُ النَّسَاءُ فِي الْأَجَلِ وَالزِّيَادَةُ فِي الرِّزْقِ،فَلْيَصِلْ رَحِمَه

(Whoever likes for his life to be extended, and his provision increased, let him connect his ties of kinship.) Ahmad was alone in recording this narration, but it has a supporting narration in the Sahih. Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah's Messenger said,

إِنَّ الرَّحِمَ مُعَلَّقَةٌ بِالْعَرْشِ، وَلَيْسَ الْوَاصِلُ بِالْمُكَافِىءِ، وَلكِنِ الْوَاصِلُ الَّذِي إِذَا قُطِعَتْ رَحِمُهُ وَصَلَهَا

(Verily, the womb is attached to the Throne. And connecting its ties does not mean dealing evenly (with the kinsfolk), but it rather means that if one's kinsfolk sever the ties, he connects them.) This Hadith was also recorded by Al-Bukhari. Ahmad also recorded from `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah's Messenger said,

تُوضَعُ الرَّحِمُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَهَا (حُجْنَةٌ كَحُجْنَةِ) الْمِغْزَلِ تَكَلَّمُ بِلِسَانٍ طَلِقٍ ذَلِقٍ، فَتَقْطَعُ مَنْ قَطَعَهَا وَتَصِلُ مَنْ وَصَلَهَا

(The womb will be placed on the Day of Resurrection, curved like a spinning wheel, speaking with an eloquent fluent tongue, calling to severing whoever had severed it, and joining whoever had joined it.) Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah's Messenger said,

الرَّاحِمُونَ يَرْحَمُهُمُ الرَّحْمنُ، ارْحَمُوا أَهْلَ الْأَرْضِ يَرْحَمْكُمْ أَهْلُ السَّمَاءِ، وَالرَّحِمُ شُجْنَةٌ مِنَ الرَّحْمنِ، مَنْ وَصَلَهَا وَصَلَتْهُ وَمَنْ قَطَعَهَا بَتَّتْه

(The merciful ones will be granted mercy from the Most Merciful. Have mercy on those on earth -- the One above the heavens will then have mercy on you. And Ar-Rahim (the womb) is from Ar-Rahman, so whoever joins it, it joins him; and whoever severs it, it severs him.) Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi both recorded this Hadith and it has been reported with continuous chains of transmission. At-Trimidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' There are numerous other Hadiths in this regard.

[أَفَلاَ يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْءَانَ أَمْ عَلَى قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَآ - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ارْتَدُّواْ عَلَى أَدْبَـرِهِمْ مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْهُدَى الشَّيْطَـنُ سَوَّلَ لَهُمْ وَأَمْلَى لَهُمْ - ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُواْ لِلَّذِينَ كَرِهُواْ مَا نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ سَنُطِيعُكُمْ فِى بَعْضِ الاٌّمْرِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِسْرَارَهُمْ - فَكَيْفَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتْهُمُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَـرَهُمْ - ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ اتَّبَعُواْ مَآ أَسْخَطَ اللَّهَ وَكَرِهُواْ رِضْوَانَهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ ]

(24. Will they not then reflect upon the Qur'an, or are there locks upon their hearts) (25. Verily, those who have turned back as disbelievers after guidance had become clear to them -- Shaytan has enticed them and filled them with false hopes.) (26. That is because they said to those who hate what Allah has sent down: "We will obey you in part of the matter.'' And Allah knows their secrets.) (27. Then how (will it be) when the angels will take their souls at death, striking their faces and their backs) (28. That is because they followed that which angered Allah and hated what earns His pleasure, so He rendered their deeds worthless.)

11. The Command to reflect upon the Qur'an

Commanding the people to reflect and ponder upon the Qur'an, and prohibiting them from turning away from it, Allah says,

[أَفَلاَ يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْءَانَ أَمْ عَلَى قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَآ ]

(Will they not then reflect upon the Qur'an, or are there locks upon their hearts) means, there indeed are locks upon some hearts, firmly closing them so that none of its meanings can reach them. Ibn Jarir recorded from Hisham bin `Urwah, from his father, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah's Messenger once recited this Ayah,

[أَفَلاَ يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْءَانَ أَمْ عَلَى قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَآ ]

(Will they not then reflect upon the Qur'an, or are there locks upon their hearts) and a young man from Yemen said, "Indeed, there are locks upon them -- until Allah opens them totally or slightly.'' After that `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, always liked that young man, and kept that to himself until he became in charge, upon which he utilized him (as a consultant).

12. Condemning Apostasy

Allah then says,

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ارْتَدُّواْ عَلَى أَدْبَـرِهِمْ]

(Verily, those who have turned back) meaning, they departed from the faith and returned to disbelief.

[مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْهُدَى الشَّيْطَـنُ سَوَّلَ لَهُمْ]

(... after guidance had become clear to them -- Shaytan has enticed them) meaning he adorned and beautified that (apostasy) for them.

[وَأَمْلَى لَهُمْ]

(and filled them with false hopes.) meaning, he tempted them, and deceived them.

[ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُواْ لِلَّذِينَ كَرِهُواْ مَا نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ سَنُطِيعُكُمْ فِى بَعْضِ الاٌّمْرِ]

(That is because they said to those who hate what Allah sent down: "We will obey your in part of the matter.'') means, they plotted secretly with them and gave them evil advice -- as is the common practice of the hypocrites who declare the opposite of what they conceal. Because of this, Allah says,

[وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِسْرَارَهُمْ]

(And Allah knows their secrets. ) whatever they hide and conceal, Allah is well-acquainted with it and He knows it. This is similar to His saying,

[وَاللَّهُ يَكْتُبُ مَا يُبَيِّتُونَ]

(...And Allah records all that they plot by night.) (4:81) Allah then says,

[فَكَيْفَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتْهُمُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَـرَهُمْ ]

(How (will it be) when the angels will take their souls at death, striking their faces and their backs) That is, how their situation will be when the angels come to take their lives, and their souls cling to their bodies, causing the angels to extract them by force, harshness, and beating. This is similar to Allah's saying,

[وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ يَتَوَفَّى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَـرَهُمْ]

(If you could but see when the angels take away the lives of the disbelievers, striking their faces and their backs.) (8:50) And His saying,

[وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الظَّـلِمُونَ فِى غَمَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ وَالْمَلَـئِكَةُ بَاسِطُواْ أَيْدِيهِمْ]

(If you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death, while the angels extend their hands) (6:93). meaning, to beat them.

[أَخْرِجُواْ أَنفُسَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَكُنتُمْ عَنْ ءَايَـتِهِ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ]

((saying): "Deliver your souls! This day you will be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to utter against Allah other than the truth, and because you used to arrogantly reject His signs.'') (6:93) Because of the above, Allah says,

[ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ اتَّبَعُواْ مَآ أَسْخَطَ اللَّهَ وَكَرِهُواْ رِضْوَانَهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ ]

(That is because they pursued what angered Allah and disliked what earns His pleasure, so He rendered their deeds worthless.)

[أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ أَن لَّن يُخْرِجَ اللَّهُ أَضْغَـنَهُمْ - وَلَوْ نَشَآءُ لأَرَيْنَـكَهُمْ فَلَعَرَفْتَهُم بِسِيمَـهُمْ وَلَتَعْرِفَنَّهُمْ فِى لَحْنِ الْقَوْلِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ أَعْمَـلَكُمْ - وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَـهِدِينَ مِنكُمْ وَالصَّـبِرِينَ وَنَبْلُوَ أَخْبَـرَكُمْ ]

(29. Or do those in whose hearts is a disease, think that Allah will not expose their ill--wills) (30. Had We so willed, We could have shown them clearly to you, so that you would know them by their marks; but you will know them by the tone of their speech! And Allah knows (all) your deeds.) (31. And We will surely, try you until We know those who strive among you and the patient, and We will put to a test all your affairs.)

13. Exposing the Hidden Secret of the Hypocrites Allah says,

[أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ أَن لَّن يُخْرِجَ اللَّهُ أَضْغَـنَهُمْ ]

(Or do those in whose hearts is disease think that Allah would never expose their ill--wills) meaning, do the hypocrites think that Allah will not expose their affair to His believing servant Yes indeed, He will expose their affair and manifest it so that those with insight will be able to understand it. In that regard, Allah revealed Surah Bara'ah (or At-Tawbah), in which He clarified the hypocrites' scandals, and pinpointed their practices that are indicative of their hypocrisy. Because of that, this Surah (Surah Bara'ah) is also called "The Exposer''. Adghan is the plural of Dighn, which means what the souls harbor of envy and hatred toward Islam and its people who support it. Allah then says,

[وَلَوْ نَشَآءُ لأَرَيْنَـكَهُمْ فَلَعَرَفْتَهُم بِسِيمَـهُمْ]

(Had We so willed, We could have shown them clearly to you, so that you would know them by their marks.) Allah is telling His Messenger , "Had We willed, O Muhammad, We would have shown you the specific individuals who are hypocrites, so that you would plainly know them.'' However, Allah did not do that in regard to all of the hypocrites. He conceals His creation, lets their affairs run according to apparent purity, and leaves the inner secrets to the One Who is well aware of them. Allah then adds,

[وَلَتَعْرِفَنَّهُمْ فِى لَحْنِ الْقَوْلِ]

(But you will know them by the tone of their speech!) which means, `you will know them by their speech that reveals their intentions.' A person declares his association through the context and meaning of his words -- as the Commander of the faithful `Uthman bin `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "Never would one conceal a secret but Allah will expose it by the look on his face and the uncontrolled words of his tongue.'' Allah then says,

[وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُم]

(And We will surely try you) meaning, `We will surely test you with commands and prohibitions.'

[حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَـهِدِينَ مِنكُمْ وَالصَّـبِرِينَ وَنَبْلُوَ أَخْبَـرَكُمْ]

(until We know those who strive among you and the patient, and We will put to a test all your affairs.) There is absolutely no doubt that Allah's knowledge precedes the occurrence of all events. In this Ayah, "until We know'' means `until We know of its occurrence.' This is why Ibn `Abbas said in regard to this and similar texts, "Except so that We may know, means, so that We may see.''

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَشَآقُّواْ الرَّسُولَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْهُدَى لَن يَضُرُّواْ اللَّهَ شَيْئاً وَسَيُحْبِطُ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ - يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَلاَ تُبْطِلُواْ أَعْمَـلَكُمْ - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ مَاتُواْ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ فَلَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ - فَلاَ تَهِنُواْ وَتَدْعُواْ إِلَى السَّلْمِ وَأَنتُمُ الاٌّعْلَوْنَ وَاللَّهُ مَعَكُمْ وَلَن يَتِرَكُمْ أَعْمَـلَكُمْ ]

(32. Verily, those who disbelieve, and hinder from the path of Allah, and oppose the Messenger, after the guidance has been clearly shown to them, they will not harm Allah in the least, but He will make their deeds fruitless,) (33. O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and invalidate not your deeds.) (34. Verily, those who disbelieved and obstructed others from the path of Allah and then died as disbelievers -- never will Allah not forgive them.) (35. So do not lose heart and beg for peace while you are superior. Allah is with you and He will never deprive you of (the reward of) your deeds.)

14. Nullifying the Disbelievers' Deeds and the Command to chase Them

Allah then informs about those who disbelieve, obstruct others from the path of Allah, oppose the Messenger and contend with him, and revert from the faith after guidance has become clear to them. He indicates that those people can never harm Allah in the least, and rather they only harm themselves and become losers on the Day of Resurrection. He will nullify their deeds. Allah will not reward them even the weight of a mosquito (i.e., the smallest thing) for any good that they did before their apostasy, but would instead totally invalidate and destroy it. Their apostasy wipes away their good deeds entirely, just as the good deeds would normally wipe away the evil deeds. Imam Ahmad Ibn Nasr Al-Marwazi reported in Kitab As-Salah (the Book of Prayer) that Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "The Prophet's Companions used to think that no sin would harm a person who says `La ilaha illallah,' just as no good deed would benefit a person who joins partners with Allah. So Allah revealed,

[أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَلاَ تُبْطِلُواْ أَعْمَـلَكُمْ]

(Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not invalidate your deeds.) This made them fear that some sins could nullify their deeds.'' It has also been reported from Ibn `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said, "We, the Companions of Allah's Messenger , used to think that good deeds would all be accepted, until Allah revealed,

[أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَلاَ تُبْطِلُواْ أَعْمَـلَكُمْ]

(Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not invalidate your deeds. ) So we asked each other: `What is it that can nullify our deeds' So we said, `The major sins, great offenses that require admission into the Fire and immoral sins.' But then Allah revealed,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ]

(Verily, Allah does not forgive joining partners with Him in worship, but He forgives except that to whom He wills.) (4:48) After this was revealed, we ceased saying that. We thereafter continued to fear for those who committed great sins and immoral sins and to have hope for those who did not.'' Then, Allah commands His believing servants to obey Him and His Messenger , which would result in their happiness in this worldly life and the Hereafter. He also prohibits them from apostasy, because that would result in the nullification of their deeds. Thus He says,

[وَلاَ تُبْطِلُواْ أَعْمَـلَكُمْ]

(and do not invalidate your deeds.) meaning, by apostasy. Thus, Allah says after this,

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ مَاتُواْ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ فَلَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ ]

(Verily, those who disbelieved and obstructed others from the path of Allah and then died as disbelievers -- never will Allah forgive them.) This is similar to His saying,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ]

(Verily, Allah does not forgive joining partners with Him in worship, but He forgives except that to whom He wills.) (4:48) Allah then addresses His believing servants by saying,

[فَلاَ تَهِنُواْ]

(So do not lose heart) meaning, do not be weak concerning the enemies.

[وَتَدْعُواْ إِلَى السَّلْمِ]

(and beg for peace) meaning, compromise, peace, and ending the fighting between you and the disbelievers while you are in a position of power, both in great numbers and preparations. Thus, Allah says,

[فَلاَ تَهِنُواْ وَتَدْعُواْ إِلَى السَّلْمِ وَأَنتُمُ الاٌّعْلَوْنَ]

(So do not lose heart and beg for peace while you are superior.) meaning, in the condition of your superiority over your enemy. If, on the other hand, the disbelievers are considered more powerful and numerous than the Muslims, then the Imam (general commander) may decide to hold a treaty if he judges that it entails a benefit for the Muslims. This is like what Allah's Messenger did when the disbelievers obstructed him from entering Makkah and offered him treaty in which all fighting would stop between them for ten years. Consequently, he agreed to that. Allah then says:

[وَاللَّهُ مَعَكُمْ]

(And Allah is with you) This contains the good news of victory and triumph over the enemies.

[وَلَن يَتِرَكُمْ أَعْمَـلَكُمْ]

(and He will never deprive you of (the reward of) your deeds.) meaning, Allah will never invalidate your deeds, nullify them, or deprive you of them, but rather He will give you your rewards complete, without any reduction.'' And Allah knows best.

[إِنَّمَا الْحَيَوةُ الدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ وَإِن تُؤْمِنُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ يُؤْتِكُمْ أُجُورَكُمْ وَلاَ يَسْـَلْكُمْ أَمْوَلَكُمْ - ؤإِن يَسْـَلْكُمُوهَا فَيُحْفِكُمْ تَبْخَلُواْ وَيُخْرِجْ أَضْغَـنَكُمْ - هَآ أَنتُمْ هَـؤُلاَءِ تُدْعَوْنَ لِتُنفِقُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَمِنكُم مَّن يَبْخَلُ وَمَن يَبْخَلْ فَإِنَّمَا يَبْخَلُ عَن نَّفْسِهِ وَاللَّهُ الْغَنِىُّ وَأَنتُمُ الْفُقَرَآءُ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْاْ يَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْماً غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَكُونُواْ أَمْثَـلَكُم ]

(36. This worldly life is only amusement and diversion. And if you believe and have Taqwa of Allah, He will grant you your rewards, and will not ask from you (to sacrifice all of) your possessions.) (37. If He would demand of you all of it and urge you, you would withhold. And He will expose your (secret) ill--wills.) (38. Here you are now invited to spend in Allah's cause; but among you are those who withhold (stingily). And whoever acts stingily is but stingy toward himself. For Allah is indeed free of needs, while you are the needy. And if you turn away, He will replace you with other people; then they will not be like you.)

15. Showing the Triviality of the Worldly Life and encouraging Spending

Expressing the insignificance and worthlessness of the worldly life, Allah says,

[إِنَّمَا الْحَيَوةُ الدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ]

(This worldly life is only amusement and diversion.) which means that such is its outcome, except for that which is done for the sake of Allah. Because of this, Allah says,

[وَإِن تُؤْمِنُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ يُؤْتِكُمْ أُجُورَكُمْ وَلاَ يَسْـَلْكُمْ أَمْوَلَكُمْ]

(And if you believe and have Taqwa of Allah, He will grant you your rewards, and will not ask from you (to sacrifice all of) your possessions.) meaning, He is in no need of you, and asks you for nothing. He only ordained giving charity from your wealth so that you would help your needy brothers. The benefit of that would then come back to you, as well as the rewards. Allah then says,

[ؤإِن يَسْـَلْكُمُوهَا فَيُحْفِكُمْ تَبْخَلُواْ]

(If He would demand of you all of it and urge you, you would withhold.) meaning, if He pressures you much, you would become stingy.

[وَيُخْرِجْ أَضْغَـنَكُمْ]

(And He will expose your (secret) ill--wills.) Qatadah said, "Allah knows that extracting wealth (i.e., money from people) brings about ill-wills. '' Indeed, Qatadah has said the truth, because money is dear to the people, and they do not spend it except in things that are dearer to them than it. Allah then says,

[هَآ أَنتُمْ هَـؤُلاَءِ تُدْعَوْنَ لِتُنفِقُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَمِنكُم مَّن]

(Here you are now invited to spend in Allah's cause; but among you are those who withhold (stingily).) meaning, they refuse to spend. Allah continues,

[يَبْخَلُ وَمَن يَبْخَلْ فَإِنَّمَا يَبْخَلُ عَن]

(And whoever acts stingily is but stingy toward himself.) meaning, he only reduces his own rewards, and the bad outcome of that will come back to him.

[نَّفْسِهِ وَاللَّهُ]

(For Allah is indeed Al-Ghani) Allah is in need of nothing else, whereas everything is ever in need of Him. Thus, Allah says,

[الْغَنِىُّ وَأَنتُمُ]

(while you are the needy.) meaning, specifically of Him. The description of Allah as Al-Ghani (in no need) is a necessary description of Allah; on the other hand, the description of the creation as Faqr (needy) is a necessary description for them that they cannot avoid. Allah then says,

[وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْاْ]

(And if you turn away, ) which means, if you turn away from obeying Him and adhering to His Laws.

[تَتَوَلَّوْاْ يَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْماً غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَكُونُواْ]

(He will replace you with other people; then they will not be like you.) meaning, rather, they will be people who will listen to Him and obey His commands. kThis concludes the Tafsir of Surat Al-Qital. And Allah is worthy of all praise and gratitude.


The Tafsir of Surah Al-Fath (De Overwinning) (Chapter 48)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

1. The Merit of Surah Al-Fath
2. The Reason behind revealing Surat Al-Fath
3. Allah sent down the Sakinah into the Hearts of the Believers
4. Qualities of the Messenger of Allah
5. The Pledge of Ar-Ridwan
6. Hadiths about the Pledge at Al-Hudaybiyyah
7. The Reason behind conducting the Pledge of Ar-Ridwan
8. The Fabricated Excuse offered by Those Who lagged behind and did not participate in Al-H?udaybiyyah; Allah's Warning for Them
9. Allah conveys the News that there will be Many Cases of Jihad, and that Jihad distinguishes the Ranks of the Believers and exposes the Hypocrites
10. Acceptable Reasons for not joining Jihad
11. Good News to the Participants of the Ridwan Pledge of Allah's Pleasure and earning Spoils of War
12. Good News of abundant Spoils of War
13. Good News of continuous Muslim Victories until the Day of Resurrection
14. Had Makkah's Disbelievers fought at Al-Hudaybiyyah, They would have retreated in Defeat
15. Some of the Benefits gained from the Treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah
16. The Hadiths that tell the Story of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the Peace Treaty that followed
17. Allah has indeed fulfilled the True Vision which He showed to His Prophet
18. The Good News that Muslims will conquer the Known World, and ultimately the Entire World
19. Qualities of the Faithful Believers and Their Refinement

1. The Merit of Surah Al-Fath

Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin Mughaffal, who said that Allah's Messenger recited Surah Al-Fath on the (day) of the conquest of Makkah, riding on his she-camel. He recited it in a vibrating and pleasant tone. Mu`awiyah (a subnarrator) added: "Were I not afraid that the people would crowd around me, I would surely try to imitate and produce his recitation.'' Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith through Shu`bah.

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً - لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَطاً مُّسْتَقِيماً - وَيَنصُرَكَ اللَّهُ نَصْراً عَزِيزاً ]

(1. Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.) (2. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His favor on you, and guide you on the straight path,) (3. And that Allah may help you with strong help.)

2. The Reason behind revealing Surat Al-Fath

This honorable Surah was revealed after the Messenger of Allah returned from the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah, in the sixth year of Hijrah. This is when the idolators prevented him from reaching Al-Masjid Al-Haram to perform the `Umrah he intended. They stopped the Prophet from reaching Makkah at that time, but then were prone to peace negotiations. A peace treaty was conducted stipulating that the Messenger would return this year and then come back for `Umrah the following year. The Messenger agreed. However, some of the Companions disliked these terms, including `Umar bin Al-Khattab, as we will mention in detail, Allah willing, while explaining this Surah. After the Prophet slaughtered his sacrificial animals in the area where he was stopped and headed back to Al-Madinah, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed this Surah about what occurred between him and the idolators. Allah declared the Al-Hudaybiyyah peace treaty a manifest victory, because of the benefits peace would carry and the good results that did originate from it. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and other Companions said, "You consider the conquering of Makkah to be Al-Fath (the victory), while to us, Al-Fath is the treaty conducted at Al-Hلudaybiyyah.'' Jabir (bin `Abdullah) said, "We only considered Al-Fath to be the day of Hلudaybiyyah!'' Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara' (bin `Azib) said, "You consider Al-Fath to be the conquest of Makkah, which was indeed a victory. However, we consider Al-Fath to be the pledge of Ar-Ridwan on the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah. Then, we were fourteen hundred with the Messenger of Allah . Al-Hudaybiyyah had a well, whose water we consumed, not leaving a drop of water in it. When the news of what happened reached the Messenger of Allah , he came towards us and sat on the edge of the well. Then he asked to be brought a bucket of water and used it for ablution. He next rinsed his mouth, invoked Allah and poured that water into the well. Soon after, that well provided us, as well as our animals, with sufficient water, in whatever amount of water we wished. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah on a trip, and I asked him about a matter three times, but he did not answer me. So I said to myself, `May your mother lose you, O son of Al-Khattab! You were stubborn in repeating your question three times to the Messenger of Allah ; each time he did not respond to you.' So I mounted my animal, my camel, and went ahead for fear that a part of the Qur'an might be revealed in my case. Suddenly, I heard a caller calling, `O `Umar!' So, I went to the Messenger while fearing that part of the Qur'an was revealed about me. The Prophet said,

نَزَلَ عَلَيَّ الْبَارِحَةَ سُورَةٌ هِيَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا:

[إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ]

(Last night, a Surah was revealed to me that is dearer to me than this life and all that it contains: (Verily, We have given you a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future.)) Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith from several chains of narration through Malik, may Allah grant him His mercy. `Ali bin Al-Madini commented, "This is a good chain of narration consisting of the scholars of Al-Madinah.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "This Ayah was revealed to the Prophet ,

[لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ]

(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future,) on his return from Al-Hudaybiyyah. The Prophet said,

لَقَدْ أُنْزِلَتْ عَلَيَّ اللَّيْلَةَ آيَةٌ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِمَّا عَلَى الْأَرْض

(Tonight, an Ayah, that is dearer to me than all that the earth carries, was revealed to me.) The Prophet recited the Ayah to them. They said, `Congratulations, O Allah's Messenger! Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has stated what He will do with you. So what will He do with us' These Ayat were revealed to the Prophet ,

[لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ]

(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow. ..), until,

[فَوْزاً عَظِيماً]

(...a supreme success.)'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said, "The Prophet used to pray until both his feet were swollen. He was asked, `Has not Allah forgiven you all your sins of the past and of future' He said,

أَفَلَا أَكُونُ عَبْدًا شَكُورًا؟

(Should I not be a thankful servant)'' The two collectors of the Sahihs collected this Hadith, as well as, the rest of the Group, except Abu Dawud. Allah's statement,

[إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً ]

(Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.) means, clear and apparent victory. This Ayah is about the treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah, which resulted in great goodness, including people embracing Islam in large crowds and having the chance to meet each other openly. During that time, the believers preached to the idolators and thus beneficial knowledge and faith spread all around. Allah's statement,

[لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ]

(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, ) contains one of the special virtues of the Messenger , and no one else shares this honor with him. There is not an authentic Hadith that states that any person other than the Messenger earned forgiveness for all of his sins of the past and future on account of performing good deeds. This, indeed, is a great honor for the Messenger of Allah , who fulfilled the requirements of Allah's obedience, righteousness and straightness at a level never surpassed by a human being in past generations, nor will it ever be surpassed in the generations to come. Muhammad is the perfect human being and the leader and chief of all mankind in this life and the Hereafter. And since he was, and will always be, the most obedient of Allah's creation to Him and the most honoring of Allah's commands and prohibitions, he said when his she- camel insisted on kneeling down,

حَبَسَها حَابِسُ الْفِيل

(He Who stopped the elephant, has stopped her too.) The Prophet then declared,

وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَا يَسْأَلُونِّي الْيَوْمَ شَيْئًا يُعَظِّمُونَ بِهِ حُرُمَاتِ اللهِ إِلَّا أَجَبْتُهُمْ إِلَيْهَا

(By the Name of Him in Whose Hand my soul is, this day, if they ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, I will grant it to them.) And when the Messenger obeyed Allah and accepted the peace offer from the Quraysh, Allah the Exalted said to him,

[إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ]

(Verily, We have given you a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His favor on you,) in this life and the Hereafter,

[وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَطاً مُّسْتَقِيماً]

(and guide you on the straight path,) with the glorious legislation and the straight religion that He ordains on you,

[وَيَنصُرَكَ اللَّهُ نَصْراً عَزِيزاً ]

(And that Allah may help you with strong help.) due to your obedience of the orders of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored; Allah will elevate your status and give you victory above your enemies. An authentic Hadith states,

وَمَا زَادَ اللهُ عَبْدًا بِعَفْوٍ إِلَّا عِزًّا. وَمَا تَوَاضَعَ أَحَدٌ للهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَّا رَفَعَهُ اللهُ تَعَالَى

(No servant pardons but Allah grants him honor, and none humbles himself for Allah except that Allah the exalted and sublime raises him (in rank).) `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "You will never punish someone who disobeyed Allah with you better than obeying Allah the Exalted and Most Honored with him.''

[هُوَ الَّذِى أَنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ فِى قُلُوبِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لِيَزْدَادُواْ إِيمَـناً مَّعَ إِيمَـنِهِمْ وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً - لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا وَيُكَفِّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَـتِهِمْ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عِندَ اللَّهِ فَوْزاً عَظِيماً - وَيُعَذِّبَ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ وَالْمُنَـفِقَـتِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ وَالْمُشْرِكَـتِ الظَّآنِّينَ بِاللَّهِ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ السَّوْءِ وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَنَهُمْ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيراً - وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً ]

(4. He it is Who sent down As-Sakinah into the hearts of the believers, that they may grow more in faith along with their faith. And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.) (5. That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow to abide therein forever, and He may expiate from them their sins; and that is with Allah supreme success,) (6. And that He may punish the hypocrites men and women, and also the idolators men and women, who think evil thoughts about Allah, for them is a disgraceful torment. And the anger of Allah is upon them, and He has cursed them and prepared Hell for them and worst indeed is that destination.) (7. And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.)

3. Allah sent down the Sakinah into the Hearts of the Believers

Allah the Exalted said,

[هُوَ الَّذِى أَنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ]

(He it is Who sent down As-Sakinah), meaning, tranquility. Qatadah commented, "Grace into the hearts of the believers'', that is, the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, on the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah. The companions were they, who accepted the call of Allah and His Messenger and obeyed the decisions of Allah and His Messenger . When their hearts felt content with acceptance and were at peace, Allah increased their faith, joining it to the faith they already had. Al-Bukhari, and other Imams, relied on this Ayah as proof that faith increases and decreases in the hearts. Allah the Exalted said next that had He willed, He would have inflicted defeat on the disbelievers, Allah says;

[وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]

(And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth) and had He willed to send only one angel to them, that angel would have brought destruction to all what they had. However, Allah the Exalted willed Jihad and fighting to be established for, and by, the believers for great wisdom, clear reasons and unequivocal evidences that He had in all this. This is why Allah the Great said next,

[وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً]

(and Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا]

(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow to abide therein forever,) We mentioned the Hadith that Anas narrated in which the Companions said, "Congratulations, O Allah's Messenger! This good news is for you, so what good news do we have'' Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah,

[لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا]

(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow to abide therein forever,) meaning they will remain in Paradise forever,

[وَيُكَفِّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَـتِهِمْ]

(and He may expiate from them their sins;) Allah will not punish them for their errors and mistakes. Rather, He will forgive, absolve and pardon them and cover the errors, grant mercy and appreciate,

[وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عِندَ اللَّهِ فَوْزاً عَظِيماً]

(and that is with Allah supreme success.) Allah the Exalted said in a similar Ayah,

[فَمَن زُحْزِحَ عَنِ النَّارِ وَأُدْخِلَ الْجَنَّةَ فَقَدْ فَازَ]

(And whoever is removed away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful.) (3:185) Allah said,

[وَيُعَذِّبَ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ وَالْمُنَـفِقَـتِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ وَالْمُشْرِكَـتِ الظَّآنِّينَ بِاللَّهِ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ]

(And that He may punish the hypocrites, men and women, and also the idolators, men and women, who think evil thoughts about Allah,) who question the wisdom in Allah's decisions and think that the Messenger and his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, might be killed and exterminated. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

[عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ السَّوْءِ وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَنَهُمْ]

(for them is a disgraceful torment. And the anger of Allah is upon them, and He has cursed them) He has cast them away from His mercy,

[وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيراً]

(and prepared Hell for them -- and worst indeed is that destination.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored asserted His ability to take revenge from the enemies of Islam and all disbelievers and hypocrites,

[وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً ]

(And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.)

[إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَـكَ شَـهِداً وَمُبَشِّراً وَنَذِيراً - لِّتُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلاً - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِمَا عَـهَدَ عَلَيْهِ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْراً عَظِيماً ]

(8. Verily, We have sent you as a witness, as a bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner.) (9. In order that you (O mankind) may believe in Allah and His Messenger and that you Tu`azziruh and Tuwaqqiruh, and Tusabbihuh Bukrah and Asila.) (10. Verily, those who give pledge to you, they are giving pledge to Allah. The Hand of Allah is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm; and whosoever fulfills what he has the covenants he makes with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward.)

4. Qualities of the Messenger of Allah

Allah the Exalted says to His Prophet, Muhammad ,

[إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَـكَ شَاهِداً]

(Verily, We have sent you as a witness,) of the creation,

[وَمُبَشِّراً]

(as a bearer of glad tidings,) to the believers,

[وَنَذِيرًا]

(and as a warner.) to the disbelievers. We explained these meanings in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Ahzab. Allah said,

[لِّتُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ]

(In order that you may believe in Allah and His Messenger, and that you Tu`azziruh) or you honor him, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas and several others,

[وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ]

(and Tuwaqqiruh), where Tawqir means, respect, honor and high regard,

[وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ]

(and that you Tusabbihuh), glorify Allah's praises,

[بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلاً]

(Bukrah and Asila), the early and late part of the day.

5. The Pledge of Ar-Ridwan

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored honors, regards and praises His Messenger by saying,

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ]

(Verily, those who give pledge to you, they are giving pledge to Allah.) Allah the Exalted and Most High said in another Ayah,

[مَّنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ]

(He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah.) (4:80) Allah said, next,

[يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ]

(The Hand of Allah is over their hands.) meaning, He is with them, hearing their statements and witnessing their stand, having full knowledge of them inwardly and outwardly. Therefore, Allah the Exalted was indeed taking the pledge from them through His Messenger ,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَى مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَلَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الّجَنَّةَ يُقَـتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْءانِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُواْ بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِى بَايَعْتُمْ بِهِ وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ ]

(Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties for which theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's cause, so they kill and are killed. It is a promise in truth, binding on Him in the Tawrah and the Injil and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah Then rejoice in the bargain you have concluded. That is the supreme success.)(9:111) Allah said,

[وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِمَا عَـهَدَ عَلَيْهِ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْراً عَظِيماً]

(...and whosoever fulfills what the covenants he makes with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward.) a generous reward. The pledge mentioned here is the pledge of Ar-Ridwan which was pledged under a tree, a Samurah, in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah. The number of the Companions who gave their pledge to Allah's Messenger at that time was either 1,300, 1,400 or 1,500. However, 1,400 is the better choice.

6. Hadiths about the Pledge at Al-Hudaybiyyah

Al-Bukhari recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "We numbered one thousand and four hundred on the day of Hudaybiyyah.'' Muslim also collected this Hadith. The Two Sahihs recorded that Jabir said; "We numbered one thousand and four hundred at that time. The Messenger placed his hand in the water and it started gushing forth from between his fingers until everyone had quenched their thirst.'' This is a short form of the story. Another narration of it mentioned that the Companions became thirsty on the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the Messenger of Allah gave them an arrow from his quiver. They took the arrow, placed it in the well of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the water gushed out until they all satisfied their thirst. Jabir was asked how many of them there were on that day and he said, "We were one thousand and four hundred. And had we been a hundred thousand, that water would still have been sufficient to satisfy us all.'' In another narration collected in the Two Sahihs, Jabir bin `Abdullah said that they were one thousand and five hundred at the time. Al-Bukhari recorded that Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib was asked by Qatadah, "How many were present for the pledge of Ar-Ridwan'' Sa`id said, "One thousand and five hundred.'' Qatadah posed, "Jabir bin `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with them both, said that they were one thousand and four hundred.'' Sa`id said, "He forgot. He told me that they were one thousand and five hundred.'' However, Al-Bayhaqi commented, "This narration testifies that Jabir used to state that they were one thousand and five hundred, but later on remembered the true number and said that they were one thousand and four hundred.''

7. The Reason behind conducting the Pledge of Ar-Ridwan

Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said in his book on Sirah: "The Messenger of Allah beckoned `Umar bin Al-Khattab in order to send him to Makkah, so that he could inform the chiefs of Quraysh of the Prophet's intent (to perform `Umrah at Makkah). `Umar said, `O Allah's Messenger! I fear the Quraysh for my being. There are no longer any chiefs from the tribe of Bani `Adi bin Ka`b remaining in Makkah who would protect me, in addition, the Quraysh know my enmity and harshness against them. However, I could tell you about a man who is mightier than I in Makkah: `Uthman bin `Affan. We should send him to Abu Sufyan and the chiefs of the Quraysh informing them that you did not come to fight them, but to visit this House and to honor its holiness.' `Uthman left to Makkah. He met Aban bin Sa`id bin Al-`As upon entering Makkah or just before that. As a result, Aban took `Uthman with him and extended his protection to him so he could deliver the message of Allah's Messenger . `Uthman indeed went to Abu Sufyan and the chiefs of Quraysh and imparted the Prophet's message that he was sent with. When `Uthman finished delivering the Prophet's message to them they said to him, `If you wish, you can perform Tawaf around the House.' `Uthman replied, `I would not do that before the Messenger of Allah gets the chance to perform Tawaf around it.' So the Quraysh kept `Uthman waiting in Makkah. However, the Messenger of Allah and the Muslims were told that `Uthman had been killed.'' Ibn Ishaq continued, "I was told by `Abdullah bin Abu Bakr that when news of `Uthman's death was conveyed to him, the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا نَبْرَحُ حَتْى نُنَاجِزَ الْقَوْم

(We will not leave until we fight the people.)'' Ibn Ishaq continued, "The Messenger of Allah called the Muslims to give a pledge of allegiance, resulting in the pledge of Ar-Ridwan being conducted under the tree. Later, people used to say that the Messenger of Allah took the pledge from them to die. However, Jabir bin `Abdullah said, `The Messenger of Allah did not ask us to give a pledge to die (or be victorious), but that we would not run away (from battle).' The Muslims gave their pledge and none among them held back from giving it, except Al-Jadd bin Qays from the tribe of Bani Salamah. Jabir used to say afterwards, `By Allah, it is as if I am looking at him now next to the shoulder of his camel taking refuge behind it, so that the people did not see him.' Soon afterwards, news came to the Messenger of Allah that the story of `Uthman's death was not true.'' Al-Bukhari recorded that Nafi` said, "People said that `Abdullah bin `Umar embraced Islam before `Umar, but this is not true. What happened is that on the Day of Hudaybiyyah, `Umar sent `Abdullah to bring his horse that he kept with a man from Al-Ansar, so he could use it to fight. The Messenger of Allah was then taking the pledge from the Muslims under the tree while `Umar was unaware. So, `Abdullah conducted his pledge and fetched the horse and brought it to `Umar, who was wearing his armor in preparation for battle. `Abdullah told `Umar that the Messenger of Allah was accepting the pledge under the tree. `Umar proceeded with `Abdullah and gave his pledge to the Messenger of Allah . This is why some people thought that `Abdullah bin `Umar embraced Islam before `Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both.'' Al-Bukhari also recorded Ibn `Umar saying that, the people who were with the Messenger of Allah scattered under the shade of trees. Suddenly, the people gathered around the Prophet and `Umar said, "O `Abdullah! Investigate why the people are gathering around Allah's Messenger.'' Ibn `Umar found the people giving their pledge. He gave his pledge, then went back and told `Umar, who also went and gave his pledge. In a Hadith collected by Muslim, Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "On the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, we were one thousand and four hundred. We gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet while `Umar was holding the Prophet's hand under the tree, which was a Samurah (a kind of thorny tree). We gave the pledge to him not to run away (from battle). We did not give the pledge to die.'' Muslim recorded that Ma`qil bin Yasar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "On the day of the Tree, while the Prophet was taking the pledge from the people, I was holding a branch of that tree away from his head. We were fourteen hundred. We did not give him our pledge to die, but gave the pledge not to run from battle.'' However, Al-Bukhari recorded that Salamah bin Al-Akwa`, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "I gave the pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree.'' Yazid asked him, "O Abu Maslamah, to what did you pledge at that time'' Salamah said, "To die!'' Al-Bukhari also collected a Hadith from Salamah bin Al-Akwa` that he said, "I gave my pledge to the Messenger of Allah on the day of Hudaybiyyah. I stood to the side and the Messenger said,

يَا سَلَمَةُ أَلَا تُبَايِعُ؟

(Why not give the pledge, O Salamah) and I said, `I did.' He said,

أَقْبِلْ فَبَايِع

(Come and give pledge). I went close to him and gave him my pledge.''' Salamah was asked, "What was the pledge that you gave then, O Salamah'' Salamah said, "To die.'' Muslim collected this Hadith as well, while Al-Bukhari collected from `Abbad bin Tamim that the pledge they gave was to die. Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Salamah bin Al-Akwa`, may Allah be pleased with him said, "We went to Al-Hudaybiyyah with the Messenger of Allah , and we numbered fourteen hundred at that time. We reached the well and found around fifty sheep drinking from it, but its water was barely sufficient for them. The Messenger of Allah sat on its rim, invoked Allah and spat in the well and its water gushed out. We made our animals drink from it and also drank from it. Next, the Messenger of Allah called the people to give the pledge when he was under the tree, and I was among the first to give the pledge to him. The remaining people then started giving the pledge. When about half the people have given the pledge, the Messenger said to me,

بَايِعْنِي يَا سَلَمَة

(Give me the pledge, O Salamah!) I said, `O Allah's Messenger! I have already pledged my pledge in the first group of people.' He said,

وَأَيْضًا

(Do it again.) So I pledged my pledge again. He also saw that I was not wearing any armor and gave me some. He went on accepting the pledge from the people. When they were about to finish, he said,

أَلَا تُبَايِـــعُ يَا سَلَمَةُ؟

(Will you not give me your pledge, O Salamah!) I said, `O Allah's Messenger! I have given you the pledge in the beginning and the middle. ' He said,

وَأَيْضًا

(Do it again,) I gave him my pledge for a third time. The Messenger of Allah asked me,

يَا سَلَمَةُ أَيْنَ حَجَفَتُكَ أَوْ دَرَقَتُكَ الَّتِي أَعْطَيْتُكَ؟

(Where is the armor that I gave you O Salamah) I said, `O Allah's Messenger! `Amir met me and I found that he did not have a shield, so I gave it to him.' The Messenger of Allah laughed and said to me,

إِنَّكَ كَالَّذِي قَالَ الْأَوَّلُ اللْهُمَّ أَبْغِنِي حَبِيبًا هُوَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ نَفْسِي

(You are just like the man of old times who said, `O Allah! Give me a dear person who is dearer to me than myself!') Then the idolators of Makkah sent a delegation asking for a peace treaty, and we agreed to make peace. I used to work for Talhah bin `Ubaydullah, may Allah be pleased with him, by providing water for his horse. For taking care of it, Talhah gave me a portion of his food. I had left my family and wealth and migrated to Allah and His Messenger (so I was poor). After the people of Makkah and us conducted peace and were freely mingling with each other, I went by a tree, removed its thorny branches and rested under its shade. Four of the idolators of Makkah stood close to me and started mentioning the Messenger of Allah in an improper way and I hated being close to them. So, I moved under the shade of another tree. They hanged their weapons and rested under it. Meanwhile, a caller shouted these words from the bottom of the valley, `O Emigrants! Ibn Zunaym was killed,' so I held my sword and went after the four idolators. They were asleep, so I took possession of their weapons and held them in my hand, saying, `By He Who has honored the face of Muhammad , if any one of you raises his head, I will strike that which holds his eyes!' I brought them to the Messenger of Allah , while my uncle `Amir brought another man, an idolator, whose name was Mikraz, and I and my uncle brought the men to the Messenger of Allah . The number of captured idolators swelled to seventy. The Messenger of Allah looked at them and said,

دَعُوهُمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ بَدْءُ الْفُجُورِ وَثِنَاه

(Let them go, for theirs will be the initiation of hostilities and its burden.) The Messenger of Allah forgave them and Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِن بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ]

(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them.)[48:24]'' Muslim collected a narration that is the same or similar. The Two Sahihs recorded that Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said, "My father was among those who gave the pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree. He said, `In the following year, we went for Hajj and we could not find the tree.' Therefore, if you know where that tree is, then you have more knowledge!'' Abu Bakr Al-Humaydi recorded that Jabir said, "When the Messenger of Allah called the people to the pledge, we found a man from our tribe whose name is Al-Jadd bin Qays, hiding under the shoulder of his camel.'' Muslim collected this Hadith. Al-Humaydi also recorded that `Amr said that he heard Jabir say, "On the day of Hلudaybiyyah, we were one thousand and four hundred and the Messenger of Allah said to us,

أَنْتُمْ خَيْرُ أَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ الْيَوْم

(Today, you are the best people on the earth.)'' Jabir went on saying, "If I still had my sight, I would have shown you the tree.'' Sufyan commented that the Companions later on differed over the location of the tree of Al-Hudaybiyyah; the Two Sahihs collected this statement from him. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا يَدْخُلُ النَّارَ أَحَدٌ مِمَّنْ بَايَعَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَة

(None among those who gave the pledge under the tree shall enter Hellfire.) `Abdullah bin Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah said,

مَنْ يَصْعَدُ الثَّنِيَّةَ ثَنِيَّةَ الْمُرَارِ فَإِنَّهُ يُحَطُّ عَنْهُ مَا حُطَّ عَنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيل

(He who ascends Thaniyyah (i.e. a mountainous pass), the Thaniyyah of Al-Murar, will have as much of his sins relieved for him as the sins that were relieved from the Children of Israel.) The first to ascend that hill were the horsemen of (the Ansar tribe of) Banu Al-Khazraj, then the Muslims followed suit. The Prophet said,

كُلُّكُمْ مَغْفُورٌ لَهُ إِلَّا صَاحِبَ الْجَمَلِ الْأَحْمَر

(All of you will be forgiven, except the owner of the red camel.) We said to him, "Come, let the Messenger of Allah invoke Allah to forgive you,'' but he said, "By Allah! Finding my lost camel is dearer to me than having your companion invoke Allah to forgive me. '' That man was only looking for his lost camel. Muslim collected this Hadith from Ubaydullah (from Jabir). Muslim also recorded that Abu Az-Zubayr heard Jabir say, "Umm Mubashshir told me that she heard the Messenger of Allah saying, while he was with Hafsah,

لَا يَدْخُلُ النَّارَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ تَعَالَى مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الشَّجَرَةِ الَّذِينَ بَايَعُوا تَحْتَهَا، أَحَد

(Allah willing, none of the Companions of the tree, who gave the pledge under it, will ever enter Hellfire.) She said, `No, O Allah's Messenger.' The Prophet rebuked her but Hafsah said,

[وَإِن مِّنكُمْ إِلاَّ وَارِدُهَا]

(There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell))(19:71) but the Prophet responded,

قَدْ قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى:

[ثُمَّ نُنَجِّى الَّذِينَ اتَّقَواْ وَّنَذَرُ الظَّـلِمِينَ فِيهَا جِثِيّاً ]

(Allah the Exalted said next, (Then We shall save those who had Taqwa and We shall leave the wrongdoers therein on their knees.))(19:71)'' Muslim also narrated that Jabir said, "A slave of Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah came to the Messenger complaining against Hatib and saying, `O Allah's Messenger! Hatib shall surely enter Hell.' The Messenger of Allah replied,

كَذَبْتَ لَا يَدْخُلُهَا فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ شَهِدَ بَدْرًا وَالْحُدَيْبِيَّة

(You lie, he shall never enter the Fire; he participated in Badr and Al-Hudaybiyyah.) This is why Allah the Exalted said while praising these Companions,

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِمَا عَـهَدَ عَلَيْهِ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْراً عَظِيماً ]

(Verily, those who give pledge to you, they are giving pledge to Allah. The Hand of Allah is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm; and whosoever fulfills whatever covenant he has made with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said in another Ayah,

[JAWAD CHECK THIS AYAH]

(Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave the pledge to you under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down tranquillity upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory.) (48:18)

[سَيَقُولُ لَكَ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ مِنَ الاٌّعْرَابِ شَغَلَتْنَآ أَمْوَلُنَا وَأَهْلُونَا فَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَنَا يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ مَّا لَيْسَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ قُلْ فَمَن يَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ مِّنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ ضَرّاً أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ نَفْعاً بَلْ كَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيراً - بَلْ ظَنَنْتُمْ أَن لَّن يَنقَلِبَ الرَّسُولُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَى أَهْلِيهِمْ أَبَداً وَزُيِّنَ ذَلِكَ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ وَظَنَنتُمْ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ وَكُنتُمْ قَوْماً بُوراً - وَمَن لَّمْ يُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَإِنَّآ أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَـفِرِينَ سَعِيراً - وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ يَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً ]

(11. Those of the bedouins who lagged behind will say to you: "Our possessions and our families occupied us, so ask forgiveness for us.'' They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: "Who then has any power at all (to intervene) on your behalf with Allah, if He intends you hurt or intends you benefit Nay, but Allah is Aware of what you do.) (12. Nay, but you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families, and that was made fair seeming in your hearts, and you did think an evil thought and you became a Bura.'') (13. And whosoever does not believe in Allah and His Messenger, then verily, We have prepared for the disbelievers a blazing Fire.) (14. And to Allah belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. He forgives whom He wills, and punishes whom He wills. And Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

8. The Fabricated Excuse offered by Those Who lagged behind and did not participate in Al-Hلudaybiyyah; Allah's Warning for Them

Allah informs His Messenger of the excuses that the bedouins who lagged behind would offer him, those bedouins who preferred to remain in their homes and possessions and did not join the Messenger of Allah . They offered an excuse for lagging behind, as that of being busy -- in their homes and with their wealth! They asked the Messenger of Allah to invoke Allah to forgive them, not because they had faith in the Prophet and his invocation, but to show off and pretend. This is why Allah the Exalted said about them,

[يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ مَّا لَيْسَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ قُلْ فَمَن يَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ مِّنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ ضَرّاً أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ نَفْعاً]

(They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: "Who then has any power at all (to intervene) on your behalf with Allah, if He intends you hurt or intends you benefit'') Allah says, none can resist what Allah has decided in your case, all praise and honor belong to Him. Allah is the Knower of your secrets and what your hearts conceal, even if you pretend and choose to be hypocritical with us. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

[بَلْ كَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيراً]

(Nay, but Allah is Ever All-Aware of what you do.) then He said,

[بَلْ ظَنَنْتُمْ أَن لَّن يَنقَلِبَ الرَّسُولُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَى أَهْلِيهِمْ أَبَداً]

(Nay, but you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families,) `for your lagging behind was not an excusable act or just a sin. Rather, your lagging behind was because of hypocrisy and because you thought that the Muslims would be killed to the extent of extermination, their lives would be extinguished and none of them will ever come back,'

[وَظَنَنتُمْ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ وَكُنتُمْ قَوْماً بُوراً]

(and you did think an evil thought and you became a people Bur) going for destruction, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Mujahid and several others. Qatadah explained Bur to mean, corrupt and some said that it is a word used in the Arabic dialect of the area of Oman. Allah the Exalted then said,

[وَمَن لَّمْ يُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ]

(And whosoever does not believe in Allah and His Messenger,) Allah states here that whoever does not purify his actions outwardly and inwardly for Allah's sake, then Allah the Exalted will punish him in the Blazing Fire, even if he pretends to show people that he follows the faith, contradicting his true creed. Allah the Exalted then states that He is the Only Authority, King and Owner Who has full control over the residents of the heavens and earth,

[يَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً]

(He forgives whom He wills, and punishes whom He wills. And Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.) with those who repent, return and submit to Him with humiliation.

[سَيَقُولُ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ إِذَا انطَلَقْتُمْ إِلَى مَغَانِمَ لِتَأْخُذُوهَا ذَرُونَا نَتَّبِعْكُمْ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يُبَدِّلُواْ كَلَـمَ اللَّهِ قُل لَّن تَتَّبِعُونَا كَذَلِكُمْ قَالَ اللَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ فَسَيَقُولُونَ بَلْ تَحْسُدُونَنَا بَلْ كَانُواْ لاَ يَفْقَهُونَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً ]

(15. Those who lagged behind will say, when you set forth to take the spoils, "Allow us to follow you.'' They want to change Allah's Words. Say: "You shall not follow us; thus Allah has said beforehand.'' Then they will say: "Nay, you envy us.'' Nay, but they understand not except a little.) Allah characterizes the bedouins who lagged behind the Messenger of Allah during the `Umrah of Hudaybiyyah, saying that when the Prophet and his Companions later went on to conquer Khaybar, the bedouins asked them to take them along. They were hoping to collect war booty, having been absent when it was time to fight the enemy and enduring with patience therein. Allah the Exalted ordered His Messenger to refuse to give them permission to accompany him, being a punishment that is similar to their error. Allah has promised those who were present at Al-Hudaybiyyah to earn Khaybar's war spoils alone, not shared in that with the bedouins who lagged behind. Therefore, the legislation that Allah gave in this regard was joined to the destiny that He decided, occurring just as He decided. Allah's statement,

[يُرِيدُونَ أَن يُبَدِّلُواْ كَلَـمَ اللَّهِ]

(They want to change Allah's Words), which refers to the promise that Allah gave those who were present at Al-Hudaybiyyah, according to the explanation reported from Mujahid, Qatadah, Juwaybir and which Ibn Jarir preferred. Allah said,

[قُل لَّن تَتَّبِعُونَا كَذَلِكُمْ قَالَ اللَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ]

(Say: "You shall not follow us; thus Allah has said beforehand.'') `when He promised the participants of Al-Hudaybiyyah before you asked to join them,'

[فَسَيَقُولُونَ بَلْ تَحْسُدُونَنَا]

(Then they will say: "Nay, you envy us.'') `you do not want us to share the war spoils with you,'

[بَلْ كَانُواْ لاَ يَفْقَهُونَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً]

(Nay, but they under- stand not except a little.) the truth is nothing close to what they claimed, but they understand not.

[قُل لِّلْمُخَلَّفِينَ مِنَ الاٌّعْرَابِ سَتُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى قَوْمٍ أُوْلِى بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ تُقَـتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ فَإِن تُطِيعُواْ يُؤْتِكُمُ اللَّهُ أَجْراً حَسَناً وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْاْ كَمَا تَوَلَّيْتُمْ مِّن قَبْلُ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً - لَّيْسَ عَلَى الاٌّعْمَى حَرَجٌ وَلاَ عَلَى الاٌّعْرَجِ حَرَجٌ وَلاَ عَلَى الْمَرِيضِ حَرَجٌ وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ يُعَذِّبْهُ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً ]

(16. Say to the bedouins who lagged behind: "You shall be called to fight against a people given to great warfare, then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender. Then if you obey, Allah will give you a fair reward; but if you turn away as you did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful torment.'') (17. No blame or sin is there upon the blind, nor is there sin upon the lame, nor is there sin upon the sick. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, He will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow; and whosoever turns back, He will punish him with a painful torment.)

9. Allah conveys the News that there will be Many Cases of Jihad, and that Jihad distinguishes the Ranks of the Believers and exposes the Hypocrites

Scholars of Tafsir differ over who the people mentioned here are. They are people experienced at warfare who will be called to fight. There are many opinions, first, they are the tribe of Hawazin, as Shu`bah narrated from Abu Bishr from Sa`id bin Jubayr, or `Ikrimah, or both of them. Hushaym narrated this explanation from Abu Bishr, from both Sa`id bin Jubayr and `Ikrimah. Qatadah, as narrated from him in one version, held the same view. The second view is that these people are the tribe of Thaqif, according to Ad-Dahhak. The third view is that they are Banu Hanifah, according to Juwaybir and Az-Zuhri, as Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated from him. Similar was narrated from Sa`id bin Jubayr and `Ikrimah. The fourth opinion is that they are the Persians, according to `Ali bin Abi Talhah who reported that from `Abdullah bin `Abbas. This is also the view of `Ata', Mujahid, and `Ikrimah. Ka`b Al-Ahbar said that they are the Romans, while Ibn Abi Layla, `Ata, Al-Hasan and Qatadah -- in a different narration from him, said that they are the Persians and Romans. Mujahid also said that they are the idolators. In another narration Mujahid said, "They are men given to great warfare,'' and did not specify any particular people. This last explanation is the view preferred by Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Jarir. Allah's statement,

[تُقَـتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ]

(Then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender.) means, `you are called to fight them in Jihad, through constant warfare, until you become victorious over them or they surrender. Or, they will embrace your religion without a fight, but with their full consent.' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said next,

[فَإِن تُطِيعُواْ]

(Then if you obey,) `if you accept the call to Jihad and prepare for it and fulfill your duty in this regard,'

[يُؤْتِكُمُ اللَّهُ أَجْراً حَسَناً وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْاْ كَمَا تَوَلَّيْتُمْ مِّن قَبْلُ]

(Allah will give you a fair reward; but if you turn away as you turned away before,) `on the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, when you were called to Jihad, yet lagged behind,'

[يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً]

(He will punish you with a painful torment.)

10. Acceptable Reasons for not joining Jihad

Allah then mentions the legal reasons that allow one to be excused from joining the Jihad, such as blindness and being lame, and various illnesses that strike one and are remedied in few days. When one is ill, he is allowed to remain behind and will have a valid excuse to do so, until his illness ends. Allah the Exalted and Most honored then said, while ordaining joining the Jihad and obeying Allah and His Messenger ,

[وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ]

(And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, He will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow; and whosoever turns back,) from joining the Jihad and busies himself in his livelihood,

[يُعَذِّبْهُ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً]

(He will punish him with a painful torment.) in this life with humiliation and in the Hereafter with the Fire. Allah the Exalted has the best knowledge.

[لَّقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَـبَهُمْ فَتْحاً قَرِيباً - وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا وَكَان اللَّهُ عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً ]

(18. Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave the pledge to you under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakinah upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory. ) (19. And abundant spoils that they will capture. And Allah is Ever All-Mighty, All-Wise.)

11. Good News to the Participants of the Ridwan Pledge of Allah's Pleasure and earning Spoils of War

Allah declares that He is pleased with the believers who gave the pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree. We mentioned the number of these believers as being one thousand and four hundred and that the tree was a Samurah tree, located in the area of Hudaybiyyah. Al-Bukhari narrated from Tariq that `Abdur-Rahman said, "I went on Hajj and passed by people praying and asked, `What is this Masjid' They said, `This is the tree where the Messenger of Allah took the pledge of Ar-Ridwan.' So, I went to Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib and told him. Sa`id said, `My father told me that he was among those who gave their pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree. My father said: The following year, when we went out, we forgot its place and could not agree which tree it was.' Sa`id said, `The Companions of Muhammad forgot where the tree was, but you know where it is. Therefore, you have better knowledge than them!''' Allah said,

[فَعَلِمَ مَا فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ]

(He knew what was in their hearts,) meaning, of truthfulness, trustworthiness, obedience and adherence,

[فَأنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ]

(and He sent down As-Sakinah), calmness and tranquillity,

[عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَـبَهُمْ فَتْحاً قَرِيباً]

(upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory.) in reference to the goodness that Allah the Exalted and Most Honored caused to happened to the Companions on account of the peace treaty between them and their disbelieving enemies. Ever after that, the Companions gained abundant, general and continuous benefits and accomplishments, leading to the conquest of Khaybar and Makkah and then the various surrounding provinces and areas. They earned tremendous glory, triumphs and an elevated and honorable status in this life and in the Hereafter, just as Allah the Exalted said,

[وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا وَكَان اللَّهُ عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً ]

(And abundant spoils that they will capture. And Allah is Ever All-Mighty, All-Wise.)

[وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَـذِهِ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِىَ النَّاسِ عَنْكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ ءَايَةً لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَطاً مُّسْتَقِيماً - وَأُخْرَى لَمْ تَقْدِرُواْ عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ اللَّهُ بِهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيراً - وَلَوْ قَـتَلَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كفَرُواْ لَوَلَّوُاْ الاٌّدْبَـرَ ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُونَ وَلِيّاً وَلاَ نَصِيراً - سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِى قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلُ وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلاً - وَهُوَ الَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِن بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيراً ]

(20. Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this, and He has restrained the hands of men from you, that it may be a sign for the believers, and that He may guide you to the straight path.) (21. And other (victories) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah encompasses them. And Allah is Ever Able to do all things.) (22. And if those who disbelieve fight against you, they certainly would have turned their backs; then they would have found neither a protector nor a helper.) (23. That has been the way of Allah already with those who passed away before. And you will not find any change in the way of Allah.) (24. And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. And Allah sees what you do.)

12. Good News of abundant Spoils of War

Mujahid said that Allah's statement,

[وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا]

(Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture,) refers to the spoils that Muslims earned up until this time, while,

[فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَـذِهِ]

(and He has hastened for you this,) means, the conquest of Khaybar. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

[فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَـذِهِ]

(and He has hastened for you this,) means, "The peace treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah.'' Allah said,

[وَكَفَّ أَيْدِىَ النَّاسِ عَنْكُمْ]

(and He has restrained the hands of men from you,) meaning, `no harm that your enemies had planned against you, both fighting and warfare, touched you. Allah also restrained the hands of men, whom you left behind close to your families and children, from harming them,'

[وَلِتَكُونَ ءَايَةً لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ]

(that it may be a sign for the believers,) with which they take heed and understand. Verily, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored shall help and protect the believers against all enemies, even though the believers are few in number. By doing so, the believers will come to know that Allah is truly the Knower of the consequences of all matters and that the best decisions are those which He prefers for His believing servants, even though these decisions might look unfavorable outwardly,

[وَعَسَى أَن تَكْرَهُواْ شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ]

(It may be that you dislike a thing that is good for you) (2:216). Allah said,

[وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَطاً مُّسْتَقِيماً]

(and that He may guide you to the straight path) on account of your obeying His commands and adhering by His orders by following the path of His Messenger ,

13. Good News of continuous Muslim Victories until the Day of Resurrection

The statement of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored,

[وَأُخْرَى لَمْ تَقْدِرُواْ عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ اللَّهُ بِهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيراً ]

(And other (victories) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah encompasses them. And Allah is Ever Able to do all things.) Meaning, there are other war spoils and victories to come which are not within your grasp now. However, Allah will make them within your reach and indeed He compasses all these victories for your benefit. Surely, Allah the Exalted provides provisions and sustenance for His servants who have Taqwa, from resources they could never imagine. Scholars of Tafsir differ over the reference to other war spoils mentioned here. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that it refers to the conquest of Khaybar. This meaning is sound according to the Ayah,

[فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَـذِهِ]

(and He has hastened for you this.) which refers to the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah. This is view of Ad-Dahhak, Muhammad bin Ishaq and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. Qatadah said that this part of the Ayah refers to the conquest of Makkah, and this opinion was preferred by Ibn Jarir. Ibn Abi Layla and Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that it refers to victories over the Persians and the Romans, while Mujahid said that it refers to every victory and all spoils of war, until the Day of Resurrection. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

[وَأُخْرَى لَمْ تَقْدِرُواْ عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ اللَّهُ بِهَا]

(And other (victories) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah compasses them.), "They are the victories that are continuing until this day.''

14. Had Makkah's Disbelievers fought at Al-Hudaybiyyah, They would have retreated in Defeat

Allah said,

[وَلَوْ قَـتَلَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كفَرُواْ لَوَلَّوُاْ الاٌّدْبَـرَ ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُونَ وَلِيّاً وَلاَ نَصِيراً ]

(And if those who disbelieve fight against you, they certainly would have turned their backs; then they would have found neither a protector nor a helper.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored delivers the glad tidings to His believing servants that had the idolators fought them, Allah would have given victory to His Messenger and His faithful servants. Then, the army of the disbelievers would have been defeated and would have deserted the battlefield and fled. They would not have found any helper or supporter, because they were fighting Allah, His Messenger and His Faithful Party. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِى قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلُ وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلاً ]

(That has been the way of Allah already with those who passed away before. And you will not find any change in the way of Allah.) means this is the way Allah deals with His creation. Whenever faith and disbelief meet at any distinguishing juncture, Allah gives victory to faith over disbelief, raises high truth and destroys falsehood. For instance, Allah the Exalted helped His loyal faithful supporters during the battle of Badr and they defeated His idolator enemies, even though the Muslims were few in num- ber and lightly armed, while the idolators were large in number and heavily armed. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِن بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيراً ]

(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. And Allah is Ever the All-Seer of what you do.) Allah the Exalted reminds His faithful servants of His favor when He restrained the hands of the idolators, and thereby, no harm touched the Muslims from the idolators. Allah restrained the hands of the believers and they did not fight the idolaters near Al-Masjid Al-Haram. Rather, Allah saved both parties from battle and brought forth a peace treaty that produced good results for the believers, in addition to, earning them the good end in this life and the Hereafter. We stated a Hadith from Salamah bin Al-Akwa` in which he narrated that when the Muslims brought forth those seventy idolator prisoners, they tied and paraded them before the Messenger of Allah , who looked at them and said,

أَرْسِلُوهُمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ بَدْءُ الْفُجُورِ وَثِنَاه

(Release them, so that they earn the burden of starting hostilities and its infamy.) Thereafter, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored sent down this Ayah about that incident,

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم]

(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them...) Imam Ahmad recor- ded that Anas bin Malik said, "On the day of Hudaybiyyah, eighty armed men from Makkah went down the valley coming from Mount At-Tan`im to ambush the Messen- ger of Allah . The Messenger invoked Allah against them, and they were taken prisoners.'' `Affan added, "The Messenger pardoned them, and this Ayah was later on revealed,

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِن بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ]

(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them.)'' Muslim, Abu Dawud in his Sunan and At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i, in the Tafsir section of their Sunan, collected this Hadith.

[هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفاً أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ وَلَوْلاَ رِجَالٌ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَآءٌ مُّؤْمِنَـتٌ لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكمْ مِّنْهُمْ مَّعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لِّيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُواْ لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْهُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً - إِذْ جَعَلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ الْحَمِيَّةَ حَمِيَّةَ الْجَـهِلِيَّةِ فَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَى وَكَانُواْ أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَأَهْلَهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً ]

(25. They are those who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills -- if they had been apart, We verily, would have punished with painful torment those of them who disbelieved. ) (26. When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness -- the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, -- then Allah sent down His calmness and tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and made them stick to the word of Taqwa; and they were well entitled to it and worthy of it. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything. )

15. Some of the Benefits gained from the Treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah

Allah the Exalted states that the Arab idolators from Quraysh and their allies who extended help to them against His Messenger ,

[هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ]

(They are those who disbelieved), they are indeed the disbelievers,

[وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ]

(and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram) `even though you are its people and more worthy of being responsible for it,'

[وَالْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفاً أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ]

(and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice.) they prevented, because of transgression and stubbornness, the sacrificial animals from being reached to the place where they would be slaughtered. There were seventy sacrificial camels designated for sacrifice, as we will mention, Allah willing. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَلَوْلاَ رِجَالٌ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَآءٌ مُّؤْمِنَـتٌ]

(Had there not been believing men and believing women) `living among the Makkans hiding their faith for fearing for their safety from the pagans. Otherwise, We would have given you authority over the Makkans and you would have killed them to the brink of extermination. However, there were some faithful believers, men and women, living among them, about whom you had no knowledge of being believers and you might try to kill them.' Allah's statement,

[لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكمْ مِّنْهُمْ مَّعَرَّةٌ]

(whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you) an evil and erroneous act,

[بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لِّيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ]

(without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills) that Allah might delay the punishment of the pagans of Makkah to save the believers who lived among them, and so that many of the idolators might embrace Islam. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[لَوْ تَزَيَّلُواْ]

(if they had been apart), if the disbelievers and the believers who were living among them had been apart,

[لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْهُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً]

(We verily, would have punished with painful torment those of them who disbelieved) `We would have given you dominance over the disbelievers and you would have inflicted tremendous slaughter on them.' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[إِذْ جَعَلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ الْحَمِيَّةَ حَمِيَّةَ الْجَـهِلِيَّةِ]

(When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness -- the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, ) when they refused to write (in the treaty document), `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,' and, `These are the terms agreed on by Muhammad, Allah's Messenger,'

[فَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَى]

(then Allah sent down His calmness and tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers and made them stick to the word of Taqwa;) the word of Taqwa refers to sincerity, according to Mujahid. `Ata' bin Abi Rabah commented, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, alone without partners. All the dominion belongs to Him and all praise is due to Him. He is Ever Able to do everything.'' Yunus bin Bukayr said that Ibn Ishaq narrated from Az-Zuhri, from `Urwah, from Al-Miswar, commenting on,

[وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَى]

(and made them stick to the word of Taqwa;) "`La ilaha illallah, alone without partners.''

16. The Hadiths that tell the Story of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the Peace Treaty that followed

Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy with him, recorded in his Sahih in `Book of Conditions' that Al-Miswar bin Makhramah and Marwan bin Al-Hakam, both narrated attesting to the truthfulness of the other, "Allah's Messenger set out at the time of Al-Hudaybiyyah with several hundred of his Companions. When he reached Dhul-Hulayfah, he had the sacrificial animals garlanded and marked and resumed the state of Ihram for `Umrah. He then sent several men from the tribe of Khuza`ah to gather news for him and then he proceeded. When he arrived at a village called Al-Ashtat, his advance regiment came back and said, `The Quraysh have gathered their forces against you, including Al-Ahabish tribes. They are intent on fighting you, stopping you, and preventing you.' The Messenger said,

أَشِيرُوا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ عَلَيَّ، أَتُرَوْنَ أَنْ نَمِيلَ عَلَى عِيَالِهِمْ وَذَرَارِيِّ هؤُلَاءِ، الَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَصُدُّونَا عَنِ الْبَيْتِ؟

(Give me your opinion, O people! Do you think we should attack the families and offspring of those who seek to prevent us from reaching the House)'' in another narration, the Prophet said,

(أَ)تُرَوْنَ أَنْ نَمِيلَ عَلَى ذَرَارِيِّ هؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ أَعَانُوهُمْ، فَإِنْ يَأْتُونَا كَانَ اللهُ قَدْ قَطَعَ عُنُقًا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، وَإِلَّا تَرَكْنَاهُمْ مَحْزُونِين

(Do you think we should attack the families of those who helped the Quraysh If they come to defend against us, then Allah would have diminished the idolator forces. Or we leave them to grieve!)'' In another narration, the Prophet said,

فَإِنْ قَعَدُوا قَعَدُوا مَوْتُورِينَ مَجْهُودِينَ مَحْزُونِينَ، وَإِنْ نَجَوْا يَكُنْ عُنُقًا قَطَعَهَا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ. أَمْ تُرَوْنَ أَنْ نَؤُمَّ الْبَيْتَ فَمَنْ صَدَّنَا عَنْهُ قَاتَلْنَاه

(If they remain where they have gathered, they do so in grief, fatigued and depressed. If they save their families, it would be a neck that Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has cut off. Or, should we head towards the House and if anyone prevents us from reaching it we would fight them) "Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "O, Allah's Messenger! You only intended to visit the House, not to kill anyone or start a war. Therefore, head towards the House and whoever stands in our way, then we will fight him.'' In another narration, Abu Bakr said, "Allah and His Messenger know that we only came to perform `Umrah not to fight anyone. However, anyone who tries to prevent us from reaching the House, we will fight him.'' The Prophet said,

فَرُوحُوا إِذَن

(Go forth then.) In another narration, the Prophet said,

فَامْضُوا عَلَى اسْمِ اللهِ تَعَالَى

(Go forth, in the Name of Allah, the Exalted.) "When they proceeded for a distance, the Prophet said,

إِنَّ خَالِدَ بْنَ الْوَلِيدِ فِي خَيْلٍ لِقُرَيْشٍ طَلِيعَةً، فَخُذُوا ذَاتَ الْيَمِين

(Khalid bin Al-Walid is leading the cavalry of Quraysh forming the front of the army, so take the path on the right.) By Allah, Khalid did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims until the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, then he turned back hurriedly to inform the Quraysh. The Prophet went on advancing until he reached the Thaniyyah (i. e., a mountainous way) through which he could reach them. The she-camel of the Prophet sat down. The people tried their best to cause her to rise, but it was in vain. So, they said, `Al-Qaswa' has become stubborn! Al-Qaswa' has become stubborn!' The Prophet said,

مَا خَلَأَتِ الْقَصْوَاءُ وَمَا ذَاكَ لَهَا بِخُلُقٍ، وَلكِنْ حَبَسَها حَابِسُ الْفِيل

(Al-Qaswa' has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him Who stopped the elephant.) Then he said,

وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَا يَسْأَلُونِّي خُطَّةً يُعَظِّمُونَ فِيهَا حُرُمَاتِ اللهِ تَعَالَى إِلَّا أَعْطَيْتُهُمْ إِيَّاهَا

(By the Name of Him in Whose Hands is my soul, if they ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, the Exalted, I will grant it to them.) The Prophet then rebuked the she-camel and she got up. The Prophet changed his direction, until he dismounted at the farthest end of Al-Hudaybiyyah. There was a pit containing a little water which the people used in small amounts, and after a short time the people exhausted all its water and complained of thirst to Allah's Messenger . The Prophet took an arrow out of his quiver and ordered them to put the arrow in the pit. By Allah, the water started flowing and continued sprouting until all the people quenched their thirst and returned satisfied. While they were still in that state, Budayl bin Warqa' Al-Khuza`i came with some people from his tribe, Khuza`ah. They were the advisers of Allah's Messenger who would keep no secret from him and were from the people of Tihamah. Budayl said, `I left (the tribes of) Ka`b bin Lu'ay and `Amir bin Lu'ay residing at the abundant water of Al-Hudaybiyyah. They had milk camels with them, intending to wage war against you and prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah.' Allah's Messenger said,

إِنَّا لَمْ نَجِىءْ لِقِتَالِ أَحَدٍ، وَلكِنْ جِئْنَا مُعْتَمِرِينَ، وَإِنَّ قُرَيْشًا قَدْ نَهَكَتْهُمُ الْحَرْبُ، وَأَضَرَّتْ بِهِمْ، فَإِنْ شَاؤُوا مَادَدْتُهُمْ مُدَّةً وَيُخَلُّوا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ النَّاسِ، فَإِنْ أَظْهَرْ، فَإِنْ شَاءُوا أَنْ يَدْخُلُوا فِيمَا دَخَلَ فِيهِ النَّاسُ فَعَلُوا، وَإِلَّا فَقَدْ جَمُّوا، وَإِنْ هُمْ أَبَوْا فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَأُقَاتِلَنَّهُمْ عَلَى أَمْرِي هذَا حَتْى تَنْفَرِدَ سَالِفَتِي أَوْ لَيُنْفِذَنَّ اللهُ أَمْرَه

(We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform `Umrah. No doubt, war has weakened Quraysh and they have suffered great losses. So if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and others. If I have victory over those infidels, Quraysh will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish. They will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause until I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His cause victorious.) Budayl said, `I will inform them of what you have said.' So, he set off until he reached Quraysh and said, `We have come from that man whom we heard saying something which we will disclose to you, if you should like.' Some of the fools among the Quraysh shouted that they were not in need of this information, but the wiser among them said, `Relate what you heard him saying.' Budayl said, `I heard him saying such and such,' relating what the Prophet had told him. `Urwah bin Mas`ud stood up and said, `O people! Aren't you the sons' They said, `Yes.' He added, `Am I not the father' They said, `Yes.' He said, `Do you mistrust me' They said, `No.' He said, `Don't you know that I invited the people of `Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me' They said, `Yes.' He said, `Well, this man has offered you a reasonable proposal, it is better for you to accept it and allow me to meet him.' They said, `You may meet him.' So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet said the same to him as he had to Budayl bin Warqa. Then `Urwah said, `O Muhammad! Won't you feel any qualms by exterminating your relations Have you ever heard of anyone among the Arabs annihilating his relatives before you On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, by Allah, I do not see dignified people here, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone.' Hearing that, Abu Bakr verbally abused him and said, `Go suck Al-Lat's womb! Are you saying we would run and leave the Prophet alone' `Urwah said, `Who is that man' They said, `He is Abu Bakr.' `Urwah said to Abu Bakr, `By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would rebuke you.' `Urwah kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet's beard as he was talking, while Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah was standing near the head of the Prophet , holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever `Urwah stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet , Al-Mughirah would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say, `Remove your hand from the beard of Allah's Messenger.' `Urwah raised his head and asked, `Who is that' The people said, `He is Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah.' `Urwah said, `O treacherous (one)! Am I not doing my best to prevent evil consequences of your treachery' Before embracing Islam, Al-Mughirah was in the company of some people. He killed them, took their property and came (to Al-Madinah) to embrace Islam. The Prophet said to him,

أَمَّا الْإِسْلَامُ فَأَقْبَلُ، وَأَمَّا الْمَالُ فَلَسْتُ مِنْهُ فِي شَيْء

(As regards to your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I do not take anything of it.) `Urwah then started looking at the Companions of the Prophet . By Allah, whenever Allah's Messenger spat, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them, who would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry his orders immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. `Urwah returned to his people and said, `O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and An-Najashi. Yet, by Allah! I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers, as much as, Muhammad is respected by his companions. By Allah, if he spat, the spittle would fall into the hand of one of them and he would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry out his order immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it.' A man from the tribe of Bani Kinanah said, `Allow me to go to him,' and they allowed him. When he approached the Prophet and his Companions, Allah's Messenger said,

هذَا فُلَانٌ وَهُوَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ يُعَظِّمُونَ الْبُدْنَ فَابْعَثُوهَا لَه

(He is so-and-so who belongs to the tribe that respects the sacrificial camels. So, bring the sacrificial camels before him.) So, the sacrificial camels were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiyah. When he saw that scene, he said, `Glorified is Allah! It is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Ka`bah.' When he returned to his people, he said, `I saw the sacrificial camels garlanded and marked. I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Ka`bah.' Another person called Mikraz bin Hafs stood up and sought their permission to go to Muhammad , and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the Prophet said,

هَذَا مِكْرَزٌ وَهُوَ رَجُلٌ فَاجِر

(Here is Mikraz and he is a vicious man.) Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and as he was talking, Suhayl bin `Amr came.'' Ma`mar said that Ayyub said to him that `Ikrimah said, "When Suhayl bin `Amr came, the Prophet said,

قَدْ سَهُلَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَمْرِكُم

(Now the matter has become easy for you.)'' Ma`mar said that Az-Zuhri narrated, "When Suhayl bin `Amr came, he said to the Prophet , `Please conclude a peace treaty with us.' So, the Prophet called `Ali bin Abi Talib and said to him,

اكْتُبْ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم

(Write: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.) Suhayl bin `Amr said, `As for Ar-Rahman, by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name, O Allah, as you used to write previously.' The Muslims said, `By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.' The Prophet said,

اكْتُبْ بِاسْمِكَ اللْهُم

(Write: "In Your Name O Allah.'') Then he dictated,

هذَا مَا قَاضَى عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله

(This is a peace treaty, which Muhammad, Allah's Messenger has concluded.) Suhayl said, `By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah's Messenger, we would not prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah, and would not fight with you. So, write: Muhammad bin `Abdullah.' The Prophet said to him,

وَاللهِ إِنِّي لَرَسُولُ اللهِ وَإِنْ كَذَّبْتُمُونِي، اكْتُبْ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِالله

(By Allah! I am the Messenger of Allah even if your people do not believe me. Write: "Muhammad bin `Abdullah.'')'' Az-Zuhri continued, "The Prophet accepted all those things, since he had already said that he would accept everything they would demand if it respects the ordinance of Allah, the Exalted.'' The Hadith continues, "The Prophet said to Suhayl,

عَلَى أَنْ تُخَلُّوا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ الْبَيْتِ فَنَطُوفَ بِه

(On the condition that you allow us to visit the House so that we may perform Tawaf around it.) Suhayl said, `By Allah, we will not, so as not to give the Arabs a chance to say that we have yielded to your pressure, but we will allow you next year.' So, the Prophet had that written. Then Suhayl said, `We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion.' The Muslims protested, `Glorified be Allah! How can a person be returned to the idolators after he has become a Muslim' While they were in this state Abu Jandal bin Suhayl bin `Amr came from the valley of Makkah staggering with his chains and fell down among the Muslims. Suhayl said, `O Muhammad! This is the very first term with which we make peace with you, that is, you shall return Abu Jandal to me.' The Prophet said,

إِنَّا لَمْ نَقْضِ الْكِتَابَ بَعْد

(The peace treaty has not been written yet.) Suhayl said, `Then by Allah, I will never conduct peace with you.' The Prophet said,

فَأَجِزْهُ لِي

(Release him to me,) and Suhayl responded, `I will never allow you to keep him.' The Prophet said,

بَلَى فَافْعَل

(Yes, do.) He said, `I will not.' Mikraz said, `We allow you (to keep him).' Abu Jandal said, `O, Muslims! Will I be returned to the idolators although I have come as a Muslim Don't you see how much I have suffered' Abu Jandal had been tortured severely for the cause of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, `I went to the Prophet and said: Aren't you truly the Messenger of Allah' The Prophet said,

بَلَى

(Yes, indeed.) I said, `Isn't our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust' He said,

بَلَى

(Yes.) I said, `Then why should we be humble in our religion' He said,

إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللهِ وَلَسْتُ أَعْصِيهِ وَهُوَ نَاصِرِي

(I am Allah's Messenger and I do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.) I said, `Didn't you tell us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it' He said,

بَلَى أَفَأَخْبَرْتُكَ أَنَّا نَأْتِيهِ الْعَامَ؟

(Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`bah this year) I said, `No.' He said,

فَإِنَّكَ آتِيهِ وَمُطَّوِّفٌ بِه

(So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it.) `Umar further said, `I went to Abu Bakr and said: O Abu Bakr! Isn't he truly Allah's Prophet' He replied, `Yes.' I said, `Is not our cause just and the cause of our enemy unjust' He said, `Yes.' I said, `Then why should we be humble in our religion' He said, `O you man! Indeed, he is Allah's Messenger and he does not disobey his Lord, and He will make him victorious. Adhere to him for, by Allah, he is on the right path.' I said, `Was he not telling us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it' He said, `Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka`bah this year' I said, `No.' He said, `You will go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it.' Az-Zuhri said, "`Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.' '' "When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah's Messenger said to his Companions,

قُومُوا فَانْحَرُوا ثُمَّ احْلِقُوا

(Get up and slaughter your sacrifices and have your heads shaved.) By Allah none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. When none of them got up, he left them and went to Umm Salamah and told her of the people's attitudes towards him. Umm Salamah said, `O Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out Go out and don't say a word to anybody until you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head.' The Messenger of Allah went out and did not talk to anyone until he did what she suggested, slaughtered the sacrifice and shaved his head. Seeing that, the Companions got up, slaughtered their sacrifices, and started shaving the heads of one another. There was so much of a rush -- and sadness -- that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came and Allah the Exalted and most Honored revealed the following Ayat,

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا جَآءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَـتُ]

(O you who believe! When believing women come to you) (60:10), until,

[بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ]

(Likewise hold not the disbelieving women as wives.) `Umar then divorced two of his wives, who were disbelievers. Later on Mu`awiyah bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan bin Umayyah married the other. When the Prophet returned to Al-Madinah, Abu Basir, a new Muslim convert from the Quraysh, came to him. The disbelievers sent two men in pursuit who said to the Prophet , `Abide by the promise you gave us.' So, the Prophet handed him over to them. They took him out (of Al-Madinah) until they reached Dhul-Hulayfah where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, `By Allah, O, so-and-so, I see you have a fine sword.' The other drew it out (of its sheath) and said, `Yes, by Allah, it is very fine and I have tried it many times.' Abu Basir said, `Let me have a look at it.' When the other gave the sword to Abu Basir, he struck him with it until he died. His companion ran away until he reached Al-Madinah, entering the Masjid running. When Allah's Messenger saw him he said,

لَقَدْ رَأَى هذَا ذُعْرًا

(This man appears to have been frightened.) When he reached the Prophet he said, `My companion has been murdered, by Allah, and I would have been murdered too. ' Abu Basir came and said, `O Allah's Messenger, by Allah! Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by returning me to them, but Allah the Exalted has saved me from them.' The Prophet said,

وَيْلُ أُمِّهِ مِسْعَرَ حَرْبٍ لَوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ أَحَد

(Woe to his mother! What an excellent war kindler he would be, if he only have supporters.) When Abu Basir heard this from the Prophet , he understood that he would return him to the idolators again, so he set off until he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal bin Suhayl also got himself released from the disbelievers and joined Abu Basir. Thereafter, whenever a man from Quraysh embraced Islam he would follow Abu Basir until they formed a strong group. By Allah, whenever they heard about a caravan of the Quraysh heading towards Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), they stopped it, attacked and killed the disbelievers and took their properties. The people of Quraysh sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the sake of Allah and kith and kin to send for (Abu Basir and his companions) promising that whoever among them came to the Prophet , would be secure. So, the Prophet sent for them and Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed the following Ayat,

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ]

(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah), until,

[حَمِيَّةَ الْجَـهِلِيَّةِ]

(the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, ) Their pride and haughtiness was that they did not confess that Muhammad was the Prophet of Allah, refused to write, `In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim,' and prevented Muslims from visiting the Ka`bah.'' This is the narration Al-Bukhari collected in the Book of Tafsir, `Umrat Al-Hudaybiyyah, Hajj, and so forth. Allah is the Only One sought for help, all reliance is on Him alone and there is no might or strength except from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise. Al-Bukhari narrated in the Book of Tafsir that Habib bin Abi Thabit said that he went to Abu Wa'il asking him about something and he said, "We were at Siffin, when a man said, `Do you not see those who call to Allah's Book' `Ali bin Abi Talib said, `Yes.' Sahl bin Hunayf said, `Do not feel certain in the reliability of your own opinions! On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the day the treaty of peace was signed between the Prophet and idolators, had we found a chance to fight, we would have done so.' `Umar came (to the Prophet ) and said, `Are we not on the true cause and theirs is the false cause Are not our killed in Paradise and theirs in the Fire' He said, `Yes.' `Umar said, `Why then should we be humble with regards to the cause of our religion Why should we go back before Allah decides in the matter between us (between Muslims and the idolators.)' The Prophet said,

يَا ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللهِ وَلَنْ يُضَيِّعَنِي اللهُ أَبَدًا

(O son of Al-Khattab! I am Allah's Messenger and He will never abandon me. ) `Umar left while feeling angry and soon went to Abu Bakr and said, `O Abu Bakr! Are we not on the true cause and they are on falsehood' Abu Bakr said, `O son of Al-Khattab! He is Allah's Messenger and Allah will never abandon him.' Surat Al-Fath was later revealed.''' Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in several other parts of his Sahih, and so did Muslim and An-Nasa'i using various chains of narration from Abu Wa'il, Sufyan bin Salamah, from Sahl bin Hunayf. Some of these narrations read, "O people! Accuse sheer opinion (of being imperfect)! On the day Abu Jandal came, I saw myself willing to reject the command of Allah's Messenger , had I had the chance.'' In yet another narration, "Surat Al-Fath was revealed and the Messenger of Allah called `Umar bin Al-Khattab and recited it to him.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, "Quraysh resorted to peace with the Prophet . Suhayl bin `Amr was among the idolators then. The Prophet said to `Ali,

اكْتُبْ بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم

(Write: "In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.'') Suhayl said, `We do not know the meaning of: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim. However, write what we do know: In Your Name, O Allah!' The Messenger said,

اكْتُبْ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولِ الله

(Write: "From Muhammad, Allah's Messenger,'') and Suhayl said, `If we knew that you are Allah's Messenger, we would have followed you. However, write your name and the name of your father.' The Prophet said,

اكْتُبْ مِنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِالله

(Write: "From Muhammad son of `Abdullah.'') They set the terms with the Prophet that, `If anyone comes from your side to us, we will not send him back to you. If anyone from among us came to you, you send him back to us.' `Ali said, `O Allah's Messenger! Should I write this,' and the Prophet said,

نَعَمْ، إِنَّهُ مَنْ ذَهَبَ مِنَّا إِلَيْهِمْ فَأَبْعَدَهُ الله

(Yes. Surely, those who revert from our side and go to them, then may Allah cast them away.) Muslim also collected this Hadith.'' Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, "When Al-Haruriyyah rebelled, they set a separate camp for their group. I said to them, `On the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah agreed to conduct peace with the idolators. He said to `Ali,

اكْتُبْ يَا عَلِيُّ، هذَا مَا صَالَحَ عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله

(Write, O `Ali: "These are the terms agreed to by Muhammad, Allah's Messenger.'')' The idolators said, `If we knew that you are Allah's Messenger, we would not have fought you.' Allah's Messenger said,

امْحُ يَا عَلِيُّ، اللْهُمَّ إِنَّكَ تَعْلَمُ أَنِّي رَسُولُكَ، امْحُ يَا عَلِيُّ وَاكْتُبْ: هذَا مَا صَالَحَ عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِالله

(O `Ali! Erase it. O Allah! You know that I am Your Messenger. O `Ali! Erase it and write instead: "These are the peace terms agreed to by Muhammad bin `Abdullah.'') By Allah, Allah's Messenger is better than `Ali, and the Messenger erased his title. However, erasing his title did not mean that he was erased from being a Prophet. Have I given you sufficient proof in this.' They said, `Yes.''' Abu Dawud also collected a similar narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, "On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah slaughtered seventy sacrificial camels, including a camel that belonged to Abu Jahl. When the camel was prevented from coming to the House, she cried just as she would cry when seeing her offspring.''

[لَّقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِن شَآءَ اللَّهُ ءَامِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لاَ تَخَـفُونَ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُواْ فَجَعَلَ مِن دُونِ ذَلِكَ فَتْحاً قَرِيباً - هُوَ الَّذِى أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ شَهِيداً ]

(27. Indeed Allah shall fulfill the true vision which He showed to His Messenger in very truth. Certainly, you shall enter Al-Masjid Al-Haram, if Allah wills, secure, (some) having your heads shaved, and (some) having your hair cut short, having no fear. He knew what you knew not, and He granted besides that a near victory. (28. He it is Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, that He may make it superior to all religions. And All-Sufficient is Allah as a Witness.)

17. Allah has indeed fulfilled the True Vision which He showed to His Prophet

In a dream, the Messenger of Allah saw himself entering Makkah and performing Tawaf around the House. He told his Companions about this dream when he was still in Al-Madinah. When they went to Makkah in the year of Al-Hudaybiyyah, none of them doubted that the Prophet's vision would come true that year. When the treaty of peace was conducted and they had to return to Al-Madinah that year, being allowed to return to Makkah the next year, some of the Companions disliked what happened. `Umar bin Al-Khattab asked about this, saying, "Haven't you told us that we will go to the House and perform Tawaf around it'' The Prophet said,

بَلَى أَفَأَخْبَرْتُكَ أَنَّكَ تَأْتِيهِ عَامَكَ هذَا؟

(Yes. Have I told you that you will go to it this year) `Umar said, "No.'' The Prophet said,

فَإِنَّكَ آتِيهِ وَمُطَّوِّفٌ بِه

(Then you will go to it and perform Tawaf around it.) `Umar received the same answer from Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, letter for letter. This is why Allah the Exalted and Most honored said,

[لَّقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِن شَآءَ اللَّهُ]

(Indeed Allah shall fulfill the true vision which He showed to His Messenger in very truth. Certainly, you shall enter Al-Masjid Al-Haram, if Allah wills,) and He willed that this matter shall certainly occur,

[ءَامِنِينَ]

(secure,) means, `upon your entering,'

[مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ]

((some) having your heads shaved, and (some) having your hair cut short,) and some of them indeed had their head hair shaved, while some of them had their head hair shortened. The Two Sahihs recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

رَحِمَ اللهُ الْمُحَلِّقِين

(O Allah! Be merciful to those who have their head shaved.) The people said, "O Allah's Messenger! And (invoke Allah for) those who get their hair cut short.'' He said,

رَحِمَ اللهُ الْمُحَلِّقِين

(O Allah! Be merciful to those who have their head shaved.) The people said, "O Allah's Messenger! And those who get their hair cut short.'' The Prophet said,

رَحِمَ اللهُ الْمُحَلِّقِين

(O Allah! Be merciful to those who have their head shaved.) The people said, "O Allah's Messenger! And those who get their hair cut short.'' The Prophet said (the third or the fourth time),

وَالْمُقَصِّرِين

(And to those who get their hair cut short.) Allah said,

[لاَ تَخَـفُونَ]

(having no fear), indicating that they will be safe and will have no fear when they enter Makkah. This occurred in the `Umrah performed the following year, on the seventh year of Hijrah during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah. When the Messenger left from Al-Hudaybiyyah, during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah (the sixth year of Hijrah), he went back to Al-Madinah. He remained in Al-Madinah during the months of Dhul-Hijjah and Al-Muharram. In Safar, he marched forth to Khaybar, and Allah opened that city for him, partly by force and partly by its people surrendering to him. Khaybar was a wealthy province that had abundant date trees and vegetation. The Prophet hired the (defeated) Jews of Khaybar to attend to a part of its green fields and divided the province among those who attended Al-Hudaybiyyah with him. No one else except those Companions took part in attacking Khaybar, except Ja`far bin Abi Talib, who came back with his companions from Ethiopia. Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari and his people also attended that battle. None of them were absent except Abu Dujanah Simak bin Kharashah, according to Ibn Zayd. This fact is well recorded in (the Books of) history. The Prophet then returned to Al-Madinah. When the month of Dhul-Qa`dah came, the seventh year of Hijrah, the Prophet went to Makkah for `Umrah accompanied by those who were with him at Al-Hudaybiyyah. He resumed Ihram from Dhul-Hulayfah and took the sacrificial animals with him. It was said that the sacrificial animals were sixty. The Prophet and his Companions started reciting the Talbiyah aloud. When they came close to Marr Az-Zahran, he sent Muhammad bin Maslamah before him with the horses and weapons. When the idolators saw this advance regiment, they were overwhelmed with fear. They thought that the Messenger of Allah would attack them and that he had betrayed the treaty that he conducted with them, which stipulated cessation of hostilities for ten years. The idolators went quickly to Makkah to inform its people. When the Prophet made camp in the area of Marr Az-Zahran, where he was close enough to see the idols that were erected all around the Haram, he sent the weaponry, arrows, arrow cases and spears, to the valley of Ya`jaj. He next went on his way towards Makkah with the swords resting in their sheaths, just as he agreed to in the peace treaty. While the Prophet was still on the way to Makkah, the Quraysh sent Mikraz bin Hafs who said, "O Muhammad! We never knew you to be one who betrays his promises.'' The Prophet said,

وَمَا ذَاكَ؟

(Why do you say that) Mikraz said, "You are headed towards us with the weaponry, the arrows and the spears.'' The Prophet said,

لَمْ يَكُنْ ذلِكَ وَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا بِهِ إِلَى يَأْجَج

(I did not do that, I sent all that to the valley of Ya`jaj.) Mikraz said, "This is the way we knew you to be, trustworthy and keeping to your promises.'' The leaders of the disbelievers left Makkah so that they would not have to look at the Messenger of Allah and his Companions, out of rage and anger. As for the rest of the people of Makkah, men, women and children, they sat on the pathways and house roofs watching the Messenger of Allah and his Companions. The Messenger entered Makkah with his Companions while reciting the Talbiyah. The Prophet sent the sacrificial animals to Dhu Tuwa while riding his camel, Al-Qaswa', the same camel he was riding on the day of Hudaybiyyah. `Abdullah bin Rawahah, from Al-Ansar, was holding the bridle of the Prophet's camel and repeating this poem, "In the Name of He, other than Whose religion there is no true religion, In the Name of He, Whom Muhammad is His Messenger, O children of the disbelievers, stay out of his way, For today, we shall impose on you the fulfillment of its interpretation, Just as we fought with you to accept its revelation, Severe fighting that removes the heads from where they rest, And overwhelms the companion from attending to his companion, Ar-Rahman has sent down in His revelation, In pages that are being recited before His Messenger, That the best death is that which occurs in His cause, So, O Lord, I believe in its statements.'' This story is collected from various narrations. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, "When Allah's Messenger and his Companions came to Makkah, the fever of Yathrib (Al-Madinah) had weakened and bothered them. The idolators circulated the news that a group of people were coming to them and that they had been weakened and bothered by the fever of Yathrib (Al-Madinah). The idolators sat in the area close to Al-Hijr. Allah conveyed to His Prophet what the idolators said, so he ordered his Companions to do Ramal in the first three rounds, so that the idolaters witness their strength. The Companions did Ramal the first three rounds. He also ordered them to walk normally between the two corners, for from there the idolators would not be able to see them. The Prophet did not order them to do Ramal in all the rounds of Tawaf out of pity for them. The idolators commented, `Are these the people whom you claimed were weakened by the fever. They are stronger than so-and-so!''' The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith. In another narration, "Allah's Messenger and his Companions came (to Makkah) on the morning of the fourth day of Dhul-Qa`dah. The idolators circulated the news that a group of people was coming to them, who had been weakened by the fever of Yathrib (Al-Madinah). So, the Prophet ordered his Companions to do Ramal in the first three rounds of Tawaf. The Prophet did not order them to do Ramal in all the rounds of Tawaf out of pity for them.'' Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "In the year when the Prophet came as stipulated by the peace treaty, he said, `Perform Ramal.' So that the idolators may witness their strength. At that time, the idolators were watching from the area of Qu`ayqi`an.'' Ibn `Abbas said, "Allah's Messenger performed Tawaf of the Ka`bah and the Sa`y at As-Safa and Al-Marwah to show his strength to the idolators.'' Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "Allah's Messenger set out for `Umrah, but the Quraysh idolators prevented him from reaching the Ka`bah. So, he slaughtered his sacrifice, got his head shaved at Al-Hudaybiyyah, agreed to a formal pact with them that he would perform `Umrah the following year, would not carry weapons against them, except swords and would not stay in Makkah, except for the period they allowed. The Prophet performed the `Umrah in the following year and entered Makkah according to the treaty. And when he stayed for three days, the idolators ordered him to depart, and he departed.'' Allah's statement,

[فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُواْ فَجَعَلَ مِن دُونِ ذَلِكَ فَتْحاً قَرِيباً]

(He knew what you knew not, and He granted besides that a near victory.) means, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored knew the benefit and goodness of turning you away from Makkah and preventing you from entering it in the year of Al-Hudaybiyyah, He knew that which you had no knowledge of,

[فَجَعَلَ مِن دُونِ ذَلِكَ]

(and He granted besides that) `before entering Makkah as you were promised in the vision that the Prophet saw, He granted a close victory, i.e. the treaty of peace that you conducted between you and your idolator enemies.'

18. The Good News that Muslims will conquer the Known World, and ultimately the Entire World

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, while delivering the glad tidings to the believers that the Messenger will triumph over his enemies and the rest of the people of the earth,

[هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ]

(He it is Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth,) with beneficial knowledge and righteous good deeds. Indeed, the Islamic Shari`ah has two factors, knowledge and deeds. The true religious knowledge is by definition true, and the accepted Islamic acts are by definition accepted. Therefore, the news and creed that this religion conveys are true and its commandments are just,

[لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ]

(that He may make it superior to all religi- ons.) all the religions of the people of the earth, Arabs and non-Arabs alike, whether having certain ideologies or being atheists or idolators.

[وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ شَهِيداً]

(And All-Sufficient is Allah as a Witness.) that Muhammad is His Messenger and that He will grant him victory. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has the best knowledge.

[مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّآءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَآءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعاً سُجَّداً يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَاناً سِيمَـهُمْ فِى وُجُوهِهِمْ مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذَلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِى التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِى الإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَى عَلَى سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْراً عَظِيماً ]

(29. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing falling down prostrate, seeking reward from Allah and acceptance. The mark of them is on their faces from the traces of prostration. This is their description in the Tawrah. But their description in the Injil is like a seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward.)

19. Qualities of the Faithful Believers and Their Refinement

Allah declares that without doubt, Muhammad is truly His Messenger,

[مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ]

(Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) and this quality includes every beautiful description. Allah praises the Companions of the Messenger , may Allah be pleased with them all,

[وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّآءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَآءُ بَيْنَهُمْ]

(And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, merciful among themselves.) just as He, the Exalted and Most Honored, said in another Ayah,

[فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِى اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَـفِرِينَ]

(Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers.)(5:54) This is the description of the believers; harsh with the disbelievers, merciful and kind to the believers, angry without smiling before the disbelievers, smiling and beaming with pleasure before his believing brother. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

[يَأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ يَلُونَكُمْ مِّنَ الْكُفَّارِ وَلِيَجِدُواْ فِيكُمْ غِلْظَةً]

(O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you.) (9:123) The Prophet said,

مَثَلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي تَوَادِّهِمْ وَتَرَاحُمِهِمْ كَمَثَلِ الْجَسَدِ الْوَاحِدِ، إِذَا اشْتَكَى مِنْهُ عُضْوٌ تَدَاعَى لَهُ سَائِرُ الْجَسَدِ بِالْحُمَّى وَالسَّهَر

(The parable of the believers in their kindness and mercy for each other, is that of the body: when one of its organs falls ill, the rest of the body responds with fever and sleeplessness.) The Prophet also said,

الْمُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ كَالْبُنْيَانِ يَشُدُّ بَعْضُهُ بَعْضًا

(A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other.) Then he clasped his hands with his fingers interlaced. Both of these Hadiths were collected in the Sahih. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعاً سُجَّداً يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَاناً]

(You see them bowing and falling down prostrate, seeking reward from Allah and acceptance.) Allah describes the believers as active in performing righteous deeds and in praying, which is the best action there is, all the while being sincere to Allah the Exalted and Most Honored in the prayer, awaiting His generous reward alone. Allah's best reward is Paradise that contains His bounties and favors, abundant provisions, as well as, earning His good pleasure that is greater than the former reward. Allah said,

[وَرِضْوَنٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ]

(But the greatest bliss is the acceptance by Allah) (9: 72) The statement of Allah the Exalted next,

[سِيمَـهُمْ فِى وُجُوهِهِمْ مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ]

(The mark of them is on their faces from the traces of prostration.) refers to graceful appearance, according to Ibn `Abbas as reported from him by `Ali bin Abi Talhah. Mujahid and several others explained: "It means, humbleness and reverence.'' Some said, "The righteous good deed brings light to the heart, brightness to the face, ampleness in provisions, and love in people's hearts.'' The Leader of the faithful, `Uthman bin `Affan said, "Everyone who hides a secret, then Allah the Exalted will either show on his face what he's done or by the words that accidentally slip from his mouth.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said that the Prophet said,

إِنَّ الْهَدْيَ الصَّالِحَ، وَالسَّمْتَ الصَّالِحَ، وَالْاقْتِصَادَ، جُزْءٌ مِنْ خَمْسَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ جُزْءًا مِنَ النُّبُوَّة

(Verily, good conduct, graceful appearance and moderation are one part out of twenty-five parts of prophethood.) Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith. Therefore, since the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all, had sincere intentions and righteous good deeds, all those who looked at them liked their appearance and conduct. Imam Malik said, "I was told that when the Christians saw the Companions, who conquered Ash-Sham, they commented, `These people are, by Allah, better than the Disciples (of `Isa) according to what has been conveyed to us.''' They indeed said the truth, for this Ummah was mentioned in an honorable way in previously revealed Scriptures. The best and most honored members of this Ummah are the Companions of the Messenger of Allah . Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, praised them in previous Books and Revelations, and this is why He said here,

[ذَلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِى التَّوْرَاةِ]

(This is their description in the Tawrah), then said,

[وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِى الإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ]

(But their description in the Injil is like a seed which sends forth its shoot (Shat`ah,)) its shoot or branch,

[فَآزَرَهُ]

(then makes it strong,) able to stand on its own,

[فَاسْتَغْلَظَ]

(and becomes thick), youthful and long,

[فَاسْتَوَى عَلَى سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ]

(and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers,) Such is the parable that describes the Companions of Allah's Messenger . They gave the Messenger aid, support and victory, just as the shoot hardens the plant,

[لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ]

(that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. ) Relying on this Ayah, Imam Malik stated that the Rawafid are disbelievers because they hate the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. Malik said, "The Companions enrage them, and according to this Ayah, he who is enraged by the Companions is a disbeliever.'' Several scholars agreed with Malik's opinion, may Allah be pleased with them. There are numerous Hadiths mentioning the virtues of the Companions and prohibiting the criticism on their mistakes. It is sufficient that Allah the Exalted has praised them and declared that He is pleased with them. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً]

(Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds, forgiveness) for their sins,

[وَأَجْراً عَظِيماً]

(and a mighty reward.) a generous reward and honorable provisions. Certainly, Allah's promise is true and shall come to pass and will never be broken or changed. Surely, all those who follow the guidance of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all, will be similar to them. However, the Companions have the better virtue, the obvious lead and the perfection in character, on account of which none among this Ummah will be able to attain their level. May Allah be pleased with them and make them pleased. May He place them in the gardens of Al-Firdaws, and make it their abode, and He indeed has done all of that. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا تَسُبُّوا أَصْحَابِي، فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَوْ أَنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ أَنْفَقَ مِثْلَ أُحُدٍ ذَهَبًا، مَا أَدْرَكَ مُدَّ أَحَدِهِمْ وَلَا نَصِيفَه

(Do not abuse my Companions, for by the One in Whose Hand is my soul! If one of you spends the amount of Uhud in gold, that amount will never reach the level of one of them spending a Mudd half of it.) This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Fath; all praise and thanks is due to Allah.


The Tafsir of Surah Al-Hujurat (De Kamers) (Chapter 49)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

1. Which was revealed in Al-Madinah
2. The Prohibition of making a Decision in advance of Allah and His Messenger; ordering Respect towards the Prophet
3. Admonishing Those Who call the Prophet from behind Dwellings
4. Investigating the Reliability of the News conveyed by Wicked People
5. The Prophet's Decision is Better
6. Making Peace between Disputing Muslims
7. The Prohibition of mocking and ridiculing One Another
8. The Prohibition of Unfounded Suspicion
9. Accepted Repentance from Backbiting and Slander
10. All of Mankind are the Children of `Adam and Hawwa'
11. Honor is earned through Taqwa of Allah
12. There is a Difference between a Believer and a Muslim

1. Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تُقَدِّمُواْ بَيْنَ يَدَىِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ - يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَرْفَعُواْ أَصْوَتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِىِّ وَلاَ تَجْهَرُواْ لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـلُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَشْعُرُونَ - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَتَهُمْ عِندَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَى لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ ]

(1. O you who believe! Make not (a decision) in advance before Allah and His Messenger, and have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is Hearing, Knowing.) (2. O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds should be thwarted while you perceive not.) (3. Verily, those who lower their voices in the presence of Allah's Messenger, they are the ones whose hearts Allah has tested for Taqwa. For them is forgiveness and a great reward.)

2. The Prohibition of making a Decision in advance of Allah and His Messenger; ordering Respect towards the Prophet

In these Ayat, Allah the Exalted teaches His faithful servants the good manners they should observe with the Messenger , which are respect, honor and esteem. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تُقَدِّمُواْ بَيْنَ يَدَىِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ]

(O you who believe! Make not (a decision) in advance before Allah and His Messenger,) meaning, do not rush in making decisions before him, rather, follow his lead in all matters. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented;

[لاَ تُقَدِّمُواْ بَيْنَ يَدَىِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ]

(Make not (a decision) in advance before Allah and His Messenger,) "Do not say anything that contradicts the Qur'an and Sunnah.'' Qatadah commented, "We were told that some people used to say, `Revelation should be sent down about such and such matters,' and, `such and such practices should be rendered allowed.' Allah the Exalted disliked this attitude.'' Allah said,

[وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ]

(and have Taqwa of Allah.) meaning, `in what He has ordered you;'

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ]

(Verily, Allah is Hearing,) `your statements,'

[عَلِيمٌ]

(Knowing.) `your intentions.' Allah said,

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَرْفَعُواْ أَصْوَتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِىِّ]

(O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet,) This contains another kind of favorable behavior. Allah the Exalted is teaching the believers that they should not raise their voices above the voice of the Prophet . It was stated that this Ayah was revealed about Abu Bakr and `Umar. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abi Mulaykah said, "The two righteous ones, Abu Bakr and `Umar, almost earned destruction when they raised their voices before the Prophet who was receiving the delegation of Bani Tamim. One of them recommended Al-Aqra` bin Habis the member of the Banu Mujashi` while the other recommended another man. Nafi` (a subnarrator) said: "I don't remember his name.'' Abu Bakr said to `Umar, `You only wanted to contradict me,' while `Umar said, `I did not intend to contradict you.' Their voices then became loud, thereupon Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah,

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَرْفَعُواْ أَصْوَتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِىِّ وَلاَ تَجْهَرُواْ لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـلُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَشْعُرُونَ ]

(O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds should be thwarted while you perceive not.)'' `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said, "After that, `Umar's voice was so low that the Messenger of Allah had to ask him to repeat what he said so that he could understand what he was saying to him.'' `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr did not mention the same regarding his father, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him. Muslim did not collect this Hadith. In another narration collected by Al-Bukhari, he said that a delegation from the tribe of Banu Tamim came to the Prophet and that Abu Bakr recommended Al-Qa`qa` bin Ma`bad to be appointed as their leader, while `Umar recommended Al-Aqra` bin Habis. Muslim did not collect this narration. Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet missed Thabit bin Qays and a man said, `O Allah's Messenger! I will find out about his news.' That man went to Thabit and found him sitting at home with his head lowered and asked him, `What is the matter' Thabit said, `An evil matter!' And he said that he used to raise his voice above the voice of the Prophet . He feared that his good deeds would be useless and he would be among the people of the Fire. The man went back to the Prophet and conveyed Thabit's statement and returned to Thabit with a wonderfully good news. The Prophet said,

اذْهَبْ إِلَيْهِ فَقُلْ لَهُ: إِنَّكَ لَسْتَ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ، وَلَكِنَّكَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّة

(Go back to him and tell him this news; you are not among the people of the Fire. Rather, you are among the dwellers of Paradise.)'' Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith with this wording. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "When this Ayah was revealed,

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَرْفَعُواْ أَصْوَتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِىِّ]

(O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet), until,

[وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَشْعُرُونَ]

(while you perceive not), Thabit bin Qays bin Ash-Shammas, whose voice was loud, said, `I was the one who raised his voice above the voice of Allah's Messenger . I am among the dwellers of the Fire. My good deeds have been done in vain.' He remained in his house feeling distressed, and the Messenger of Allah noticed his absence. So some men went to Thabit and said to him, `The Prophet noticed your absence. What is the matter with you' Thabit said, `I used to raise my voice above the voice of the Prophet and speak loudly in front of him. My deeds have been rendered useless and I am among the people of the Fire.' They went to the Prophet and told him what Thabit said and the Prophet said,

لَا، بَلْ هُوَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّة

(Nay, he is among the dwellers of Paradise.)'' Anas commented, "We used to see Thabit walk among us knowing that he was (to be) among the dwellers of Paradise. During the battle of Yamamah, our forces suffered retreat. Suddenly, Thabit bin Qays bin Shammas came, having put on his Hanut and shrouds, and said, `The worst habit is the one you acquire from your enemy and do not set a bad example for your companions.' And he went on fighting until he was martyred, may Allah be pleased with him.'' Allah then prohibited speaking to the Prophet in a loud voice, just as one speaks loudly to another in a way that offends him. Instead, they were required to speak to him in terms of respect, honor and calmness. This is why Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَلاَ تَجْهَرُواْ لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ]

(nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another,) just as He said in another Ayah,

[لاَّ تَجْعَلُواْ دُعَآءَ الرَّسُولِ بَيْنَكُمْ كَدُعَآءِ بَعْضِكُمْ بَعْضاً]

(Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another.) (24:63) Allah's statement,

[أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـلُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لاَ تَشْعُرُونَ]

(lest your deeds should be thwarted while you perceive not.) means, `We ordered you to refrain from raising your voices to the Prophet , so that he will not get angry with you, because in doing so, you will also anger Allah.' The good deeds of he who caused the Prophet's anger will become useless without him even knowing. In the Sahih, there is a Hadith that states,

إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَتَكَلَّمُ بِالْكَلِمَةِ مِنْ رِضْوَانِ اللهِ تَعَالَى لَا يُلْقِي لَهَا بَالًا، يُكْتَبُ لَهُ بِهَا الْجَنَّةُ، وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَتَكَلَّمُ بِالْكَلِمَةِ مِنْ سَخَطِ اللهِ تَعَالَى لَا يُلْقِي لَهَا بَالًا، يَهْوِي بِهَا فِي النَّارِ أَبْعَدَ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْض

(Verily, a man might utter a word that pleases Allah the Exalted, even though he does not recognize the significance of his word, and on its account Paradise is written for him. Verily, a man might utter a word carelessly that angers Allah the Exalted, and on its account, he is cast in the Fire farther than the distance between the heavens and earth.) Allah then ordains lowering one's voice before the Messenger and encourages, directs and recommends this better behavior.

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَتَهُمْ عِندَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَى]

(Verily, those who lower their voices in the presence of Allah's Messenger, they are the ones whose hearts Allah has tested for Taqwa.) whose hearts have been purified by Allah and made as a residence and dwelling for the Taqwa,

[لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ]

(For them is forgiveness and a great reward.) Imam Ahmad recorded in the Book of Az-Zuhd that Mujahid said, "Someone wrote to `Umar, `O Leader of the faithful! Who is better, a man who does not feel the desire to commit a sin and does not commit it, or a man who feels desire to commit a sin, but does not commit it' `Umar replied, `He who feels desire to commit a sin, but does not commit it,

[أُوْلَـئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَى لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ]

(they are the ones whose hearts Allah has tested for Taqwa. For them is forgiveness and a great reward.)'''

[إَنَّ الَّذِينَ يُنَادُونَكَ مِن وَرَآءِ الْحُجُرَتِ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ - وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ صَبَرُواْ حَتَّى تَخْرُجَ إِلَيْهِمْ لَكَانَ خَيْراً لَّهُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ]

(4. Verily, those who call you from behind the dwellings, most of them have no sense.) (5. And if they had patience till you could come out to them, it would have been better for them. And Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

3. Admonishing Those Who call the Prophet from behind Dwellings

Allah the Exalted and Most Blessed admonished those, such as the uncivilized bedouins, who used to call to the Prophet from behind the dwellings which belong to his wives,

[أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ]

(most of them have no sense.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored then ordains the better behavior in this regard,

[وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ صَبَرُواْ حَتَّى تَخْرُجَ إِلَيْهِمْ لَكَانَ خَيْراً لَّهُمْ]

(And if they had patience till you could come out to them, it would have been better for them.) it would have earned them the better benefit of this life and the Hereafter. Allah, Worthy of all praise, then encourages them to turn to Him in repentance.

[وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ]

(And Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.) It was reported that this Ayah was revealed about Al-Aqra` bin Habis At-Tamimi, may Allah be pleased with him, according to more than one source. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Aqra` bin Habis said that he called the Messenger of Allah from behind his dwellings, saying, "O Muhammad! O Muhammad!'' "O Allah's Messenger!'' according to another narration, but the Messenger did not answer him, Al-Aqra` said, "O Allah's Messenger.

4. Investigating the Reliability of the News conveyed by Wicked People

Allah the Exalted ordered investigating the news that sinners and the wicked bring, to make sure of its authenticity. Otherwise, if the sinner's word is taken for granted and a decision is based on it, regardless of whether the information is true or not, the authorities will be taking the lead of the sinners. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored forbade taking the path of the corrupted and sinners. This is why groups of the scholars of Hadith refuse to accept narrations from narrators whose reliability is unknown, for they might be from among the wicked people, in reality.

5. The Prophet's Decision is Better

Allah said,

[وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ فِيكُمْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ]

(And know that among you there is the Messenger of Allah.) `know that among you is the Messenger of Allah . Therefore, honor and respect him, be polite with him and obey his orders. For he is more knowledgeable about what benefits you and is more concerned with you than you yourselves are. His opinions in such matters are more complete than your own.' Allah the Exalted and Most Blessed said in another Ayah,

[النَّبِىُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ]

(The Prophet is closer to the believers than themselves) (33:6). Then He clarifies that they fall short in overseeing their own benefit;

[لَوْ يُطِيعُكُمْ فِى كَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ لَعَنِتُّمْ]

(If he were to obey you in much of the matter, you would surely be in trouble.) `if he obeys all of your opinions and desires, you will earn trouble and hardship.' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَلَوِ اتَّبَعَ الْحَقُّ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ لَفَسَدَتِ السَّمَـوَتُ وَالاٌّرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ بَلْ أَتَيْنَـهُمْ بِذِكْرِهِمْ فَهُمْ عَن ذِكْرِهِمْ مُّعْرِضُونَ ]

(And if the truth had been in accordance with their desires, verily, the heavens and the earth, and whosoever is therein would have been corrupted! Nay, We have brought them their reminder, but they turn away from their reminder.) (23:71) Allah's statement,

[وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ حَبَّبَ إِلَيْكُمُ الايمَـنَ وَزَيَّنَهُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ]

(But Allah has endeared the faith to you and has beautified it in your hearts,) `made faith dear to your souls and beautified it in your hearts.' Allah said,

[وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ]

(and has made disbelief, Fusuq and `Isyan hateful to you.) `He has made disbelief, sins, whether major or minor, and `Isyan -- all types of sins, hateful to you.' This statement transfers us from one level to a better level, to perfect Allah's bounty. Allah's statement next,

[أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الرَشِدُونَ]

(Such are they who are the rightly guided.) those who have these qualities are the rightly guided ones whom Allah has granted guidance and correctness. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Rifa`ah Az-Zuraqi said that his father said, "During the battle of Uhud, when the idolators retreated, the Messenger of Allah said,

اسْتَوُوا حَتْى أُثْنِيَ عَلَى رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَل

(Stay in straight lines so that I praise my Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored.) They stood behind him in lines and he said,

اللْهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ كُلُّهُ، اللْهُمَّ لَا قَابِضَ لِمَا بَسَطْتَ وَلَا بَاسِطَ لِمَا قَبَضْتَ، وَلَا هَادِيَ لِمَنْ أَضْلَلْتَ، وَلَا مُضِلَّ لِمَنْ هَدَيْتَ، وَلَا مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ وَلَا مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ، وَلَا مُقَرِّبَ لِمَا بَاعَدْتَ، وَلَا مُبَاعِدَ لِمَا قَرَّبْتَ. اللْهُمَّ ابْسُطْ عَلَيْنَا مِنْ بَرَكَاتِكَ وَرَحْمَتِكَ وَفَضْلِكَ وَرِزْقِكَ، اللْهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ النَّعِيمَ الْمُقِيمَ الَّذِي لَا يَحُولُ وَلَا يَزُولُ. اللْهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ النَّعِيمَ يَوْمَ الْعَيْلَةِ وَالْأَمْنَ يَوْمَ الْخَوْفِ. اللْهُمَّ إِنِّي عَائِذٌ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا أَعْطَيْتَنَا وَمِنْ شَرِّ مَا مَنَعْتَنَا. اللْهُمَّ حَبِّبْ إِلَيْنَا الْإيمَانَ وَزَيِّنْهُ فِي قُلُوبِنَا وَكَرِّهْ إِلَيْنَا الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ وَاجْعَلْنَا مِنَ الرَّاشِدِينَ. اللْهُمَّ تَوَفَّنَا مُسْلِمِينَ وَأَحْيِنَا مُسْلِمِينَ وَأَلْحِقْنَا بِالصَّالِحِينَ غَيْرَ خَزَايَا وَلَا مَفْتُونِينَ، اللْهُمَّ قَاتِلِ الْكَفَرَةَ الَّذِينَ يُكَذِّبُونَ رُسُلَكَ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِكَ وَاجْعَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ رِجْزَكَ وَعَذَابَكَ، اللْهُمَّ قَاتِلِ الْكَفَرَةَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ إِلهَ الْحَق

(O Allah! Your is the praise. O Allah! There is none who can withhold what You send, or send what You withhold, or guide whom You send astray, or misguide whomever You guide, or give what You deprive, or deprive whom You give, or draw closer whom You cast or cast whom You draw closer. O Allah! Bestow on us from Your blessings, mercy, grace and provisions. O Allah! I ask You for the eternal delight that never ends or fades away. O Allah! I ask You for provisions on the Day of deprivation and safety on the Day of fear. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the evil repercussions of what You have given us and from the evil of what You have deprived us of. O Allah! Make faith dear to us and beatify it in our hearts and make disbelief, Fusuq and `Isyan hateful to us, and make us among the rightly guided. O Allah! Allow us to die as Muslims, live as Muslims and join us with the ranks of the righteous ones, without tasting humiliation or turmoil. O Allah! Fight the disbelievers who deny Your Messengers and hinder others from Your path; send on them Your torment and punishment. O Allah! Fight the disbelievers who were given the Scriptures, the True God.)'' An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith in `Amal Al-Yawm wal-Laylah. Allah said,

[فَضْلاً مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَنِعْمَةً]

((This is) a grace from Allah and His favor.) meaning, this favor that He has bestowed on you is a favor and a bounty from Him to you,

[وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ]

(And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.) All-Knower in those who deserve guidance and those who deserve misguidance, All-Wise in His statements, actions, legislation and the destiny He appoints.

[وَإِن طَآئِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُواْ فَأَصْلِحُواْ بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الأُخْرَى فَقَـتِلُواْ الَّتِى تَبْغِى حَتَّى تَفِىءَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللَّهِ فَإِن فَآءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُواْ بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُواْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ - إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُواْ بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ ]

(9. And if two parties among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah. Then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily, Allah loves those who are the equitable.) (10. The believers are but a brotherhood. So make reconciliation between your brothers, and have Taqwa of Allah that you may receive mercy.)

6. Making Peace between Disputing Muslims

Allah commands making peace between Muslims that fight each other,

[وَإِن طَآئِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُواْ فَأَصْلِحُواْ بَيْنَهُمَا]

(And if two parties among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both.) Therefore, Allah calls both opposing groups among Muslims, believers, although they are fighting each other. Al-Bukhari and other scholars relied on this Hadith as evidence that committing a sin does not nullify faith, no matter how major the sin is. This creed contradicts the creed of the Khawarij sect and those who accepted their idea, such as the Mu`tazilah sect. Al-Bukhari narrated that Al-Hasan said that Abu Bakrah said that the Messenger of Allah gave a speech on the Minbar while Al-Hasan bin `Ali was with him. He was repeatedly looking at Al-Hasan and then at the people; then said,

إِنَّ ابْنِي هذَا سَيِّدٌ وَلَعَلَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى أَنْ يُصْلِحَ بِهِ بَيْنَ فِئَتَيْنِ عَظِيمَتَيْنِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِين

(Verily, this son of mine is a Sayyid (chief or master), and may Allah make peace between two great groups of Muslims through him.) What the Prophet said, occurred. Al-Hasan brought peace between the people of Ash-Sham and `Iraq, after they fought tremendous wars and frightening battles. Allah's statement,

[فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الأُخْرَى فَقَـتِلُواْ الَّتِى تَبْغِى حَتَّى تَفِىءَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللَّهِ]

(But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah.) means, until the rebellious group refers to the commands of Allah and His Messenger for judgement and they listen to and obey the truth. There is a Hadith in the Sahih in which Anas states that the Messenger of Allah said,

انْصُرْ أَخَاكَ ظَالِمًا أَوْ مَظْلُومًا

(Help your brother, whether he is an oppressor or he is oppressed.) "I asked, `O Allah's Messenger! It is right that I help him if he is oppressed, but how should I help him if he is an oppressor' He said,

تَمْنَعُهُ مِنَ الظُّلْمِ فَذَاكَ نَصْرُكَ إِيَّاه

(By preventing him from oppressing others; this is how you help him in this case.)'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said that tribes of Aws and Khazraj once got in a scuffle using date tree branches and slippers. Allah revealed this honorable Ayah commanding them to make peace between them. As-Suddi said, "A man from Al-Ansar, whose name was `Imran, had a wife called Umm Zayd. She wanted to visit her family, but her husband prevented her from visiting them by locking her in an upper room. So, none of her family could visit or see her. She sent someone to her family. They came, took her down from the room and wanted to take her away. Her husband was absent at the time, so his family called on their people. Their cousins came to help prevent the wife from going with her family. A push and shove situation occurred that led to them fighting using slippers. This Ayah was then revealed in their case, and the Messenger of Allah sent someone to bring peace between them, and they both agreed to resort to the decision of Allah the Exalted.'' The statement of Allah the Exalted, next,

[فَإِن فَآءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُواْ بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُواْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ]

(Then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily, Allah loves those who are the equitable.) means, be fair in your judgement regarding the dispute that occurred between them,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ]

(Verily, Allah loves those who are the equitable.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded, that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ فِي الدُّنْيَا عَلَى مَنَابِرَ مِنْ لُؤْلُؤٍ بَيْنَ يَدَيِ الرَّحْمنِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِمَا أَقْسَطُوا فِي الدُّنْيَا

(Verily, those who are equitable in this life, will be on podiums made of pearls before Ar-Rahman, the Exalted and Most Honored, on account of their fairness in this life.) An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith. Allah's statement,

[إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ]

(The believers are but a brotherhood.) means, all of them are brothers in Islam. The Messenger of Allah said,

الْمُسْلِمُ أَخُو الْمُسْلِمِ لَا يَظْلِمُهُ وَلَا يُسْلِمُه

(The Muslim is the brother of the Muslim, he is not unjust with him nor does he forsake him.) In the Sahih,

وَاللهُ فِي عَوْنِ الْعَبْدِ مَا كَانَ الْعَبْدُ فِي عَوْنِ أَخِيه

(Allah helps the servant as long as the servant helps his brother.) Also in the Sahih:

إِذَا دَعَا الْمُسْلِمُ لِأَخِيهِ بِظَهْرِ الْغَيْبِ قَالَ الْمَلَكُ: آمِينَ وَلَكَ بِمِثْلِه

(If the Muslim invokes Allah for the benefit of his absent brother, the angel says afterwards, "Amin, and for you the same.'') There are many Hadiths with this meaning, such as, in the Sahih,

مَثَلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي تَوَادِّهِمْ وَتَرَاحُمِهِمْ وَتَوَاصُلِهِمْ كَمَثَلِ الْجَسَدِ الْوَاحِدِ، إِذَا اشْتَكَى مِنْهُ عُضْوٌ تَدَاعَى لَهُ سَائِرُ الْجَسَدِ بِالْحُمَّى وَالسَّهَر

(The parable of the believers in relation to the kindness, mercy and compassion they have for each other, is that of the body: when an organ of it falls ill, the rest of the body responds with fever and sleeplessness.) And also in Sahih.

الْمُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ كَالْبُنْيَانِ يَشُدُّ بَعْضُهُ بَعْضًا

(A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other.) The Prophet then clasped his hands with the fingers interlaced. Allah's statement,

[فَأَصْلِحُواْ بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ]

(So make reconciliation between your brothers, ) refers to the two groups that fight each other,

[وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ]

(and have Taqwa of Allah) in all of your affairs,

[لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ]

(that you may receive mercy.) and this is a promise from Allah that He will grant mercy to those who fear and obey Him.

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ يَسْخَرْ قَوْمٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُونُواْ خَيْراً مِّنْهُمْ وَلاَ نِسَآءٌ مِّن نِّسَآءٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُنَّ خَيْراً مِّنْهُنَّ وَلاَ تَلْمِزُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَلاَ تَنَابَزُواْ بِالاٌّلْقَـبِ بِئْسَ الاسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الايمَانِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّـلِمُونَ ]

(11. O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at another group, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor let (some) women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor defame yourselves, nor insult one another by nicknames. Evil is the name of wickedness after faith. And whosoever does not repent, then such are indeed wrongdoers.)

7. The Prohibition of mocking and ridiculing One Another

Allah the Exalted forbids scoffing at people, which implies humiliating and belittling them. In the Sahih, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

الْكِبْرُ بَطَرُ الْحَقِّ وَغَمْصُ النَّاس

(Arrogance is refusing the truth and belittling people.) And in another Version

غَمْطُ النَّاس

(And despising people) It is forbidden to scoff at and belittle people, for the injured party could be more honored and dearer to Allah the Exalted than those who ridicule and belittle them. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ يَسْخَرْ قَوْمٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُونُواْ خَيْراً مِّنْهُمْ وَلاَ نِسَآءٌ مِّن نِّسَآءٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُنَّ خَيْراً مِّنْهُنَّ]

(O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at another group, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor let (some) women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter are better than the former.) thus, stating this prohibition for men and then women. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

[وَلاَ تَلْمِزُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ]

(Nor defame yourselves,) forbids defaming each other. He among men who is a slanderer, and a backbiter, is cursed and condemned as Allah states

[وَيْلٌ لِّكُلِّ هُمَزَةٍ لُّمَزَةٍ ]

(Woe to every Humazah, Lumazah)(104:1) Hamz is defamation by action, while Lamz is by words. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[هَمَّازٍ مَّشَّآءِ بِنَمِيمٍ ]

(Hammaz (defaming), going about with slander.) (68:11) meaning, he belittles and defames people, transgressing and spreading slander among them, which is the Lamz that uses words as its tool. Allah's statement here,

[وَلاَ تَلْمِزُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ]

(Nor defame yourselves,) just as He said in another Ayah,

[وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ]

(Nor kill yourselves) (4:29), meaning, nor kill one another. `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that the Ayah,

[وَلاَ تَلْمِزُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ]

(Nor defame yourselves,) means, none of you should defame each other,' while,

[وَلاَ تَنَابَزُواْ بِالاٌّلْقَـبِ]

(nor insult one another by nicknames.) means, `you should not address people by nick names that people dislike.' Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Jabirah bin Ad-Dahhak said, "This Ayah was revealed about us, Banu Salamah;

[وَلاَ تَنَابَزُواْ بِالاٌّلْقَـبِ]

(nor insult one another by nicknames.) When the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, every man among us had two or three nicknames. When the Prophet called a man by one of these nicknames, people would say, `O Allah's Messenger! He hates that nickname.' Then this Ayah,

[وَلاَ تَنَابَزُواْ بِالاٌّلْقَـبِ]

(nor insult one another by nicknames.) was revealed.'' Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith. The statement of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored,

[بِئْسَ الاسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الايمَانِ]

(Evil is the name of wickedness after faith), means, the names and descriptions of wickedness are evil; meaning, `to use the nicknames that were used by the people of Jahiliyyah, after you embraced Islam and understood it,'

[وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ]

(And whosoever does not repent,) means, from this sin,

[فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّـلِمُونَ]

(then such are indeed wrongdoers.)

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اجْتَنِبُواْ كَثِيراً مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَلاَ تَجَسَّسُواْ وَلاَ يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضاً أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتاً فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ ]

(12. O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion; indeed some suspicion is sin. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother You would hate it. And have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is the One Who forgives and accepts repentance, Most Merciful.)

8. The Prohibition of Unfounded Suspicion

Allah the Exalted forbids His faithful servants from being suspicious, which includes having doubts and suspicions about the conduct of one's family, relatives and other people in general. Therefore, Muslims are to avoid suspicion without foundation. The Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "Never think ill of the word that comes out of your believing brother's mouth, as long as you can find a good excuse for it.'' Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that Allah's Messenger said,

إِيَّاكُمْ وَالظَّنَّ فَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ أَكْذَبُ الْحَدِيثِ، وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا تَحَسَّسُوا، وَلَا تَنَافَسُوا وَلَا تَحَاسَدُوا، وَلَا تَبَاغَضُوا وَلَا تَدَابَرُوا، وَكُونُوا عِبَادَ اللهِ إِخْوَانًا

(Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the worst of false tales; do not spy on one another; do not look for other's faults; do not be jealous of one another; do not envy one another; do not hate one another; and do not desert (shun) one another. And O Allah's servants! Be brothers!) The Two Sahihs and Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith. Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا تَقَاطَعُوا وَلَا تَدَابَرُوا وَلَا تَبَاغَضُوا وَلَا تَحَاسَدُوا، وَكُونُوا عِبَادَ اللهِ إِخْوَانًا، وَلَا يَحِلُّ لِمُسْلِمٍ أَنْ يَهْجُرَ أَخَاهُ فَوْقَ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّام

(Do not shun each other; do not ignore one another; do not hate one another, and do not envy one another, and be brothers, O servants of Allah. No Muslim is allowed to shun his brother for more than three days.) Muslim and At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith, who considered it Sahih. Allah said,

[وَلاَ تَجَسَّسُواْ]

(And spy not), on each other. Tajassus, usually harbors ill intentions, and the spy is called a Jasus. As for Tahassus (inquiring) it is usually done for a good reason. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said that Prophet Ya`qub said,

[يبَنِىَّ اذْهَبُواْ فَتَحَسَّسُواْ مِن يُوسُفَ وَأَخِيهِ وَلاَ تَايْـَسُواْ مِن رَّوْحِ اللَّهِ]

("O my sons! Go you and inquire (Tahassasu) about Yusuf and his brother, and never give up hope of Allah's mercy.'') (12:87) Both of these terms, `Tajassus' and `Tahassus' could have evil connotations. In the Sahih it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا تَحَسَّسُوا، وَلَا تَبَاغَضُوا وَلَا تَدَابَرُوا، وَكُونُوا عِبَادَ اللهِ إِخْوَانًا

(Neither commit Tajassus nor Tahassus nor hate each other nor commit Tadabur. And be brothers, O servants of Allah.) Al-Awza`i said, "Tajassus means, to search for something, while Tahassus means, listening to people when they are talking without their permission, or eavesdropping at their doors. Tadabur refers to shunning each other. '' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement. Allah the Exalted said about backbiting;

[وَلاَ يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضاً]

(neither backbite one another), thus prohibiting it, which was explained in a Hadith collected by Abu Dawud that Abu Hurayrah said, "It was asked, `O Allah's Messenger! What is backbiting' He said,

ذِكْرُكَ أَخَاكَ بِمَا يَكْرَه

(Mentioning about your brother in a manner that he dislikes.) He was asked, `What if my brother was as I mentioned' He said,

إِنْ كَانَ فِيهِ مَا تَقُولُ فَقَدِ اغْتَبْتَهُ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِ مَا تَقُولُ فَقَدْ بَهَتَّه

(If he was as you mentioned, you will have committed backbiting. But if he was not as you say about him, you will have falsely accused him.)'' At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith and said "Hasan Sahih.'' Backbiting was sternly warned against, and this is why Allah the Exalted and Most Blessed compared it to eating the flesh of a dead human being,

[أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتاً فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ]

(Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother You would hate it.) Just as you hate eating the flesh of a dead person, on account of your nature; so hate backbiting, on account of your religion. The latter carries a punishment that is worse than the former. This Ayah seeks to discourage people from backbiting and warns against it. The Prophet used these words to discourage taking back a gift that one gives to someone,

كَالْكَلْبِ يَقِيءُ ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ فِي قَيْئِه

(He is just like the dog that eats its vomit.) after saying,

لَيْسَ لَنَا مَثَلُ السَّوْء

(Ours is not an evil parable.) Using various chains of narration, the Sahihs and Musnads record that the Prophet said during the Farewell Hajj:

إِنَّ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَأَمْوَالَكُمْ وَأَعْرَاضَكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ حَرَامٌ كَحُرْمَةِ يَوْمِكُمْ هذَا، فِي شَهْرِكُمْ هذَا، فِي بَلَدِكُمْ هذَا

(Verily, your blood, wealth and honor are as sacred among you as the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours.) Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

كُلُّ الْمُسْلِمِ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ حَرَامٌ مَالُهُ وَعِرْضُهُ وَدَمُهُ، حَسْبُ امْرِىءٍ مِنَ الشَّرِّ أَنْ يَحْقِرَ أَخَاهُ الْمُسْلِم

(All of the Muslim is sacred to the Muslim, his wealth, honor and his blood. It is evil enough for someone to belittle his Muslim brother.) At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith and said "Hasan Gharib.'' Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la recorded that a cousin of Abu Hurayrah said, "Ma`iz came to the Messenger of Allah and said, `O Allah's Messenger! I have committed adultery,' and the Messenger turned away from him until Ma`iz repeated his statement four times. The fifth time, the Prophet asked him,

زَنَيْتَ؟

(Have you committed adultery؟) Ma0 iz said, Yes. The Prophet asked,

وَتَدْرِي مَا الزِّنَا؟

(Do you know what adultery means) Ma`iz said, `Yes. I have illegally done with her what a husband legally does with his wife.' The Prophet said,

مَا تُرِيدُ إِلَى هذَا الْقَوْلِ؟

(What do you seek to accomplish by this statement) Ma`iz said, `I intend that you purify me.' The Prophet asked,

أَدْخَلْتَ ذلِكَ مِنْكَ فِي ذلِكَ مِنْهَا كَمَا يَغِيبُ الْمِيلُ فِي الْمُكْحُلَةِ وَالرِّشَا فِي الْبِئْرِ؟

(Have you gone into her just as the stick goes into the kohl container and the rope goes into the well) Ma`iz said, `Yes, O Allah's Messenger!' The Prophet commanded that Ma`iz be stoned to death and his order was carried out. The Prophet heard two men saying to one another, `Have you not seen the man who had Allah cover his secret, but his heart could not let him rest until he was stoned to death, just as the dog is stoned' The Prophet continued on and when he passed by the corpse of a donkey, he asked,

أَيْنَ فُلَانٌ وَفُلَانٌ؟ انْزِلَا فَكُلَا مِنْ جِيفَةِ هذَا الْحِمَار

(Where are so-and-so Dismount and eat from this donkey.) They said, `May Allah forgive you, O Allah's Messenger! Would anyone eat this meat' The Prophet said;

فَمَا نِلْتُمَا مِنْ أَخِيكُمَا آنِفًا أَشَدُّ أَكْلًا مِنْهُ، وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ إِنَّهُ الْانَ لَفِي أَنْهَارِ الْجَنَّةِ يَنْغَمِسُ فِيهَا

(The backbiting you committed against your brother is worse as a meal than this meal. By He in Whose Hand is my soul! He is now swimming in the rivers of Paradise.)'' This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah when a rotten odor was carried by the wind. The Messenger of Allah said,

أَتَدْرُونَ مَا هذِهِ الرِّيحُ؟ هَذِهِ رِيحُ الَّذِينَ يَغْتَابُونَ النَّاس

(Do you know what this odor is It is the odor of those who backbite people.)''

9. Accepted Repentance from Backbiting and Slander

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ]

(And have Taqwa of Allah), that is, regarding what He has commanded you and forbidden for you. Fear Him and beware of Him,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ]

(Verily, Allah is the One Who forgives and accepts repentance, Most Merciful.) He forgives those who repent to Him, is merciful with those who go back to Him and trust in Him. The majority of scholars have stated that repentance for committing the sin of backbiting is that one refrains from backbiting intending not to repeat it again. There is a difference of opinion if whether feeling remorse is required in this case, and also if one should apologize to those who he has backbitten. Some scholars stated that it is not necessary for one to ask those whom he has backbitten to forgive him, because if they knew what was said about them, they could be hurt more than if they were not told about it. It is better, they said, that one should praise those whom he has backbitten in audiences in which he has committed the act. It is also better if one defends the injured party against any further backbiting, as much as one can, as recompense for his earlier backbiting.

[يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَـكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى وَجَعَلْنَـكُمْ شُعُوباً وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَـرَفُواْ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عَندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَـكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ ]

(13. O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.)

10. All of Mankind are the Children of `Adam and Hawwa'

Allah the Exalted declares to mankind that He has created them all from a single person, `Adam, and from that person He created his mate, Hawwa'. From their offspring He made nations, comprised of tribe, which include subtribes of all sizes. It was also said that `nations refers to non-Arabs, while `tribes refers to Arabs. Various statements about this were collected in an individual introduction from the book, Al-Inbah, by Abu `Amr Ibn `Abdul-Barr, and from the book, Al-Qasad wal-Amam fi Ma`rifah Ansab Al-Arab wal-`Ajam. Therefore, all people are the descendants of `Adam and Hawwa' and share this honor equally. The only difference between them is in the religion that revolves around their obedience to Allah the Exalted and their following of His Messenger . After He forbade backbiting and belittling other people, alerting mankind that they are all equal in their humanity. Allah said,

[يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَـكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى وَجَعَلْنَـكُمْ شُعُوباً وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَـرَفُواْ]

(O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another.) so that they get to know each other by their nation or tribe. Mujahid said that Allah's statement,

[لِتَعَـرَفُواْ]

(that you may know one another.) refers to one's saying, "So-and-so the son of so-and-so, from the tribe of so-and-so.'' Sufyan Ath-Thawri said, "The Himyar (who resided in Yemen) dealt with each other according to their provinces, while the Arabs in the Hijaz (Western Arabia) dealt with each other according to their tribes.''

11. Honor is earned through Taqwa of Allah

Allah the Exalted said,

[إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عَندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَـكُمْ]

(Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa.) meaning, `you earn honor with Allah the Exalted on account of Taqwa, not family lineage.' There are many Hadiths from the Prophet that support this meaning. Al-Bukhari narrated that Abu Hurayrah said, "Some people asked the Prophet , `Who is the most honorable among people' He replied,

أَكْرَمُهُمْ عِنْدَ اللهِ أَتْقَاهُم

(The most honorable among them with Allah is the one who has the most Taqwa.) They said, `We did not ask you about this.' He said,

فَأَكْرَمُ النَّاسِ يُوسُفُ نَبِيُّ اللهِ، ابْنُ نَبِيِّ اللهِ، ابْنِ نَبِيِّ اللهِ ابْنِ خَلِيلِ الله

(Then the most honorable person is Yusuf, Allah's Prophet, the son of Allah's Prophet, the son of Allah's Prophet, the son of Allah's Khalil.) They said, `We did not ask you about this.' He said,

فَعَنْ مَعَادِنِ الْعَرَبِ تَسْأَلُونِّي

؟ (Then you want to ask me about the Arab lineage) They said, `Yes.' He said,

فَخِيَارُكُمْ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ خِيَارُكُمْ فِي الْإِسْلَامِ إِذَا فَقُهُوا

(Those among you who were best in Jahiliyyah, are the best among you in Islam, if they attain religious understanding.)'' Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in several places of his Sahih, An-Nasa'i did as well in the Tafsir section of his Sunan. Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ اللهَ لَا يَنْظُرُ إِلَى صُوَرِكُمْ وَأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَلكِنْ يَنْظُرُ إِلَى قُلُوبِكُمْ وَأَعْمَالِكُم

(Verily, Allah does not look at your shapes or wealth, but he looks at your hearts and actions.) Ibn Majah also collected this Hadith. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "On the day Makkah was conquered, the Messenger of Allah performed Tawaf around the Ka`bah while riding his camel, Al-Qaswa', and was touching the corners with a stick he had in his hand. He did not find a place in the Masjid where his camel could sit and had to dismount on men's hands. He led his camel to the bottom of the valley, where he had her sit down. The Messenger of Allah later gave a speech while riding Al-Qaswa' and said, after thanking Allah the Exalted and praising Him as He should be praised,

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى قَدْ أَذْهَبَ عَنْكُمْ عُبِّيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَتَعَظُّمَهَا بِآبَائِهَا، فَالنَّاسُ رَجُلَانِ: رَجُلٌ بَرٌّ تَقِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ عَلَى اللهِ تَعَالَى، وَرَجُلٌ فَاجِرٌ شَقِيٌّ هَيِّنٌ عَلَى اللهِ تَعَالَى، إِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ:

[يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَـكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى وَجَعَلْنَـكُمْ شُعُوباً وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَـرَفُواْ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عَندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَـكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ ]

(O people! Allah the Exalted has removed from you the slogans of Jahiliyyah and its tradition of honoring forefathers. Men are of two types, a man who is righteous, fearful of Allah and honorable to Allah, or a man who is vicious, miserable and little to Allah the Exalted. Verily, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, (O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.)) The Prophet said,

أَقُولُ قَوْلِي هذَا وَأَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ لِي وَلَكُم

(I say this and invoke Allah for forgiveness for me and for you.)'' This was recorded by `Abd bin Humayd. Allah the Exalted said,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَيمٌ خَبِيرٌ]

(Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.) means, `He is All-Knowing of you and All-Aware of all of your affairs.' Allah guides whom He wills, misguides whom He wills, grants mercy to whom He wills, tor- ments whom He wills, elevates whom He wills above whom He wills. He is the All-Wise, the All-Knowing, the All-Aware in all this. Several scholars relied on this honorable Ayah and the honora- ble Hadiths we menti- oned as evidence that compatibility in marriage is not a condition of marriage contracts. They said that the only condition required in this regard is the adherence to the religion, as in the statement of Allah, the Exalted,

[إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عَندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَـكُمْ]

(Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is the one with the most Taqwa. )

[قَالَتِ الاٌّعْرَابُ ءَامَنَّا قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُواْ وَلَـكِن قُولُواْ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الايمَـنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ وَإِن تُطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لاَ يَلِتْكُمْ مِّنْ أَعْمَـلِكُمْ شَيْئاً إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ - إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُواْ وَجَـهَدُواْ بِأَمْوَلِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الصَّـدِقُونَ - قُلْ أَتُعَلِّمُونَ اللَّهَ بِدِينِكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌ - يَمُنُّونَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ أَسْلَمُواْ قُل لاَّ تَمُنُّواْ عَلَىَّ إِسْلَـمَكُمْ بَلِ اللَّهُ يَمُنُّ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ هَداكُمْ لِلايمَـنِ إِنُ كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ - إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ ]

(14. The bedouins say: "We believe.'' Say: "You do not believe. But say, `We have submitted,' for Faith has not yet entered your hearts. But if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not decrease anything in reward for your deeds. Verily, Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.'') (15. Only those are the believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the cause of Allah. Those! They are the truthful.) (16. Say: "Will you inform Allah of your religion while Allah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and Allah is All-Aware of everything.'') (17. They regard as a favor to you that they have embraced Islam. Say: "Do not count your Islam as a favor to me. Nay, but Allah has conferred a favor upon you that He has guided you to the Faith if you indeed are true. '') (18. "Verily, Allah knows the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.'')

12. There is a Difference between a Believer and a Muslim

Allah chastises the bedouins who, when they embraced Islam, claimed for themselves the grade of faithful believers. However, Faith had not yet firmly entered their hearts,

[قَالَتِ الاٌّعْرَابُ ءَامَنَّا قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُواْ وَلَـكِن قُولُواْ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الايمَـنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ]

(The bedouins say: "We believe.'' Say: "You do not believe, but say, `We have submitted,' for Faith has not yet entered your hearts...'') This honorable Ayah provides proof that Faith is a higher grade than Islam, according to the scholars of the Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah. This is also demostrated in the Hadith of Jibril, peace be upon him, when he questioned the Prophet about Islam, then Iman then Ihsan. Thus moving the general matter to one more specific, then even more specific. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amir bin Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas said, "The Messenger of Allah gave (something to) some men and did not give one of them. Sa`d said, `O Allah's Messenger, you gave to so-and-so and so-and-so. However, you gave nothing to so-and-so, even though he is a believer.' The Prophet said,

أَوْ مُسْلِمٌ؟

(Or say, a Muslim.) Sa`d repeated his statement thrice each time the Prophet answered,

أَوْ مُسْلِمٌ؟

(Or say, a Muslim.) The Prophet then said,

إِنِّي لَأُعْطِي رِجَالًا وَأَدَعُ مَنْ هُوَ أَحَبَّ إِلَيَّ مِنْهُمْ،فَلَمْ أُعْطِهِ شَيْئًا مَخَافَةَ أَنْ يُكَبُّوا فِي النَّارِ عَلَى وُجُوهِهِم

(I might give some men and give nothing to others, even though the latter are dearer to me than the former. I do not give them things for fear that they might be thrown on their faces in the Fire.)'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Therefore, the Prophet made a distinction between the grade of believer and the grade of Muslim, indicating that Iman is a more exclusive grade than Islam. I mentioned this subject in detail supported by evidence, in the beginning of the explanation of the chapter on Iman in Sahih Al-Bukhari, all praise is due to Allah and all the favors are from Him. So this proves that the bedouins whom the Ayah mentioned were not hypocrites, rather they were Muslims in whose hearts Faith was not yet firmly established. They claimed a higher grade for themselves than the grade that they earned, and they were taught a lesson as a consequence. This meaning agrees with the meaning given by Ibn `Abbas, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Qatadah and that preferred by Ibn Jarir. These bedouins were taught a lesson,

[قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُواْ وَلَـكِن قُولُواْ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الايمَـنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ]

(Say: "You do not believe, but say `We are Muslims,' for Faith has not yet entered your hearts...'') meaning, `you have not yet achieved the reality of Faith.' Allah the Exalted said,

[وَإِن تُطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لاَ يَلِتْكُمْ مِّنْ أَعْمَـلِكُمْ شَيْئاً]

(But if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not decrease anything in reward for your deeds...) `He will not decrease any of your rewards,' as Allah said;

[وَمَآ أَلَتْنَـهُمْ مِّنْ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ]

(We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) (52:21) Allah said:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ]

(Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) for those who repent and return to Him. Allah's statement,

[إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ]

(Only those are the believers), who have perfect Faith,

[الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُواْ]

(who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not) They do not have doubts and their Faith was not shaken. Rather, their Faith remained on conviction,

[وَجَـهَدُواْ بِأَمْوَلِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ]

(but strive for the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives) meaning, they gladly gave away their life and the most precious of their wealth in obedience to Allah as a means of seeking His pleasure,

[أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الصَّـدِقُونَ]

(Those! They are the truthful. ) `in their statement if they say that they are believers, unlike some bedouins who are faithful only by words outwardly!' Allah said,

[قُلْ أَتُعَلِّمُونَ اللَّهَ بِدِينِكُمْ]

(Say: "Will you inform Allah of your religion...'') `will you inform Allah of what is in your hearts,'

[وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ]

(while Allah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth,) Nothing in the heavens and earth, even the weight of a speck of dust, all that is bigger or smaller, ever escapes His observation,

[وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ]

(and Allah is All-Aware of everything.) Allah said,

[يَمُنُّونَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ أَسْلَمُواْ قُل لاَّ تَمُنُّواْ عَلَىَّ إِسْلَـمَكُمْ]

(They regard as a favor to you that they have embraced Islam. Say: "Do not count your Islam as a favor to me...'') meaning the bedouins who considered embracing Islam, following and supporting the Messenger as a favor to him. Allah the Exalted refuted their false statement,

[قُل لاَّ تَمُنُّواْ عَلَىَّ إِسْلَـمَكُمْ]

(Say: "Do not count your Islam as a favor to me...'') `for the benefit of your Islam will only be yours, and this is a favor from Allah to you,'

[بَلِ اللَّهُ يَمُنُّ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ هَداكُمْ لِلايمَـنِ إِنُ كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ]

(Nay, but Allah has conferred a favor upon you that He has guided you to the Faith if you indeed are true.) `in your claim that you are believers.' The Prophet said to the Ansar on the day of the battle of Hunayn,

يَا مَعْشَرَ الْأَنْصَارِ أَلَمْ أَجِدْكُمْ ضُلَّالًا فَهَدَاكُمُ اللهُ بِي؟ وَكُنْتُمْ مُتَفَرِّقِينَ فَأَلَّفَكُمُ اللهُ بِي؟ وَكُنْتُمْ عَالَةً فَأَغْنَاكُمُ اللهُ بِي؟

(O Ansar! Have I not found you astray and Allah guided you through me Were you not divided and Allah united you around me Were you not poor and Allah gave you riches through me) Whenever the Prophet asked them any of these questions, they would reply, "Allah and His Messenger have most favored us.'' Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Banu Asad came to the Messenger of Allah and said, `O Allah's Messenger! We embraced Islam, and before that, the Arabs fought against you, yet we did not fight against you.' The Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ فِقْهَهُمْ قَلِيلٌ وَإِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَنْطِقُ عَلَى أَلْسِنَتِهِم

(Verily, they understand but little and the Shaytan speaks through their words.) This Ayah was later revealed,

[يَمُنُّونَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ أَسْلَمُواْ قُل لاَّ تَمُنُّواْ عَلَىَّ إِسْلَـمَكُمْ بَلِ اللَّهُ يَمُنُّ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ هَداكُمْ لِلايمَـنِ إِنُ كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ ]

(They regard as a favor to you that they have embraced Islam. Say: "Do not count your Islam as a favor to me.'' Nay, but Allah has conferred a favor upon you that He has guided you to the Faith if you indeed are true.'')''' Then Allah reminds that He has complete knowledge of all creations and that He sees them all;

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ ]

(Verily, Allah knows the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.) This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Hujurat. Verily, all praise is due to Allah, all the favors are from Him, and from Him comes the success and protection from error.


The Tafsir of Surah Qaf (Chapter 50)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Makkah

1. The Beginning of the Mufassal Section of the Qur'an
2. The Virtues of Surah Qaf
3. The Disbelievers wonder at the Message and Resurrection Allah said
4. Allah's Power and Ability over what is Greater than Resurrection
5. Reminding the Quraysh of the Destruction of earlier Disbelieving Nations
6. Repeating the Creation is Easier than originating It
7. Allah encompasses and watches all of Man's Activity
8. Reminding Mankind of the Stupor of Death, the Blast of the Trumpet and the Day of Gathering
9. The Angel will bear Witness; Allah commands that the Disbeliever be thrown into the Fire
10. Man and Devil dispute before Allah
11. Jahannam and Paradise and their Dwellers
12. Warning the Disbelievers of the imminent Torment; commanding the Prophet to pray and have Patience
13. Admonition from Some Scenes of the Day of Resurrection
14. Comforting the Prophet

1. The Beginning of the Mufassal Section of the Qur'an

This Surah is the first Surah in the Mufassal section of the Qur'an, according to the correct view. It is said that the Mufassal starts with Surat Al-Hujurat. Some common people say that the Mufassal starts with Surah `Amma An-Naba, (chapter 78), however, this is not true because none of the respected scholars ever supported this opinion. Aws (bin Hudhayfah) said; "I asked the Companions of Allah's Messenger () how they divided the Qur'an. They said; `Three, five, seven, nine, eleven, thirteen, and the Mufassal section as one.' '' This was recorded by Ibn Majah and Imam Ahmad. If one counts forty-eight Surahs, the next Surah will be Surah Qaf. The details are as follows: The [first] three Surahs are Al-Baqarah (chapter 2), Al `Imran (3), then An-Nisa' (4). The five are Al-Ma'idah (5), Al-An`am (6), Al-A`raf (7), Al-Anfal (8) and Bara'ah (or At-Tawbah) (9). The seven next Surahs are Surah Yunus (10), Hud (11), Yusuf (12), Ar-Ra`d (13), Ibrahim (14), Al-Hijr (15) and An-Nahl (16). The nine next Surahs are, Subhan (or Al-Isra' (17)], Al-Kahf (18), Maryam (19), Ta Ha (20), Al-Anbiya' (21), Al-Hajj (22), Al-Mu`minun (23), An-Nur (24) and Al-Furqan (25). The next eleven Surahs are Surat Ash-Shu`ara (26), An-Naml (27), Al-Qasas (28), Al-`Ankabut (29), Ar-Rum (30), Luqman (31), Alif Lam Mim As-Sajdah (32), Al-Ahzab (33), Saba' (34), Fatir (35) and Ya Sin (36). The next thirteen are Surat As-Saffat (37), Sad (38), Az-Zumar (39), Ghafir (40), Ha Mim As-Sajdah (or Fussilat) (41), Ash-Shura (42), Az-Zukhruf (43), Ad-Dukhan (44), Al-Jathiyah (45), Al-Ahqaf (46), Al-Qital (or Muhammad) (47), Al-Fath (48) and Al-Hujurat (49). After that comes the Mufassal section, according to the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. Therefore, Surah Qaf (chapter 50) is the first of the Mufassal, just as we stated, and all praise is due to Allah and all favors are from Him.

2. The Virtues of Surah Qaf

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab asked Abu Waqid Al-Laythi, "What did the Prophet recite during the `Id Prayer'' Abu Waqid said, "Surah Qaf and Surat Iqtarabat [i.e. Surat Al-Qamar (54)].'' Muslim and the Four Collectors of the Sunan collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Hisham bint Harithah said, "For around two years, or a year and a part of another year, our oven and the oven of the Prophet was one and the same. I memorized Surah,

[ق وَالْقُرْءَانِ الْمَجِيدِ ]

(Qaf. By the Glorious Qur'an.) from the tongue of the Messenger of Allah who used to recite it every Friday while standing on the Minbar delivering the Friday sermon to the people.'' Muslim collected this Hadith. Abu Dawud also recorded that the daughter of Al-Harith bin An-Nu`man said, "I only memorized Surah Qaf from the mouth of the Messenger of Allah who used to recite it in every Friday Khutbah. Our oven and the oven of the Messenger was one and the same.'' Muslim and An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah used to recite this Surah during large gatherings such as the `Ids and during Friday sermons. He did so because this Surah contains news of the beginning of creation, Resurrec- tion, the Return, Standing (before Allah), the Reckoning, Paradise, the Fire, Allah's reward and punishment, lessons of encouragement, and lessons of discouragement. Allah knows best.

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[ق وَالْقُرْءانِ الْمَجِيدِ- بَلْ عَجِبُواْ أَن جَآءهُمْ مُّنذِرٌ مّنْهُمْ فَقَالَ الْكَـفِرُونَ هَـذَا شَىْء عَجِيبٌ- أَءذَا مِتْنَا وَكُنَّا تُرَاباً ذَلِكَ رَجْعُ بَعِيدٌ- قَدْ عَلِمْنَا مَا تَنقُصُ الاْرْضَ مِنْهُمْ وَعِندَنَا كِتَـبٌ حَفِيظٌ- بَلْ كَذَّبُواْ بِالْحَقّ لَمَّا جَآءهُمْ فَهُمْ فِى أَمْرٍ مَّرِيجٍ-]

(1. Qaf. By the Glorious Qur'an.) (2. Nay, they wonder that there has come to them a warner from among themselves. So the disbelievers say: "This is a strange thing!'') (3. "When we are dead and have become dust. (Shall we be resurrected) That is a far return.'') (4. We know that which the earth takes of them, and with Us is a Book preserved.) (5. Nay, but they have denied the truth when it has come to them, so they are in a Marij state.)

[ق]

(Qaf.) which is one of the letters of the alphabet that are mentioned in the beginning of some Surahs, such as,

[ص]

(Sad.) (38:1)

[ن]

(Nun. ) (68:1)

[الم ]

(Alif Lam Mim.) (2:1),

[حـم ]

(Ha Mim.) (40:1), and

[طس]

(Ta Sin) (28:1) and etc., Mujahid and several others said this. We also discussed this in the beginning of the explanation of Surat Al-Baqarah, and therefore, it is not necessary to repeat it here.

3. The Disbelievers wonder at the Message and Resurrection Allah said

[وَالْقُرْءَانِ الْمَجِيدِ]

(By the Glorious Qur'an.) means by the Honorable and Great Qur'an, which,

[لاَّ يَأْتِيهِ الْبَـطِلُ مِن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلاَ مِنْ خَلْفِهِ تَنزِيلٌ مِّنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ ]

(Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it: (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.)(41:42) The subject of the oath contained in this Ayah is specified afterwards, even though it does not appear by word, emphasizing prophethood, resurrection and affirming that they are true. There are similar kinds of oaths in the Qur'an, whose subject is included in the meaning but not by word, such as,

[ص وَالْقُرْءَانِ ذِى الذِّكْرِ - بَلِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِى عِزَّةٍ وَشِقَاقٍ ]

(Sad. By the Qur'an full of reminding. Nay, those who disbelieve are in false pride and opposition.)(38:1-2) Allah said here,

[ق وَالْقُرْءَانِ الْمَجِيدِ - بَلْ عَجِبُواْ أَن جَآءَهُمْ مُّنذِرٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَقَالَ الْكَـفِرُونَ هَـذَا شَىْءٌ عَجِيبٌ ]

(Qaf. By the Glorious Qur'an. Nay, they wonder that there has come to them a warner from among themselves. So the disbelievers say: "This is a strange thing!'') They wondered at the wisdom behind sending a Messenger who is a human being. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said in another Ayah

[أَكَانَ لِلنَّاسِ عَجَبًا أَنْ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِّنْهُمْ أَنْ أَنذِرِ النَّاسَ]

(Is it a wonder for mankind that We have sent Our revelation to a man from among themselves (saying): "Warn mankind.'') (10:2), meaning, this is not strange, for Allah chooses Messengers from angels and humans. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored mentioned that the disbelievers also wondered about the Resurrection and discounted its coming,

[أَءِذَا مِتْنَا وَكُنَّا تُرَاباً ذَلِكَ رَجْعُ بَعِيدٌ ]

(When we are dead and have become dust. That is a far return.) They said, `after we die, disintegrate, with our organs torn apart and we become dust, how can we be brought back to our original shape and bodies,'

[ذَلِكَ رَجْعُ بَعِيدٌ]

(That is a far return.) `it is not likely that it will ever occur.' They thought that Resurrection was far from happening and will never occur. Allah the Exalted responded to their statement by saying,

[قَدْ عَلِمْنَا مَا تَنقُصُ الاٌّرْضَ مِنْهُمْ]

(We know that which the earth takes of them.) meaning, `We know what the earth consumes of their dead bodies.' Where and how the bodies disintegrated, what they turned into and how they have become, all of this is never absent from Allah's knowledge.

[وَعِندَنَا كِتَـبٌ حَفِيظٌ]

(and with Us is a Book preserved,) `that keeps all records. Therefore, Our knowledge is encompassing and the Book of decrees has everything precisely recorded in it. Al-`Awfi narrated that `Abdullah bin `Abbas commented on the statement of Allah the Exalted,

[قَدْ عَلِمْنَا مَا تَنقُصُ الاٌّرْضَ مِنْهُمْ]

(We know that which the earth takes of them,) "It refers to what the earth consumes of their flesh, skin, bones and hair.'' A similar view was recorded from Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and several others. Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, explained the reason behind their disbelief, rebellion and discounting the possibility of what is truly possible,

[بَلْ كَذَّبُواْ بِالْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ فَهُمْ فِى أَمْرٍ مَّرِيجٍ ]

(Nay, but they have denied the truth when it has come to them, so they are in a Marij state.) This is the state of all those who defy the Truth: whatever they say and utter after denying the Truth, is utterly false. Marij means, in disarray, in a confused state and defying the characteristics of the Truth. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

[إِنَّكُمْ لَفِى قَوْلٍ مُّخْتَلِفٍ - يُؤْفَكُ عَنْهُ مَنْ أُفِكَ ]

(Certainly, you have different ideas. Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.)(51:8-9)

[أَفَلَمْ يَنظُرُواْ إِلَى السَّمَآءِ فَوْقَهُمْ كَيْفَ بَنَيْنَـهَا وَزَيَّنَّـهَا وَمَا لَهَا مِن فُرُوجٍ - وَالاٌّرْضَ مَدَدْنَـهَا وَأَلْقَيْنَا فِيهَا رَوَسِىَ وَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ - تَبْصِرَةً وَذِكْرَى لِكُلِّ عَبْدٍ مُّنِيبٍ - وَنَزَّلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً مُّبَـرَكاً فَأَنبَتْنَا بِهِ جَنَّـتٍ وَحَبَّ الْحَصِيدِ بَـسِقَـتٍ لَّهَا طَلْعٌ نَّضِيدٌرِّزْقاً لِّلْعِبَادِ وَأَحْيَيْنَا بِهِ بَلْدَةً مَّيْتاً كَذَلِكَ الْخُرُوجُ ]

(6. Have they not looked at the heaven above them, how We have made it and adorned it, and there are no Furuj in it) (7. And the earth! We have spread it out, and set thereon Rawasi standing firm, and We planted in it every lovely (Bahij) pair.) (8. An insight and a Reminder for every servant who turns to Allah in repentance.) (9. And We send down blessed water (rain) from the sky, then We produce therewith Jannat and grain that are reaped.) (10. And date palms Basiqat, with arranged clusters.) (11. A provision for the servants. And We give life therewith to a dead land. Thus will be the Resurrection.)

4. Allah's Power and Ability over what is Greater than Resurrection

Allah the Exalted notifies the servants of His infinite power, which He demonstrated by creating what is bigger than that which they wondered about and whose possibility they discount,

[أَفَلَمْ يَنظُرُواْ إِلَى السَّمَآءِ فَوْقَهُمْ كَيْفَ بَنَيْنَـهَا وَزَيَّنَّـهَا]

(Have they not looked at the heaven above them, how We have made it and adorned it,) with lamps;

[وَمَا لَهَا مِن فُرُوجٍ]

(and there are no Furuj in it) i.e., clefts, according to Mujahid. Others said that Furuj means, rifts, or cracks. All these meanings are close to one another. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[الَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَـوَتٍ طِبَاقًا مَّا تَرَى فِى خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَـنِ مِن تَفَـوُتٍ فَارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ هَلْ تَرَى مِن فُطُورٍ - ثُمَّ اْرجِعِ البَصَرَ كَرَّتَيْنِ يَنقَلِبْ إِلَيْكَ البَصَرُ خَاسِئًا وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ ]

(Who has created the seven heavens one above another; you can see no fault in the creation of the Most Gracious. Then look again: "Can you see any rifts'' Then look again and yet again, your sight will return to you in a state of humiliation and worn out.) (67:2-4) fatigued, unable to discover any imperfection or shortcomings. The statement of Allah the Exalted, the Blessed,

[وَالاٌّرْضَ مَدَدْنَـهَا]

(And the earth! We have spread it out, ) means, `We made it spacious and spread it out,'

[وَأَلْقَيْنَا فِيهَا رَوَسِيَ]

(and set thereon Rawasi standing firm.) which are the mountains to save the earth from shaking along with its inhabitants,

[وَأَنبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ]

(and We planted in it every lovely (Bahij) pair.) every kind and species of plant, fruit and vegetation,

[وَمِن كُلِّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ ]

(And of everything We have created pairs that you may reflect.)(51:49) Allah's saying `Bahij', meaning a beautiful scene,

[تَبْصِرَةً وَذِكْرَى لِكُلِّ عَبْدٍ مُّنِيبٍ ]

(An insight and a Reminder for every servant who turns to Allah in repentance.) Allah says that observing the creation of the heavens and earth and all the great things that He has placed in them provides insight, proof and a lesson for every penitent servant who submits in humbleness and repentance to Allah feeling fear, in awe of Him. Allah the Exalted said,

[وَنَزَّلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً مُّبَـرَكاً]

(And We send down blessed water from the sky,) meaning beneficial,

[فَأَنبَتْنَا بِهِ جَنَّـتٍ]

(then We produce therewith Jannat), means special and public parks, gardens, etc.

[وَحَبَّ الْحَصِيدِ]

(and grain that are reaped) grains that are harvested for food and for storage for later use,

[بَـسِقَـتٍ]

(And date palms Basiqat,) meaning, tall and high, according to the explanation reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and As-Suddi. Allah said,

[لَّهَا طَلْعٌ نَّضِيدٌ]

(with arrranged clusters.) producing fruits arranged in clusters,

[رِّزْقاً لِّلْعِبَادِ]

(A provision for (Allah's) servants.) for (Allah's) creation,

[وَأَحْيَيْنَا بِهِ بَلْدَةً مَّيْتاً]

(And We give life therewith to a dead land.) this is the land that was barren. However, when rain falls upon it, it is stirred to life; it swells and produces all of the lovely pairs such as flowers and the like -- amazing on account of their beauty. All of this comes into existence after the land was without greenery, yet it was stirred back to life and became green. Indeed, this should provide proof of Resurrection after death and disintegration; thus Allah resurrects the dead. This sign of Allah's ability that is seen and witnessed is greater than the denial of those who discount the possibility of Resurrection. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said in other Ayat,

[لَخَلْقُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ أَكْـبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِ النَّاسِ]

(The creation of the heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind;) (40:57),

[أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَلَمْ يَعْىَ بِخَلْقِهِنَّ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْىِ الْمَوْتَى بَلَى إِنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ]

(Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is able to give life to the dead Yes, He surely is Able to do all things.)(46:33) and,

[وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ أَنَّكَ تَرَى الاٌّرْضَ خَـشِعَةً فَإِذَآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَآءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ إِنَّ الَّذِى أَحْيَـهَا لَمُحْىِ الْمَوْتَى إِنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ]

(And among His signs (is this), that you see the earth barren; but when We send down water to it, it is stirred to life and growth. Verily, He Who gives it life, surely is able to give life to the dead. Indeed He is Able to do all things.)(41:39)

[كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ وَأَصْحَـبُ الرَّسِّ وَثَمُودُ - وَعَادٌ وَفِرْعَوْنُ وَإِخْوَنُ لُوطٍ - وَأَصْحَـبُ الاٌّيْكَةِ وَقَوْمُ تُّبَّعٍ كُلٌّ كَذَّبَ الرُّسُلَ فَحَقَّ وَعِيدِ - أَفَعَيِينَا بِالْخَلْقِ الاٌّوَّلِ بَلْ هُمْ فِى لَبْسٍ مِّنْ خَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ ]

(12. Denied before them the people of Nuh, and the Dwellers of Rass, and Thamud,) (13. And `Ad, and Fir`awn, and the brethren of Lut,) (14. And the Dwellers of Al-Aykah, and the people of Tubba`. Everyone of them denied (their) Messengers, so My threat took effect.) (15. Were We then tired with the first creation Nay, they are in confused doubt about a new creation.)

5. Reminding the Quraysh of the Destruction of earlier Disbelieving Nations

Allah the Exalted warns the disbelievers of Quraysh and reminds them of the punishment and painful torment that He sent in this life on their likes, who disbelieved before them. For instance, Allah the Exalted punished the people of Nuh by drowning them in the encompassing flood that touched all the people of earth. There is also the end that struck the people of Ar-Rass, and we mentioned their story before in Surat Al-Furqan,

[وَثَمُودُوَعَادٌ وَفِرْعَوْنُ وَإِخْوَنُ لُوطٍ ]

(...and Thamud, and `Ad, and Fir`awn, and the brethren of Lut,) the people of Sadum (Sodom) and the surrounding areas, to whom Lut was sent. Allah the Exalted shook the earth beneath them and turned their area into a reeking lake, as stinking as the disbelief, tyranny and defiance of the Truth that they had,

[وَأَصْحَـبُ الاٌّيْكَةِ]

(And the Dwellers of Al-Aykah), they are the nation of Shu`ayb, peace be upon him,

[وَقَوْمُ تُّبَّعٍ]

(and the people of Tubba`), King of Yemen; we explained his story in the Tafsir of Surat Ad-Dukhan, and therefore, we do not need to repeat it here. All praise is due to Allah.

[كُلٌّ كَذَّبَ الرُّسُلَ]

(Everyone of them denied (their) Messengers,) means, all of these nations and their generations belied their respective Messenger, and whoever denies even one Messenger, is as if he has denied all Messengers. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ الْمُرْسَلِينَ ]

(The people of Nuh denied the Messengers.)(26:105) even though only one Messenger was sent to them, and indeed, if all the Messengers were sent to them, they would have disbelieved in them as well. Allah said,

[فَحَقَّ وَعِيدِ]

(so My threat took effect.) meaning, the promise of torment and punishment that Allah delivered to them on account of their denial took effect. Therefore, all those who fear suffering the same end should be warned, especially since the latter have denied their Messenger, just as the former denied their Messenger.

6. Repeating the Creation is Easier than originating It

Allah the Exalted said,

[أَفَعَيِينَا بِالْخَلْقِ الاٌّوَّلِ]

(Were We then tired with the first creation) meaning, `did starting the creation bring fatigue to Us, so as to cause doubt in them that repeating the creation was not possible'

[بَلْ هُمْ فِى لَبْسٍ مِّنْ خَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ]

(Nay, they are in confused doubt about a new creation.) meaning, `starting the creation did not tire Us, and repeating it is even easier.' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ]

(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him.)(30:27), and,

[وَضَرَبَ لَنَا مَثَلاً وَنَسِىَ خَلْقَهُ قَالَ مَن يُحىِ الْعِظَـمَ وَهِىَ رَمِيمٌ ]

قُلْ يُحْيِيهَا الَّذِى أَنشَأَهَآ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلّ خَلْقٍ عَلِيمٌ-]

(And he puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation. He says: "Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust'' Say: "He will give life to them Who created them for the first time! And He is the All-Knower of every creation!'')(36:78-79) aWe mentioned earlier a Hadith collected in the Sahih,

يَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالَى يُؤْذِينِي ابْنُ آدَمَ يَقُولُ: لَنْ يُعِيدَنِي كَمَا بَدَأَنِي. وَلَيْسَ أَوَّلُ الْخَلْقِ بِأَهْوَنَ عَلَيَّ مِنْ إِعَادَتِه

(Allah the Exalted said, "Son of `Adam insults Me when he says, `He will not resurrect me as He created me before!' But surely, originating creation is not easier for Me than reproducing it again.'')

[وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الإِنسَـنَ وَنَعْلَمُ مَا تُوَسْوِسُ بِهِ نَفْسُهُ وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ حَبْلِ الْوَرِيدِ - إِذْ يَتَلَقَّى الْمُتَلَقِّيَانِ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ - مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلاَّ لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ - وَجَاءَتْ سَكْرَةُ الْمَوْتِ بِالْحَقِّ ذَلِكَ مَا كُنتَ مِنْهُ تَحِيدُ - وَنُفِخَ فِى الصُّورِ ذَلِكَ يَوْمَ الْوَعِيدِ - وَجَآءَتْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّعَهَا سَآئِقٌ وَشَهِيدٌ - لَّقَدْ كُنتَ فِى غَفْلَةٍ مِّنْ هَـذَا فَكَشَفْنَا عَنكَ غِطَآءَكَ فَبَصَرُكَ الْيَوْمَ حَدِيدٌ ]

(16. And indeed We have created man, and We know what his self whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.) (17. (Remember) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive (each human being), one sitting on the right and one on the left.) (18. Not a word does he (or she) utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).) (19. And the stupor of death will come in truth: "This is what you have been avoiding!'') (20. And the Trumpet will be blown -- that will be the Day of the threat.) (21. And every person will come forth along with a Sa'iq and a Shahid.) (22. (It will be said to the sinners): "Indeed you were heedless of this. Now We have removed from you, your covering, and sharp is your sight this Day!'')

7. Allah encompasses and watches all of Man's Activity

Allah the Exalted affirms His absolute dominance over mankind, being their Creator and the Knower of everything about them. Allah the Exalted has complete knowledge of all thoughts that cross the mind of man, be they good or evil. In the Sahih, the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى تَجَاوَزَ لِأُمَّتِي مَا حَدَّثَتْ بِهِ أَنْفُسَهَا مَا لَمْ تَقُلْ أَوْ تَعْمَل

(Verily, Allah the Exalted has forgiven my Ummah (Muslims) for what they talk (think) to themselves about, as long as they do not utter or implement it.) The statement of Allah the Exalted,

[وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ حَبْلِ الْوَرِيدِ]

(And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.) means, His angels are nearer to man than his jugular vein. Those who explained `We' in the Ayah to mean `Our knowledge,' have done so to avoid falling into the idea of incarnation or indwelling; but these two creeds are false according to the consensus of Muslims. Allah is praised and glorified, He is far hallowed beyond what they ascribe to Him. The words of this Ayah do not need this explanation (that `We' refers to `Allah's knowledge'), for Allah did not say, `and I am closer to him than his jugular vein.' Rather, He said,

[وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ حَبْلِ الْوَرِيدِ]

(And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein. ) just as He said in the case of dying persons,

[وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنكُمْ وَلَـكِن لاَّ تُبْصِرُونَ ]

(But We are nearer to him than you, but you see not.) (56:85), in reference to His angels (who take the souls). Allah the Exalted the Blessed said,

[إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَـفِظُونَ ]

(Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr and surely, We will guard it.) (15:9) Therefore, the angels brought down the revelation, the Qur'an, by the leave of Allah, the Exalted, the Most Honored. Thus, the angels are closer to man than his own jugular vein, by the power and leave of Allah. Consequently, the angel touches mankind, just as the devil touches them, for the devil is as close to them as the blood that runs in their veins; just as Allah's Prophet , who is truthful and was told the truth, told us. Allah's statement here,

[إِذْ يَتَلَقَّى الْمُتَلَقِّيَانِ]

((Remember) that the two receivers receive,) in reference to the two angels who receive and record the deeds of mankind.

[عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ]

(one sitting on the right and one on the left.) means ready to note,

[مَّا يَلْفِظُ]

(whatever he utters), in reference to the human,

[مِن قَوْلٍ]

(of a word), means any word that he or she speaks,

[إِلاَّ لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ]

(but there is a watcher by him ready.) means, but there is a scribe whose job is to record it, leaving no word or movement unrecorded. Allah the Exalted said,

[وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَـفِظِينَ - كِرَاماً كَـتِبِينَ - يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ ]

(But verily, over you (are appointed angels) to watch you, Kiraman (honorable) Katibin writing down (your deeds), they know all that you do.) (82:10-12) Therefore, the scribe records every word that is spoken, according to the explanation of Al-Hasan and Qatadah. This is also the apparent meaning of this Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Bilal bin Al-Harith Al-Muzani said, "The Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَتَكَلَّمُ بِالْكَلِمَةِ مِنْ رِضْوَانِ اللهِ تَعَالَى مَا يَظُنُّ أَنْ تَبْلُغَ مَا بَلَغَتْ يَكْتُبُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَهُ بِهَا رِضْوَانَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ يَلْقَاهُ، وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَتَكَلَّمُ بِالْكَلِمَةِ مِنْ سَخَطِ اللهِ تَعَالَى مَا يَظُنُّ أَنْ تَبْلُغَ مَا بَلَغَتْ، يَكْتُبُ اللهُ تَعَالَى عَلَيْهِ بِهَا سَخَطَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ يَلْقَاه

(Verily, a man might utter a word that pleases Allah the Exalted, unaware of how highly it will be regarded, and on its account Allah the Exalted and Most Honored decrees His pleasure of him until the Day he meets Him. A man might indeed utter a word that angers Allah the Exalted, unaware of how dreadful it will be and on its account Allah the Exalted decrees for him His anger until the Day he meets Him.)'' `Alqamah used to say, "How many words did I not utter because of the Hadith that Bilal bin Al-Harith narrated.'' At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' There is a Hadith similar to this in the Sahih.

8. Reminding Mankind of the Stupor of Death, the Blast of the Trumpet and the Day of Gathering

Allah the Exalted and Most High said,

[وَجَاءَتْ سَكْرَةُ الْمَوْتِ بِالْحَقِّ ذَلِكَ مَا كُنتَ مِنْهُ تَحِيدُ ]

(And the stupor of death will come in truth: "This is what you have been avoiding!'') Allah the Exalted and Most Honored says, `O mankind! This is the stupor of death that has come in truth; now, I have brought forth to you the certainty that you were disputing,'

[ذَلِكَ مَا كُنتَ مِنْهُ تَحِيدُ]

(This is what you have been avoiding!), means, `this is the end that you were trying to escape; it has come to you! Therefore, you will have neither a shelter nor a refuge nor a sanctuary nor an asylum from it.' In the Sahih, the Prophet said, while wiping sweat from his face when the stupor of death overcame him,

سُبْحَانَ اللهِ إِنَّ لِلْمَوْتِ لَسَكَرَات

(Glory be to Allah! Verily, death has its stupor.) The Ayah,

[ذَلِكَ مَا كُنتَ مِنْهُ تَحِيدُ]

(This is what you have been avoiding!) has two possible meanings. One of them is this: `what you have been trying to avert, escape and flee from has come to you and resided in your home!' The second meaning is, `you had no way of escaping or averting this end. ' At-Tabarani collected a Hadith in Al-Mu`jam Al-Kabir from Samurah who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

مَثَلُ الَّذِي يَفِرُّ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ مَثَلُ الثَّعْلَبِ تَطْلُبُهُ الْأَرْضُ بِدَيْن، فَجَاءَ يَسْعَى حَتْى إِذَا أُعْيِيَ وَأُسْهِرَ دَخَلَ جُحْرَهُ وَقَالَتْ لَهُ الْأَرْضُ: يَا ثَعْلَبُ، دَيْنِي. فَخَرَجَ وَلَهُ حُصَاصٌ، فَلَمْ يَزَلْ كَذلِكَ حَتَّى تَقَطَّعَتْ عُنُقُهُ وَمَات

(The parable of whoever tries to avoid death is that of a fox that had a debt to pay to the earth. The fox went away and when he became tired and the time to sleep overtook him, he entered his den. The earth said to him, `O fox! Pay my debt!' The fox went out howling and continued until his neck was cutoff, (i.e.,) he died.) This parable indicates that just as the fox had no way of escaping or avoiding the earth, likewise, man has no way of avoiding death. Allah the Exalted the Blessed said,

[وَنُفِخَ فِى الصُّورِ ذَلِكَ يَوْمَ الْوَعِيدِ ]

(And the Trumpet will be blown -- that will be the Day of the threat.) Earlier we discussed the information about the blowing of the Trumpet, the fear that follows it, the death of everything and then resurrection, all this will occur on the Day of Resurrection. We also mentioned that the Messenger of Allah said in a Hadith,

كَيْفَ أَنْعَمُ وَصَاحِبُ الْقَرْنِ قَدِ الْتَقَمَ الْقَرْنَ، وَحَنَى جَبْهَتَهُ، وَانْتَظَرَ أَنْ يُؤْذَنَ لَه

(How can I feel comfort while the angel responsible for the Trumpet has placed the Trumpet to his mouth and lowered his forehead awaiting when he will be commanded (by Allah to blow in it)) They said, "O Allah's Messenger, what should we say'' He said,

قُولُوا حَسْبُنَا اللهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيل

(Say, "Allah is sufficient for us, and He is the best disposer of affairs.)'' The Companions repeated this invocation, saying, "Allah is sufficient for us, and He is the best disposer of affairs (for us).'' Allah said,

[وَجَآءَتْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّعَهَا سَآئِقٌ وَشَهِيدٌ ]

(And every person will come forth along with a Sa'iq and a Shahid.) meaning, an angel to drive him to the gathering place and an angel to bear witness against him with regards to his deeds. This is the apparent meaning of this honorable Ayah and it is the meaning that Ibn Jarir preferred. It was narrated from Yahya bin Rafi`, the freed servant of Thaqif, that he heard `Uthman bin `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, giving a speech in which he recited this Ayah,

[وَجَآءَتْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّعَهَا سَآئِقٌ وَشَهِيدٌ ]

(And every person will come forth along with a Sa'iq and a Shahid.) and then said, "A Sa'iq to drive every person to Allah the Exalted, and a Shahid to witness against him what he has done.'' The statement of Allah the Exalted,

[لَّقَدْ كُنتَ فِى غَفْلَةٍ مِّنْ هَـذَا فَكَشَفْنَا عَنكَ غِطَآءَكَ فَبَصَرُكَ الْيَوْمَ حَدِيدٌ ]

(Indeed you were heedless of this. Now We have removed from you, your covering, and sharp is your sight this Day!) is directed at humanity. Allah said,

[لَّقَدْ كُنتَ فِى غَفْلَةٍ مِّنْ هَـذَا]

(Indeed you were heedless of this.), of this Day,

[فَكَشَفْنَا عَنكَ غِطَآءَكَ فَبَصَرُكَ الْيَوْمَ حَدِيدٌ]

(Now We have removed from you, your covering, and sharp is your sight this Day!) `your sight is now clear and strong.' Everyone, including the disbelievers, will have clear sight on the Day of Resurrec- tion. However, having sight will not be helpful to the dis- believers on that Day, for Allah the Exalted said,

[أَسْمِعْ بِهِمْ وَأَبْصِرْ يَوْمَ يَأْتُونَنَا]

(How clearly will they (disbelievers) see and hear, the Day when they will appear before Us!) (19:38), and,

[وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الْمُجْرِمُونَ نَاكِسُواْ رُءُوسِهِمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ رَبَّنَآ أَبْصَرْنَا وَسَمِعْنَا فَارْجِعْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَـلِحاً إِنَّا مُوقِنُونَ ]

(And if you only could see when the criminals hang their heads before their Lord (saying): "Our Lord! We have now seen and heard, so send us back (to the world), that we will do righteous good deeds. Verily, we now believe with certainty.)(32:12)

[وَقَالَ قَرِينُهُ هَـذَا مَا لَدَىَّ عَتِيدٌ - أَلْقِيَا فِى جَهَنَّمَ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ - مَّنَّـعٍ لِّلْخَيْرِ مُعْتَدٍ مُّرِيبٍ - الَّذِى جَعَلَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَـهاً ءَاخَرَ فَأَلْقِيَـهُ فِى الْعَذَابِ الشَّدِيدِ - قَالَ قرِينُهُ رَبَّنَا مَآ أَطْغَيْتُهُ وَلَـكِن كَانَ فِى ضَلَـلٍ بَعِيدٍ - قَالَ لاَ تَخْتَصِمُواْ لَدَىَّ وَقَدْ قَدَّمْتُ إِلَيْكُم بِالْوَعِيدِ ]

[مَا يُبَدَّلُ الْقَوْلُ لَدَىَّ وَمَآ أَنَاْ بِظَلَّـمٍ لِّلْعَبِيدِ ]

(23. And his companion (angel) will say: "Here is (his record) ready with me!'') (24. (Allah will say to the angels:) "Both of you throw into Hell every stubborn disbeliever'') (25. "Hinderer of good, transgressor, doubter,'') (26. "Who set up another god with Allah. Then both of you cast him in the severe torment.'') (27. His companion (devil) will say: "Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression, but he was himself in error far astray.'') (28. (Allah) will say: "Dispute not in front of Me, I had already in advance sent you the threat.'') (29. "The sentence that comes from Me cannot be changed, and I am not unjust to the servants.'')

9. The Angel will bear Witness; Allah commands that the Disbeliever be thrown into the Fire

Allah the Exalted states that the scribe angel, who is entrusted with recording the deeds of mankind, will testify against him or her about the deeds he or she did on the Day of Resurrection. He will say,

[هَـذَا مَا لَدَىَّ عَتِيدٌ]

("Here is (his record) ready with me!''), here it is prepared and completed without addition or deletion. This is when Allah the Exalted will judge the creation with fairness, saying,

[أَلْقِيَا فِى جَهَنَّمَ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ ]

(Both of you throw into Hell every stubborn disbeliever.) It appears that Allah will say these words to the Sa'iq and Shahid angels; the Sa'iq drove him to the grounds where Reckoning is held and the Shahid testified. Allah the Exalted will order them to throw him in the fire of Jahannam, and worse it is as a destination,

[أَلْقِيَا فِى جَهَنَّمَ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ ]

(Both of you throw into Hell every stubborn disbeliever.) meaning, whose disbelief and denial of truth was horrendous, who used to stubbornly reject the truth, knowingly contradicting it with falsehood,

[مَّنَّـعٍ لِّلْخَيْرِ]

(Hinderer of good,) meaning for he did not fulfill the duties he was ordered, nor was he dutiful, keeping ties to kith and kin nor giving charity,

[مُعْتَدٍ]

(transgressor,) meaning, he transgresses the limits in spending. Qatadah commented, "He is a transgressor in his speech, behavior and affairs.'' Allah said,

[مُرِيبٍ]

(doubter,) meaning, he doubts and raises doubts in those who scrutinize his behavior,

[الَّذِى جَعَلَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَـهاً ءَاخَرَ]

(who set up another god with Allah.) meaning, he associated others with Allah and worshipped others besides Him,

[فَأَلْقِيَـهُ فِى الْعَذَابِ الشَّدِيدِ]

(Then both of you cast him in the severe torment.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Prophet said,

يَخْرُجُ عُنُقٌ مِنَ النَّارِ يَتَكَلَّمُ يَقُولُ: وُكِّلْتُ الْيَوْمَ بِثَلَاثَةٍ: بِكُلِّ جَبَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ، وَمَنْ جَعَلَ مَعَ اللهِ إِلهًا آخَرَ، وَمَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ، فَتَنْطَوِي عَلَيْهِمْ فَتَقْذِفُهُمْ فِي غَمَرَاتِ جَهَنَّم

(A neck from the Fire will appear and will speak saying, "Today, I have been entrusted with three: Every obstinate tyrant, everyone who ascribed another god with Allah, and he who took a life without right.'' The neck will then close in on them and throw them in the midst of Jahannam.)''

10. Man and Devil dispute before Allah

Allah's saying;

[قَالَ قرِينُهُ]

(His companion will say), refers to the devil who is entrusted to every man, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and several othes. He will say,

[رَبَّنَا مَآ أَطْغَيْتُهُ]

(Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression,) meaning, the devil will say this about the human who came on the Day of Resurrection as a disbeliever. The devil will disown him, saying,

[رَبَّنَا مَآ أَطْغَيْتُهُ]

(Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression) meaning, "I did not lead him astray,''

[وَلَـكِن كَانَ فِى ضَلَـلٍ بَعِيدٍ]

(but he was himself in error far astray.) meaning, he himself was misguided, accepting falsehood and stubborn to the truth. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said in another Ayah,

[وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَـنُ لَمَّا قُضِىَ الاٌّمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ وَمَا كَانَ لِىَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِّن سُلْطَـنٍ إِلاَّ أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِى فَلاَ تَلُومُونِى وَلُومُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ مَّآ أَنَاْ بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ وَمَآ أَنتُمْ بِمُصْرِخِىَّ إِنِّى كَفَرْتُ بِمَآ أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِن قَبْلُ إِنَّ الظَّـلِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ]

(And Shaytan will say when the matter has been decided: "Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I betrayed you. I had no authority over you except that I called you, and you responded to me. So blame me not, but blame yourselves. I cannot help you, nor can you help me. I deny your former act in associating me as a partner with Allah. Verily, there is a painful torment for the wrongdoers.'') (14:22) Allah the Exalted said,

[قَالَ لاَ تَخْتَصِمُواْ لَدَىَّ]

((Allah) will say: "Dispute not in front of Me.'') The Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored will say this to the man and his devil companion, who will be disputing before Him. The man will say, "O, Lord! This devil has misguided me away from the Remembrance after it came to me,'' while the devil will declare,

[رَبَّنَا مَآ أَطْغَيْتُهُ وَلَـكِن كَانَ فِى ضَلَـلٍ بَعِيدٍ]

(Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression, but he was himself in error far astray.) from the path of truth. The Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored will say to them,

[لاَ تَخْتَصِمُواْ لَدَىَّ]

(Dispute not in front of Me,) or `before Me,'

[وَقَدْ قَدَّمْتُ إِلَيْكُم بِالْوَعِيدِ]

(I had already in advance sent you the threat.) `I have given you sufficient proof by the words of the Messengers, and I have sent down the Divine Books; the evidences, signs and proofs have thus been established against you,'

[مَا يُبَدَّلُ الْقَوْلُ لَدَىَّ]

(The Sentence that comes from Me cannot be changed, ) "I have made My decision,'' according to the explanation of Mujahid,

[وَمَآ أَنَاْ بِظَلَّـمٍ لِّلْعَبِيدِ]

(And I am not unjust to the servants.) `I will not punish anyone, except on account of their sins after the proof has been established against them.'

[يَوْمَ نَقُولُ لِجَهَنَّمَ هَلِ امْتَلاّتِ وَتَقُولُ هَلْ مِن مَّزِيدٍ - وَأُزْلِفَتِ الْجَنَّةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ - هَـذَا مَا تُوعَدُونَ لِكُلِّ أَوَّابٍ حَفِيظٍ - مَّنْ خَشِىَ الرَّحْمَـنَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَجَآءَ بِقَلْبٍ مُّنِيبٍ - ادْخُلُوهَا بِسَلَـمٍ ذَلِكَ يَوْمُ الُخُلُودِ - لَهُم مَّا يَشَآءُونَ فِيهَا وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ ]

(30. On the Day when We will say to Hell: "Are you filled'' It will say: "Are there any more'') (31. And Paradise will be Uzlifat to those who had Taqwa, not far off.) (32. (It will be said): "This is what you were promised -- (it is) for those returning in sincere repentance, and Hafiz.'') (33. "Who feared Ar-Rahman unseen and brought a heart turned in repentance.'') (34. "Enter you therein in peace and security -- this is a Day of eternal life!'') (35. There they will have all that they desire -- and We have more.)

11. Jahannam and Paradise and their Dwellers

Allah states that He will say to Jahannam on the Day of Resurrection, "Have you had your fill'' Allah the Most Honored has promised Hell that it will have its fill from the Jinns and mankind. He, the Exalted and Most Honored, will decide who will be thrown into the Fire and she will keep saying, "Are there any more,'' or, `Are there any more whom You will provide me with' This is the apparent meaning of this Ayah which is supported by several Hadiths. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَا تَزَالُ جَهَنَّمُ يُلْقَى فِيهَا وَتَقُولُ: هَلْ مِنْ مَزِيدٍ؟ حَتْى يَضَعَ رَبُّ الْعِزَّةِ قَدَمَهُ فِيهَا، فَيَنْزَوِي بَعْضُهَا إِلَى بَعْضٍ وَتَقُولُ: قَطْ قَطْ وَعِزَّتِكَ وَكَرَمِكَ. وَلَا يَزَالُ فِي الْجَنَّةِ فَضْلٌ حَتْى يُنْشِىءَ اللهُ لَهَا خَلْقًا آخَرَ فَيُسْكِنَهُمُ اللهُ تَعَالَى فِي فُضُولِ الْجَنَّة

(The people will be thrown into Jahannam and it will say, `Are there any more' Until the Mighty Lord puts His Foot over it and its corners will be collected together and it will say, "Enough, enough by Your grace and compassion!' There will be sufficient empty space in Paradise until Allah creates another creation and He, the Exalted, makes them dwell in the empty parts of Paradise.)'' Muslim also collected this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said,

يُقَالُ لِجَهَنَّمَ هَلِ امْتَلَأْتِ؟ وَتَقُولُ: هَلْ مِنْ مَزِيدٍ؟ فَيَضَعُ الرَّبُّ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَدَمَهُ عَلَيْهَا فَتَقُولُ: قَطْ قَط

(Jahannam will be asked, "Are you full'' and it will say, "Are there any more'' Until the Lord, the Blessed and Most Honored, puts His Foot over it and it will say: "Enough! Enough!'') Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

تَحَاجَّتِ الْجَنَّةُ وَالنَّارُ فَقَالَتِ النَّارُ: أُوثِرْتُ بِالْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ وَالْمُتَجَبِّرِينَ. وَقَالَتِ الْجَنَّةُ: مَالِي لَا يَدْخُلُنِي إِلَّا ضُعَفَاءُ النَّاسِ وَسَقَطُهُمْ. قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِلْجَنَّةِ: أَنْتِ رَحْمَتِي أَرْحَمُ بِكِ مَنْ أَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِي . وَقَالَ لِلنَّارِ: إِنَّمَا أَنْتِ عَذَابِي أُعَذِّبُ بِكِ مَنْ أَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِي وَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِنْكُمَا مِلْؤُهَا، فَأَمَّا النَّارُ فَلَا تَمْتَلِىءُ حَتْى يَضَعَ رِجْلَهُ فِيهَا فَتَقُولُ: قَطْ قَطْ، فَهُنَالِكَ تَمْتَلِىءُ وَيَنْزَوِي بَعْضُهَا إِلَى بَعْضٍ وَلَا يَظْلِمُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ أَحَدًا، وَأَمَّا الْجَنَّةُ فَإِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يُنْشِىءُ لَهَا خَلْقًا آخَر

(Paradise and the Fire quarreled. The Fire said, "I have been favored with the arrogant people and tyrants.'' Paradise said, "What is wrong with me that only the poor and humble people enter me'' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said to Paradise, "You are My mercy, with which I grant mercy to those whom I will among My servants.'' He said to Hell, "You are My punishment which I inflict upon whom I wish from My servants, and I shall fill both of you.'' As for Hellfire, it will not have its fill until Allah puts His Foot over it and she will say, "Enough! Enough!'' She will become full and its sides will come close to each other. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored shall not be unjust to any one of His creatures. As for Paradise, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored will create another creation to fill it.) Allah the Exalted said,

[وَأُزْلِفَتِ الْجَنَّةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ ]

(And Paradise will be Uzlifat to those who had Taqwa, not far off.) meaning, Paradise will be brought close and near to the pious, according to Qatadah, Abu Malik and As-Suddi,

[غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ]

(not far off), and this will occur on the Day of Resurrection, which is not far off. Surely that Day will come to pass and all that is bound to come, is near,

[هَـذَا مَا تُوعَدُونَ لِكُلِّ أَوَّابٍ]

(This is what you were promised -- (it is) for those returning) who go back to Allah in sincere repentance intending not to repeat sin,

[حَفِيظٌ]

(Hafiz), who preserve their covenant with Allah and do not break or betray it,

[مَّنْ خَشِىَ الرَّحْمَـنَ بِالْغَيْبِ]

(Who feared Ar-Rahman unseen) who feared Allah in secret when only Allah the Exalted and Most Honored could see him. The Prophet said,

وَرَجُلٌ ذَكَرَ اللهَ تَعَالَى خَالِيًا، فَفَاضَتْ عَيْنَاه

(And a man who remembered Allah the Exalted while alone, and his eyes became tearful.) Allah said,

[وَجَآءَ بِقَلْبٍ مُّنِيبٍ]

(and brought a heart turned in repentance. ) meaning, he will meet Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, on the Day of Resurrection with a heart turned in repentance to Him and absolutely free (of Shirk) and humbled to Him,

[ادْخُلُوهَا]

(Enter you therein), meaning Paradise,

[بِسَلَـمٍ]

(in peace and security), they will earn security from the torment of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, and the angels of Allah will greet them with the Salam, according to the explanation of Qatadah. The statement of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored:

[ذَلِكَ يَوْمُ الُخُلُودِ]

(-- this is a Day of eternal life!), meaning, they will reside in Paradise forever and will never die, neither be transferred from it nor wish to be transferred from it. The statement of Allah the All-Mighty,

[لَهُم مَّا يَشَآءُونَ فِيهَا]

(There they will have all that they desire), means, whatever delights they wish and desire, they will find it brought before them. Allah's statement,

[وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ]

(and We have more.) is similar to His other statement,

[لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ الْحُسْنَى وَزِيَادَةٌ]

(For those who have done good is the best and even more. )(10:26) In the Sahih, Muslim recorded that Suhayb bin Sinan Ar-Rumi said that `more' refers to looking at the Most Honorable Face of Allah.

[وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُمْ مِّن قَرْنٍ هُمْ أَشَدُّ مِنْهُم بَطْشاً فَنَقَّبُواْ فِى الْبِلَـدِ هَلْ مِن مَّحِيصٍ - إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لَذِكْرَى لِمَن كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ - وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ - فَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ الْغُرُوبِ - وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ وَأَدْبَـرَ السُّجُودِ ]

(36. And how many a generation We have destroyed before them who were stronger in power than they. And they went about the land! Could they find any place of refuge) (37. Verily, therein is indeed a reminder for him who has a heart or gives ear while he is heedful.) (38. And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched Us.) (39. So bear with patience all that they say, and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting.) (40. And during a part of the night (also) glorify His praises and (so likewise) after the prostrations.)

12. Warning the Disbelievers of the imminent Torment; commanding the Prophet to pray and have Patience

Allah the Exalted asks, `how many We have destroyed before these denying disbelievers'

[مِّن قَرْنٍ هُمْ أَشَدُّ مِنْهُم بَطْشاً]

(a generation who were stronger in power than they.) they were more numerous, mightier than they and who constructed on the earth and built on it more than they. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

[فَنَقَّبُواْ فِى الْبِلَـدِ هَلْ مِن مَّحِيصٍ]

(And they went about the land! Could they find any place of refuge) Ibn `Abbas commented, "They left the traces throughout the land,'' Qatadah said, "They traveled throughout the land seeking provisions through trade and business, more than you have.'' Allah's statement,

[هَلْ مِن مَّحِيصٍ]

(Could they find any place of refuge) means, `could they find a shelter from Allah's decision and appointed destiny Have what they collected benefited them or averted Allah's torment when it came to them on account of their denial of the Messengers Likewise, you will never be able to avert, avoid, or find refuge or shelter (from His torment).' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لَذِكْرَى]

(Verily, therein is indeed a reminder) and a lesson,

[لِمَن كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ]

(for him who has a heart) meaning, a sound understanding with which he comprehends, or, a good mind, according to Mujahid,

[أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ]

(or gives ear while he is heedful.) meaning, he hears the speech, comprehends and understands it in his mind and grasps its indications with his intellect. Mujahid said that,

[أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ]

(or gives ear), means, he does not talk to himself but listens with an attentive heart. Ad-Dahhak commented, "The Arabs would say that someone has given ear when he hears with his ears, while his heart is present and not absent.'' Ath-Thawri and several others said similarly. The statement of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored;

[وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ ]

(And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all that between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched Us.) is emphasis on the Resurrection because He Who is able to create the heavens and earth without fatigue, then surely He is able to resurrect the dead. Qatadah said, "The Jews, may Allah's curses descend on them, said that Allah created the heavens and earth in six days and then rested on the seventh day, which was the Sabbath. This is why they call it a holiday. Allah the Exalted then sent down denial of their statement and false opinion.'' Allah said, m

[وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ]

(and nothing of fatigue touched Us.) indicating that no sleep, exhaustion or weariness affects Him. Allah the Exalted the Blessed said in other Ayat,

[أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَلَمْ يَعْىَ بِخَلْقِهِنَّ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْىِ الْمَوْتَى بَلَى إِنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ]

(Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is able to give life to the dead Yes, He surely is Able to do all things.)(46:33),

[لَخَلْقُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ أَكْـبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِ النَّاسِ]

(The creation of the heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind.)(40:57) and,

[أَءَنتُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقاً أَمِ السَّمَآءُ بَنَـهَا ]

(Are you more difficult to create or is the heaven that He constructed)(79:27) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[فَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ]

(So bear with patience all that they say, ) in reference to those who deny the Prophet , ordering him to be patient with them and turn away from them in a good way,

[وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ الْغُرُوبِ]

(and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting.) There were two ordained prayers prior to the Isra' journey. One before the rising of the sun at dawn and the other before sunset in the evening. Qiyam Al-Layl, prayer at night, was a command for the Prophet and his followers for sometime but it was later abrogated for the Ummah. Later, during the Isra' journey, Allah abrogated all of the previous orders for prayer by ordaining five daily prayers, including the prayers of Fajr before sunrise, and `Asr in the late afternoon. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jarir bin `Abdullah said, "When we were sitting with the Prophet , he looked at the full moon and said,

أَمَا إِنَّكُمْ سَتُعْرَضُونَ عَلَى رَبِّكُمْ فَتَرَوْنَهُ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ هذَا الْقَمَرَ لَا تُضَامُّونَ فِيهِ، فَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ لَا تُغْلَبُوا عَلَى صَلَاةٍ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا فَافْعَلُوا

(Certainly you will be brought before your Lord and will see Him as you see this moon, and you will have no trouble in seeing Him. So, if you can avoid missing the prayer before the sunrise and the prayer before sunset, you must do so.) He then recited Allah's statement,

[وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ الْغُرُوبِ]

(and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting.)''' The Two Sahihs and the rest of the Group collected this Hadith through the chain of Isma`il. Allah the Exalted said,

[وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ]

(And during a part of the night glorify His praises), meaning pray to Him. Allah said Ayah,

[وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةً لَّكَ عَسَى أَن يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَاماً مَّحْمُودًا ]

(And in some parts of the night offer the Salah with it, as an additional prayer for you. It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud.) (17:79) Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said that Ibn `Abbas said that,

[وَأَدْبَـرَ السُّجُودِ]

(and after the prostrations.) refers to Tasbih, i.e. glorifying Allah's praises, after the prayers. There is a Hadith collected in the Two Sahihs that supports this meaning. Abu Hurayrah said, "Some poor migrants came and said, `O Allah's Messenger! The wealthy people will get higher grades and will have permanent enjoyment. ' The Prophet said,

وَمَا ذَاكَ؟

(Why is that) They said, `They pray as we do, fast as we do, yet they give charity, but we can not. They free slaves, but we can not.' The Prophet said,

أَفَلَا أُعَلِّمُكُمْ شَيْئًا إِذَا فَعَلْتُمُوهُ سَبَقْتُمْ مَنْ بَعْدَكُمْ وَلَا يَكُونُ أَحَدٌ أَفْضَلَ مِنْكُمْ إِلَّا مَنْ فَعَلَ مِثْلَ مَا فَعَلْتُمْ؟ تُسَبِّحُونَ وَتَحْمَدُونَ وَتُكَبِّرُونَ دُبُرَ كُلِّ صَلَاةٍ ثَلَاثًا وَثَلَاثِين

(Shall I tell you about something that, if you did it, you would catch up with those who have surpassed you and nobody would be better than you except those who would do the same Say, `Subhan Allah, Alhamdulillah and Allahu Akbar,' thirty-three times each after every prayer.) Later, they came back and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Our brethren, the wealthy Muslims, heard of what we did and they also did the same.' The Prophet said,

ذلِكَ فَضْلُ اللهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَاء

(This is a favor and grace of Allah, and He grants it to whom He wills.)'' There is another way of explaining the Ayah. It is that Allah's statement,

[وَأَدْبَـرَ السُّجُودِ]

(and after the prostrations.) refers to the two Rak`ahs after the Maghrib prayer. This was reported from `Umar bin Al-Khattab, `Ali bin Abi Talib and his son Al-Hasan, `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Abu Hurayrah and Abu Umamah, may Allah be pleased with them. This is also the saying of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ash-Sha`bi, An-Nakha`i, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, and others.

[وَاسْتَمِعْ يَوْمَ يُنَادِ الْمُنَادِ مِن مَّكَانٍ قَرِيبٍ - يَوْمَ يَسْمَعُونَ الصَّيْحَةَ بِالْحَقِّ ذَلِكَ يَوْمُ الْخُرُوجِ - إِنَّا نَحْنُ نُحْىِ وَنُمِيتُ وَإِلَيْنَا الْمَصِيرُ - يَوْمَ تَشَقَّقُ الاٌّرْضُ عَنْهُمْ سِرَاعاً ذَلِكَ حَشْرٌ عَلَيْنَا يَسِيرٌ - نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ وَمَآ أَنتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِجَبَّارٍ فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْءَانِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ ]

(41. And listen on the Day when the caller will call from a near place.) (42. The Day when they will hear As-Sayhah in truth, that will be the Day of coming out.) (43. Verily, it is We Who give life and cause death; and to Us is the final return.) (44. On the Day when the earth shall be cleft, from off them (they will come out) hastening forth. That will be a gathering, quite easy for Us.) (45. We know best what they say. And you are not the one to force them. But warn by the Qur'an; him who fears My threat.)

13. Admonition from Some Scenes of the Day of Resurrection

Allah the Exalted said,

[وَاسْتَمِعْ]

(And listen) `O Muhammad,'

[يَوْمَ يُنَادِ الْمُنَادِ مِن مَّكَانٍ قَرِيبٍ]

(on the Day when the caller will call from a near place.) to the gathering for the Day of Judgement,

[يَوْمَ يَسْمَعُونَ الصَّيْحَةَ بِالْحَقِّ]

(The Day when they will hear As-Sayhah in truth,) in reference to the blowing in the Trumpet which will bring forth the truth that most of them discounted and denied,

[ذَلِكَ يَوْمُ الْخُرُوجِ]

(that will be the Day of coming out.) from the graves,

[إِنَّا نَحْنُ نُحْىِ وَنُمِيتُ وَإِلَيْنَا الْمَصِيرُ ]

(Verily, it is We Who give life and cause death; and to Us is the final return.) Allah is He Who starts creation and then brings it back to life, and the latter is easier for Him; to Him is the final return of all creations. At this time, He will recompense each according to his or her deeds, good for good and evil for evil. Allah the Exalted said,

[يَوْمَ تَشَقَّقُ الاٌّرْضُ عَنْهُمْ سِرَاعاً]

(On the Day when the earth shall be cleft, from off them (they will come out) hastening forth.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored will send down rain from the sky. From that rain the bodies of the creations will grow while they are in their graves, just as the seed grows in soil in the aftermath of rain. When the bodies grow to their full strength, Allah the Exalted will command angel Israfil and he will blow in the Trumpet (for a second time). The souls will be enclosed in a hole in the Trumpet. When Israfil blows in the Trumpet, the souls will depart from it and will fly between the heavens and earth. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored, will declare, "By My grace and power, each soul shall return to the body that it used to inhabit,'' and indeed, every soul will return to its body. The soul will enter its body just as poison enters the body, then the earth will be uncovered from above them, and they will all stand and head towards the Reckoning place hastening to obey the command of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored,

[مُّهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاعِ يَقُولُ الْكَـفِرُونَ هَـذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ ]

(Hastening towards the caller. The disbelievers will say: "This is a hard Day.'')(54:8), and

[يَوْمَ يَدْعُوكُمْ فَتَسْتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمْدِهِ وَتَظُنُّونَ إِن لَّبِثْتُمْ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً ]

(On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer (His Call) with (words of) His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed (in this world) but a little while!) (17:52) In the Sahih, it is recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

أَنَا أَوَّلُ مَنْ تَنْشَقُّ عَنْهُ الْأَرْض

(The earth will open up first around me.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[ذَلِكَ حَشْرٌ عَلَيْنَا يَسِيرٌ]

(That will be a gathering, quite easy for Us.) `bringing them back to life is easy for Us and effortless.' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَمَآ أَمْرُنَآ إِلاَّ وَحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ ]

(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.)(54:50), and,

[مَّا خَلْقُكُمْ وَلاَ بَعْثُكُمْ إِلاَّ كَنَفْسٍ وَحِدَةٍ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ ]

(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as of a single person. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.) (31:28)

14. Comforting the Prophet

The statement of Allah the Exalted and Most High,

[نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ]

(We know best what they say.) means, `Our knowledge is all encompassing of the denial that the idolators are confronting you with, so do not be concerned.' In similar Ayat, Allah said,

[وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ يَضِيقُ صَدْرُكَ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ - فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَكُنْ مِّنَ السَّـجِدِينَ ]

[وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ ]

(Indeed, We know that your breast is straitened at what they say. So glorify the praises of your Lord and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him). And worship your Lord until there comes unto you the certainty (i.e., death).) (15:97) Allah's statement,

[وَمَآ أَنتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِجَبَّارٍ]

(And you are not the one to force them.) says, `it is not you who forces them to accept the guidance; this is not a part of your mission.' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْءَانِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ]

(But warn by the Qur'an; him who fears My threat.) meaning, `convey the Message of your Lord, for only those who fear Allah and dread His torment, and hope in His promise will remember and heed,'

[فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَـغُ وَعَلَيْنَا الْحِسَابُ]

(Your duty is only to convey (the Message) and on Us is the reckoning.)(13:40),

[فَذَكِّرْ إِنَّمَآ أَنتَ مُذَكِّرٌ - لَّسْتَ عَلَيْهِم بِمُسَيْطِرٍ ]

(So remind them -- you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them.)(88:21-22)

[لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ]

(Not upon you is their guidance, but Allah guides whom He wills.)(2:272) and,

[إِنَّكَ لاَ تَهْدِى مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ]

(Verily, you guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills.) (28:56) Allah's statement here,

[وَمَآ أَنتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِجَبَّارٍ فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْءَانِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ]

(And you are not the one to force them. But warn by the Qur'an; him who fears My threat.) Qatadah used to invoke Allah by saying, "O Allah! Make us among those who fear Your threat and hope for Your promise, O Barr (Subtle, Kind, Courteous, and Generous), O Rahim (the Most Merciful).'' This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Qaf. All praise is due to Allah, He is for us, the most excellent Trustee.


The Tafsir of Surah Adh-Dhariyat (Zij die doen Opwaaien) (Chapter 51)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Makkah

1. Which was revealed in Makkah
2. Affirming the News of the Resurrection The Commander of the faithful
3. The Differing Claims of the Idolators
4. Qualities of Those Who have Taqwa and Their Reward
5. The First Opinion
6. Allah's Signs on the Earth and in Mankind
7. The Guests of the Prophet Ibrahim
8. The Angels were sent to destroy the People of the Prophet Lut
9. Lessons from the Destruction of Fir`awn, `Ad, Thamud, and the People of Nuh
10. Proofs of Allah's Oneness abound in the Creation of the Heavens and the Earth
11. All Messengers met the Same Type of Denial from Their Nations
12. Allah Only created Mankind and Jinns to worship Him Alone

1. Which was revealed in Makkah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[وَالذَرِيَـتِ ذَرْواً - فَالْحَـمِلَـتِ وِقْراً - فَالْجَـرِيَـتِ يُسْراً - فَالْمُقَسِّمَـتِ أَمْراً - إِنَّمَا تُوعَدُونَ لَصَـدِقٌ - وَإِنَّ الدِّينَ لَوَاقِعٌ - وَالسَّمَآءِ ذَاتِ الْحُبُكِ - إِنَّكُمْ لَفِى قَوْلٍ مُّخْتَلِفٍ - يُؤْفَكُ عَنْهُ مَنْ أُفِكَ - قُتِلَ الْخَرَصُونَ - الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِى غَمْرَةٍ سَـهُونَ - يَسْـَلُونَ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الدِّينِ - يَوْمَ هُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ يُفْتَنُونَ - ذُوقُواْ فِتْنَتَكُمْ هَـذَا الَّذِى كُنتُمْ بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ ]

(1. By the scattering Dhariyat;) (2. And the laden Hamilat;) (3. And the steady Jariyat;) (4. And the distributors of command,) (5. Verily, that which you are promised is surely true.) (6. And verily, Ad-Din is sure to occur.) (7. By the heaven full of Hubuk,) (8. Certainly, you have different ideas.) (9. Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.) (10. Cursed be Al-Kharrasun) (11. Who are under a cover of Sahun,) (12. They ask: "When will be the Day of Ad-Din'') (13. (It will be) a Day when they will be Yuftanun in the Fire!) (14."Taste you your trial! This is what you used to ask to be hastened!'')

2. Affirming the News of the Resurrection The Commander of the faithful

`Ali bin Abi Talib may Allah be pleased with him, ascended the Minbar in Kufah and declared, "Any Ayah in the Book of Allah the Exalted and any Sunnah from Allah's Messenger you ask me about today, I will explain them.'' Ibn Al-Kawwa stood up and said, "O Leader of the faithful! What is the meaning of Allah's statement,

[وَالذَرِيَـتِ ذَرْواً ]

(By the scattering Dhariyat),'' and `Ali said, "The wind.'' The man asked,

[فَالْحَـمِلَـتِ وِقْراً ]

"(And the laden Hamilat)'' `Ali said, "The clouds.'' The man again asked,

[فَالْجَـرِيَـتِ يُسْراً ]

"(And the steady Jariyat)'' `Ali said, "The ships.'' The man asked,

[فَالْمُقَسِّمَـتِ أَمْراً ]

"(And the distributors of command)'' `Ali said, it refers to "The angels.'' Some scholars said that Al-Jariyat Yusra refers to the stars that float in their orbits with ease. This would mean that the things mentioned were ascendant in their order, beginning with the lower, then mentioning the higher one after that, etc. The winds bring the clouds, the stars are above them and the angels who distribute by Allah's order are above that, and they descend with Allah's legislative orders and the decrees He determines. These Ayat contain a vow from Allah that Resurrection shall come to pass. Allah's statement,

[إِنَّمَا تُوعَدُونَ لَصَـدِقٌ ]

(Verily, that which you are promised is surely true.), it is a truthful promise,

[وَإِنَّ الدِّينَ]

(And verily, Ad-Din) the Recompense,

[لَوَاقِعٌ]

(will occur), it will surely come to pass. Then Allah the Exalted said,

[وَالسَّمَآءِ ذَاتِ الْحُبُكِ ]

(By the heaven full of Hubuk,) Ibn `Abbas said; "Full of beauty, grace, magnificence and perfection.'' Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Abu Salih, As-Suddi, Qatadah, `Atiyah Al-`Awfi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and others said similarly. Ad-Dahhak, Al-Minhal bin `Amr and others said, "The meandering of the water, sand and plants when the wind passes over them; carving paths out of them, that is the Hubuk.'' All of these sayings return to the same meaning, that of beauty and complexity. The sky is high above us, clear yet thick, firmly structured, spacious and graceful, beautified with stars such as the sun and orbiting planets such as the moon and the planets of the solar system.

3. The Differing Claims of the Idolators

Allah the Exalted said,

[إِنَّكُمْ لَفِى قَوْلٍ مُّخْتَلِفٍ ]

(Certainly, you have different ideas.) Allah says, `you disbelievers who deny the Messengers have different and confused opinions that do not connect or conform to each other.' Qatadah commented on the Ayah, "You have different ideas about the Qur'an. Some of you agree that it is true while some others deny this fact.'' Allah said,

[يُؤْفَكُ عَنْهُ مَنْ أُفِكَ ]

(Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.) Allah says, these confused and different opinions only fool those who are inwardly misguided. Surely, such falsehood is accepted, embraced and it becomes the source of confusion only for those who are misguided and originally liars, the fools who have no sound comprehension, as Allah said,

[فَإِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ - مَآ أَنتُمْ عَلَيْهِ بِفَـتِنِينَ - إِلاَّ مَنْ هُوَ صَالِ الْجَحِيمِ ]

(So, verily you and those whom you worship cannot lead astray, except those who are predetermined to burn in Hell!)(37:161-163) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and As-Suddi said:

[يُؤْفَكُ عَنْهُ مَنْ أُفِكَ ]

(Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.) "He who is misguided is led astray from it. '' Allah said;

[قُتِلَ الْخَرَصُونَ ]

(Cursed be Al-Kharrasun), Mujahid said; "The liars. This is similar to what is mentioned in (Surah) `Abasa:

[قُتِلَ الإِنسَـنُ مَآ أَكْفَرَهُ ]

(Be cursed man! How ungrateful he is!)(80:17) Al-Kharrasun are those who claim that they will never be brought back to life, doubting the coming of Resurrection.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas;

[قُتِلَ الْخَرَصُونَ ]

(Cursed be Al-Kharrasun), "Cursed be the doubters.'' Mu`adh said similarly, may Allah be pleased with him. During one of his speeches he said, "Destroyed be the doubters.'' Qatadah said, "Al-Kharrasun are the people of doubt and suspicion.'' Allah said;

[الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِى غَمْرَةٍ سَـهُونَ ]

(Who are under a cover of Sahun,) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and others said; "In disbelief and doubt, they are heedless and playful.'' Allah said,

[يَسْـَلُونَ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الدِّينِ ]

(They ask: "When will be the Day of Ad-Din'') They utter this statement in denial, stubbornness, doubt and suspicion. Allah the Exalted replied,

[يَوْمَ هُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ يُفْتَنُونَ ]

((It will be) a Day when they will be Yuftanun in the Fire!) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and several others said that Yuftanun means punished. Mujahid said: "Just as gold is forged in the fire.'' A group of others also including Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Zayd bin Aslam, and Sufyan Ath-Thawri said, "They will be burnt.''

[ذُوقُواْ فِتْنَتَكُمْ]

(Taste you your trial!), Mujahid said, "Your burning'' while others said, "Your punishment.''

[هَـذَا الَّذِى كُنتُمْ بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ]

(This is what you used to ask to be hastened!) This will be said admonishing, chastising, humiliating and belittling them. Allah knows best.

[إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّـتٍ وَعُيُونٍ ءَاخِذِينَ مَآ ءَاتَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ مُحْسِنِينَ كَانُواْ قَلِيلاً مِّن الَّيْلِ مَا يَهْجَعُونَ وَبِالاٌّسْحَـرِ هُمْ يَسْتَغْفِرُونَ ]

[وَفِى أَمْوَلِهِمْ حَقٌّ لَّلسَّآئِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ - وَفِى الاٌّرْضِ ءَايَـتٌ لِّلْمُوقِنِينَ - وَفِى أَنفُسِكُمْ أَفَلاَ تُبْصِرُونَ - وَفِى السَّمَآءِ رِزْقُكُمْ وَمَا تُوعَدُونَ - فَوَرَبِّ السَّمَآءِ وَالاٌّرْضِ إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ مِّثْلَ مَآ أَنَّكُمْ تَنطِقُونَ ]

(15. Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in the midst of Gardens and Springs,) (16. Taking joy in the things which their Lord has given them. Verily, they were before this doers of good.) (17. They used to sleep but little by night.) (18. And in the hours before dawn, they were asking for forgiveness.) (19. And in their wealth there was the right of the Sa'il and the Mahrum.) (20. And on the earth are signs for those who have faith with certainty.) (21. And also in yourselves. Will you not then see (22. And in the heaven is your provision, and that which you are promised.) (23. Then by the Lord of the heaven and the earth, it is the truth, just as you can speak.)

4. Qualities of Those Who have Taqwa and Their Reward

Allah the Exalted informs about those who have Taqwa, that on the Day of their Return they will be amidst gardens and springs. To the contrary the miserable ones will be amidst torment, punishment, fire and chains. Allah said,

[ءَاخِذِينَ مَآ ءَاتَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ]

(Taking joy in the things which their Lord has given them.) His statement;

[ءَاخِذِينَ]

(Taking) describes the state of the people of Taqwa in the midst of gardens and springs. They will receive what their Lord gives them, meaning, delight, happiness and favors. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ]

(Verily, they were before that), in the life of the world,

[مُحْسِنِينَ]

(gooddoers) As He said:

[كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ هَنِيئَاً بِمَآ أَسْلَفْتُمْ فِى الاٌّيَّامِ الْخَالِيَةِ ]

(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!)(69:24) Allah the Exalted described the good acts that they performed,

[كَانُواْ قَلِيلاً مِّن الَّيْلِ مَا يَهْجَعُونَ ]

(They used to sleep but little at night.) The scholars of Tafsir have two opinions about this:

5. The First Opinion

The first is that, they used to spend a little part of every night awake. Ibn `Abbas said, "Every night, they would worship Allah, even during a little part of the night.'' Qatadah narrated that Mutarrif bin `Abdullah said, "Hardly a night would pass by them that they did not pray to Allah the Exalted and Most Honored, either in the beginning, or the middle of it.'' Mujahid said, "Only a few nights, if any, would they sleep through the night until the morning without praying Tahajjud.'' Qatadah said similarly. Anas bin Malik and Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "They used to pray between Al-Maghrib and Al-`Isha'.'' The Second Opinion They used to spend a little part of the night in sleep. This was preferred by Ibn Jarir. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said:

[كَانُواْ قَلِيلاً مِّن الَّيْلِ مَا يَهْجَعُونَ ]

(They used to sleep but little by night), "They performed voluntary night prayer and would not sleep during the night except a little. They were active and would continue until they were seeking forgiveness right before dawn.'' `Abdullah bin Salam said, "When the Messenger of Allah arrived at Al-Madinah, people quickly gathered around him and I was among them. When I saw his face, I knew that it was not the face of a liar. The first statement I heard from him was,

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَطْعِمُوا الطَّعَامَ، وَصِلُوا الْأَرْحَامَ، وَأَفْشُوا السَّلَامَ، وَصَلُّوا بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّاسُ نِيَامٌ، تَدْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ بِسَلَام

(O people! Feed with food, keep relations to kith and kin, spread the Salam, pray at night while people are asleep, and you will enter Paradise in peace.)'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ غُرَفًا يُرَى ظَاهِرُهَا مِنْ بَاطِنِهَا وَبَاطِنُهَا مِنْ ظَاهِرِهَا

(Verily, there are lofty rooms in Paradise in which their outside can be seen from inside and their inside from the outside.) Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari said, "Who are they for, O Allah's Messenger'' He said,

لِمَنْ أَلَانَ الْكَلَامَ، وَأَطْعَمَ الطَّعَامَ، وَبَاتَ للهِ قَائِمًا وَالنَّاسُ نِيَام

(For those who use soft speech, feed food and spend the night in voluntary prayer while people are asleep.) Allah said:

[وَبِالاٌّسْحَـرِ هُمْ يَسْتَغْفِرُونَ ]

(And in the hours before dawn, they were asking for forgiveness.) Mujahid and several others said: "They were performing Salah.'' Others said that they would stand in prayer during the night and delayed asking Allah for forgiveness until the latter hours before dawn. As Allah, the Exalted the Blessed, said;

[وَالْمُسْتَغْفِرِينَ بِالاٌّسْحَارِ]

(And those who seek forgiveness during the last hours of the night.)(3:17); This is because it is better if asking for forgiveness is done while praying. It is confirmed in the Sahih collections as well as others, from several Companions, that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى يَنْزِلُ كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى سَمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا حِينَ يَبْقَى ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ الْأَخِيرُ، فَيَقُولُ: هَلْ مِنْ تَائِبٍ فَأَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِ. هَلْ مِنْ مُسْتَغْفِرٍ فَأَغْفِرَ لَهُ. هَلْ مِنْ سَائِلٍ فَيُعْطَى سُؤْلَهُ؟ حَتْى يَطْلُعَ الْفَجْر

(Allah, the Most High, descends each night to the lowest heaven when the last third of the night remains. He says, "Is there anyone who is repenting so that I may accept his repentance Is there anyone seeking forgiveness, so that I may forgive him Is there anyone asking of Me, so that I may grant him his request'' until Fajr begins.) Many of the scholars of Tafsir said that when the Prophet Ya`qub said to his sons:

[سَوْفَ أَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكُمْ رَبِّى]

(I will ask my Lord for forgiveness for you)(12:98), he delayed doing so until the hours before dawn. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَفِى أَمْوَلِهِمْ حَقٌّ لَّلسَّآئِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ ]

(And in their wealth there was the right of the Sa'il and the Mahrum.) After Allah mentioned their quality of performing prayer, He then mentioned their quality of spending in charity and acts of compassion and kindness,

[وَفِى أَمْوَلِهِمْ حَقٌّ]

(And in their wealth there was the right), a designated part which they dedicated to the Sa'il and Mahrum. The Sa'il is the poor who begs others, and he has a due right. As for the Mahrum, Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said, "He is the poor person who does not receive a stipend.'' Meaning he does not receive a stipend from the Muslim treasury, nor does he have a means of income, nor a profession. The Mother of the faithful, `A'ishah may Allah be pleased with her, said about the Mahrum, "He is the displaced, the one who does not have a profession to easily earn an income from.'' Qatadah and Az-Zuhri: "The Mahrum is the one who does not ask the people for anything.'' Az-Zuhri added that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَيْسَ الْمِسْكِينُ بِالطَّوَّافِ الَّذِي تَرُدُّهُ اللُّقْمَةُ وَاللُّقْمَتَانِ وَالتَّمْرَةُ وَالتَّمْرَتَانِ، وَلكِنِ الْمِسْكِينُ الَّذِي لَا يَجِدُ غِنًى يُغْنِيهِ وَلَا يُفْطَنُ لَهُ فَيُتَصَدَّقَ عَلَيْه

(The poor (Miskin) is not the one who goes round to the people and asks them for a mouthful or two or a date or two. But the poor is the one who does not have enough to satisfy his needs and whose condition is not known to others, so that others may give him something in charity.) This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs using another chain of narration.

6. Allah's Signs on the Earth and in Mankind

Allah the Exalted and the Blessed said next,

[وَفِى الاٌّرْضِ ءَايَـتٌ لِّلْمُوقِنِينَ ]

(And on the earth are signs for those who have faith with certainty.) Allah says that there are signs on earth that testify to the might of the Creator and His boundless ability. These signs include what Allah placed on the earth, the various plants, animals, valleys, mountains, deserts, rivers and oceans. He also created mankind with different languages, colors, intentions and abilities, and a variety among them, differences in the power of understanding and comprehension, their deeds, and ultimately earning happiness or misery. Allah put every organ in their bodies in its rightful place where they most need it to be. So He said؛

[وَفِى أَنفُسِكُمْ أَفَلاَ تُبْصِرُونَ ]

(And also in yourselves. Will you not then see) Qatadah commented, "He who thinks about his own creation will realize that he was created with flexible joints so that it is easy for him to perform acts of worship.'' Allah the Exalted said next,

[وَفِى السَّمَآءِ رِزْقُكُمْ]

(And in the heaven is your provision,) meaning, rain,

[وَمَا تُوعَدُونَ]

(and that which you are promised.) meaning Paradise. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and several others. Allah said:

[فَوَرَبِّ السَّمَآءِ وَالاٌّرْضِ إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ مِّثْلَ مَآ أَنَّكُمْ تَنطِقُونَ ]

(Then by the Lord of the heaven and the earth, it is the truth, just as you can speak.) Allah is swearing by His honorable Self, all of the matters of the Judgement, Resurrection, and Recompense that they have been promised shall certainly occur. Therefore, it is the truth, there being no doubt about it, so do not doubt its coming, just as you do not doubt that you can speak When he would talk to one of his friends, Mu`adh used to say: "What I am saying is as true as your being here.''

[هَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ ضَيْفِ إِبْرَهِيمَ الْمُكْرَمِينَ - إِذْ دَخَلُواْ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالُواْ سَلَـماً قَالَ سَلَـمٌ قَوْمٌ مُّنكَرُونَ - فَرَاغَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ فَجَآءَ بِعِجْلٍ سَمِينٍ - فَقَرَّبَهُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَالَ أَلاَ تَأْكُلُونَ - فَأَوْجَسَ مِنْهُمْ خِيفَةً قَالُواْ لاَ تَخَفْ وَبَشَّرُوهُ بِغُلَـمٍ عَلَيمٍ - فَأَقْبَلَتِ امْرَأَتُهُ فِى صَرَّةٍ فَصَكَّتْ وَجْهَهَا وَقَالَتْ عَجُوزٌ عَقِيمٌ - قَالُواْ كَذَلِكِ قَالَ رَبُّكِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْعَلِيمُ ]

(24. Has the story reached you, of the honored guests of Ibrahim) (25. When they came in to him and said: "Salaman!'' He answered: "Salamun'' and said: "You are a people unknown to me.'') (26. Then he turned to his household, and brought out a roasted calf.) (27. And placed it before them (saying): "Will you not eat'') (28. Then he conceived fear of them (when they ate not). They said: "Fear not.'' And they gave him glad tidings of a son having knowledge.) (29. Then his wife came forward with a loud voice; she smote her face, and said: "A barren old woman!'') (30. They said: "Even so says your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.'')

7. The Guests of the Prophet Ibrahim

We mentioned this story before in Surah Hud and Al-Hijr. Allah said,

[هَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ ضَيْفِ إِبْرَهِيمَ الْمُكْرَمِينَ ]

(Has the story reached you, of the honored guests of Ibrahim), whom Ibrahim honored and who,

[قَالُواْ سَلَـماً قَالَ سَلَـمٌ]

(they said: "Salaman!'' He answered: "Salamun.'')

[وَإِذَا حُيِّيتُم بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّواْ بِأَحْسَنَ مِنْهَآ أَوْ رُدُّوهَآ]

(When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or return it equally.)(4:86) So the Friend of Allah chose a better reply in return for their greeting, implementing Allah's command: Reciprocating the greeting with the term Salamun is stronger than the greeting using the term Salaman. The three angels; Jibril, Mika'il and Israfil came to Ibrahim in the image of handsome young wonderfully graceful men. This is why Ibrahim said,

[قَوْمٌ مُّنكَرُونَ]

(You are a people unknown to me.) Allah the Exalted said,

[فَرَاغَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ]

(Then he turned to his household,) Ibrahim discretely went inside in haste,

[فَجَآءَ بِعِجْلٍ سَمِينٍ]

(and brought out a roasted calf.) from the best of his menu, And in another Ayah

[فَمَا لَبِثَ أَن جَآءَ بِعِجْلٍ حَنِيذٍ]

(And he hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf.) (11:69) means roasted on hot coals

[فَقَرَّبَهُ إِلَيْهِمْ]

(And placed it before them), brought it close to them,

[قَالَ أَلاَ تَأْكُلُونَ]

(Saying, "Will you not eat'') Ibrahim said this polite and kind statement to his guests, and surely, this Ayah indicates proper manners for honoring guests. For he brought the food to his guests quickly, while they were unaware that it was being prepared for them. He did not first mention this favor to them by saying, "We will make food for you.'' Rather, he discretely had it prepared and placed before them. He prepared the best kind of food he had, a young, fat roasted calf. He did not place the food far from them and invite them to come close to it to eat. Rather, he placed it close to them and refrained from ordering them to eat. Instead he invited them using a kind and subtle invitation,

[أَلا تَأْكُلُونَ]

(Will you not eat) This statement is similar to one of us saying to a guest, "Would you be kind and generous to do such and such'' Allah the Exalted said,

[فَأَوْجَسَ مِنْهُمْ خِيفَةً]

(Then he conceived fear of them.) this Ayah is explained by Allah's statement,

[فَلَمَّا رَأَى أَيْدِيَهُمْ لاَ تَصِلُ إِلَيْهِ نَكِرَهُمْ وَأَوْجَسَ مِنْهُمْ خِيفَةً قَالُواْ لاَ تَخَفْ إِنَّا أُرْسِلْنَا إِلَى قَوْمِ لُوطٍ وَامْرَأَتُهُ قَآئِمَةٌ فَضَحِكَتْ]

(But when he saw their hands went not towards it, he mistrusted them, and felt a sense of fear of them. They said: "Fear not, we have been sent against the people of Lut.'' And his wife was standing (there), and she laughed.)(11:70-71), meaning, she was glad that the people of Lut would be destroyed on account of their rebellion and transgression against Allah, the Exalted. This is when the angels delivered the good news to her of a son, Ishaq, and Ya`qub after Ishaq,

[قَالَتْ يوَيْلَتَا ءَأَلِدُ وَأَنَاْ عَجُوزٌ وَهَـذَا بَعْلِى شَيْخًا إِنَّ هَـذَا لَشَىْءٌ عَجِيبٌ - قَالُواْ أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَـتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيدٌ ]

(She said: "Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband an old man Verily, this is a strange thing!'' They said, "Do you wonder at the decree of Allah The mercy of Allah and His blessings be on you, O family of the house. Surely, He (Allah) is All-Praiseworthy, All-Glorious.'')(11:72-73) Allah said here;

[وَبَشَّرُوهُ بِغُلَـمٍ عَلَيمٍ]

(And they gave him glad tidings of a son having knowledge.) This news was as good to Ibrahim as it was to his wife, for this son would be theirs, and therefore, they both were getting some good news. Allah the Exalted said,

[فَأَقْبَلَتِ امْرَأَتُهُ فِى صَرَّةٍ]

(Then his wife came forward with a loud voice), She screamed loudly, according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Abu Salih, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam, Ath-Thawri and As-Suddi. She said when she shouted,

[يوَيْلَتَا]

(Ah! Woe to me!)(25:28), then,

[فَصَكَّتْ وَجْهَهَا]

(she smote her face,) meaning, she struck herself upon her forehead, according to Mujahid and Ibn Sabit. Ibn `Abbas said that she smacked her face just as women do when confronted with an amazing thing,

[وَقَالَتْ عَجُوزٌ عَقِيمٌ]

(and said: "A barren old woman!'') meaning, "How can I give birth while I am an old woman And even when I was young I was barren and could not have children,''

[قَالُواْ كَذَلِكِ قَالَ رَبُّكِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْعَلِيمُ ]

(They said: "Even so says your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower''), `He is the All-Knower of the honor that you are worthy of and He is the most Wise in His statements and decisions.'

[قَالَ فَمَا خَطْبُكُمْ أَيُّهَا الْمُرْسَلُونَ - قَالُواْ إِنَّآ أُرْسِلْنَآ إِلَى قَوْمٍ مُّجْرِمِينَ لِنُرْسِلَ عَلَيْهِمْ حِجَارَةً مِّن طِينٍ مُّسَوَّمَةً عِندَ رَبِّكَ لِلْمُسْرِفِينَ فَأَخْرَجْنَا مَن كَانَ فِيهَا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَمَا وَجَدْنَا فِيهَا غَيْرَ بَيْتٍ مِّنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَتَرَكْنَا فِيهَآ ءَايَةً لِّلَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ ]

(31. (Ibrahim) said: "Then for what purpose you have come, O messengers'') (32. They said: "We have been sent to a people who are criminals.'') (33. "To send down upon them stones of clay.'') (34. "Marked by your Lord for transgressors.'') (35. So We brought out from therein the believers.) (36. But We found not there any household of the Muslims except one.) (37. And We have left there a sign for those who fear the painful torment.)

8. The Angels were sent to destroy the People of the Prophet Lut

Allah the Exalted said about Ibrahim, peace be upon him,

[فَلَمَّا ذَهَبَ عَنْ إِبْرَهِيمَ الرَّوْعُ وَجَآءَتْهُ الْبُشْرَى يُجَـدِلُنَا فِى قَوْمِ لُوطٍ - إِنَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ لَحَلِيمٌ أَوَّاهٌ مُّنِيبٌ - يإِبْرَهِيمُ أَعْرِضْ عَنْ هَـذَآ إِنَّهُ قَدْ جَآءَ أَمْرُ رَبِّكَ وَإِنَّهُمْ آتِيهِمْ عَذَابٌ غَيْرُ مَرْدُودٍ ]

(Then when the fear had gone away from (Ibrahim), and the glad tidings had reached him, he began to plead with Us for the people of Lut. Verily, Ibrahim was, without doubt forbearing, used to invoke Allah with humility, and was repentant. "O Ibrahim! Forsake this. Indeed, the commandment of your Lord has gone forth. Verily, there will come a torment for them which cannot be turned back.'')(11:74-76) Allah said here,

[قَالَ فَمَا خَطْبُكُمْ أَيُّهَا الْمُرْسَلُونَ ]

((Ibrahim) said: "Then for what purpose you have come, O messengers'') meaning, `what is the mission that you were sent with,'

[قَالُواْ إِنَّآ أُرْسِلْنَآ إِلَى قَوْمٍ مُّجْرِمِينَ ]

(They said: "We have been sent to a people who are criminals.'') in reference to the people of Lut,

[لِنُرْسِلَ عَلَيْهِمْ حِجَارَةً مِّن طِينٍ مُّسَوَّمَةً]

(To send down upon them stones of baked clay, marked), or written,

[عِندَ رَبِّكَ لِلْمُسْرِفِينَ]

(by your Lord for transgressors.) recorded with Allah to their names; each stone has the name of its companion. Allah said in Surat Al-`Ankabut,

[قَالَ إِنَّ فِيهَا لُوطاً قَالُواْ نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن فِيهَا لَنُنَجِّيَنَّهُ وَأَهْلَهُ إِلاَّ امْرَأَتَهُ كَانَتْ مِنَ الْغَـبِرِينَ ]

((Ibrahim) said: "But there is Lut in it.'' They said: "We know better who is there. We will verily save him and his family except his wife: she will be of those who remain behind.'')(29:32), and said here,

[فَأَخْرَجْنَا مَن كَانَ فِيهَا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ]

(So We brought out from therein the believers.) they are: Lut and his family, except his wife,

[فَمَا وَجَدْنَا فِيهَا غَيْرَ بَيْتٍ مِّنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ]

(But We found not there any household of the Muslims except one.) Allah the Exalted said,

[وَتَرَكْنَا فِيهَآ ءَايَةً لِّلَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ ]

(And We have left there a sign for those who fear the painful torment.) meaning, `We left a proof of the punishment, torment and stones made of Sijjil (baked clay) that We sent on them; We made their dwelling place a putrid, evil, dead sea. This should provide a lesson for the believers,'

[لِّلَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ]

(for those who fear the painful torment.)

[وَفِى مُوسَى إِذْ أَرْسَلْنَـهُ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ بِسُلْطَـنٍ مُّبِينٍ - فَتَوَلَّى بِرُكْنِهِ وَقَالَ سَـحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ - فَأَخَذْنَـهُ وَجُنُودَهُ فَنَبَذْنَـهُمْ فِى الْيَمِّ وَهُوَ مُلِيمٌ - وَفِى عَادٍ إِذْ أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الرِّيحَ الْعَقِيمَ - مَا تَذَرُ مِن شَىْءٍ أَتَتْ عَلَيْهِ إِلاَّ جَعَلَتْهُ كَالرَّمِيمِ - وَفِى ثَمُودَ إِذْ قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَمَتَّعُواْ حَتَّى حِينٍ - فَعَتَوْاْ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِمْ فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ وَهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ - فَمَا اسْتَطَـعُواْ مِن قِيَامٍ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُنتَصِرِينَ - وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ مِّن قَبْلُ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ قَوْماً فَـسِقِينَ ]

(38. And in Musa, when We sent him to Fir`awn with a manifest authority.) (39. But (he) turned away along with his hosts, and said: "A sorcerer or a madman.'') (40. So We took him and his armies, and dumped them into the sea (Yamm), for he was blameworthy.) (41. And in `Ad when We sent against them the barren wind;) (42. It spared nothing that it reached, but blew it into broken spreads of rotten ruins.) (43. And in Thamud, when they were told: "Enjoy yourselves for a while!'') (44. But they insolently defied the command of their Lord, so the Sa`iqah overtook them while they were looking.) (45. Then they were unable to rise up, nor could they help themselves.) (46. (So were) the people of Nuh before them. Verily, they were a people who were rebellious.)

9. Lessons from the Destruction of Fir`awn, `Ad, Thamud, and the People of Nuh

Allah the Exalted said,

[وَفِى مُوسَى إِذْ أَرْسَلْنَـهُ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ بِسُلْطَـنٍ مُّبِينٍ ]

(And in Musa, when We sent him to Fir`awn with a manifest authority.) meaning, with clear proof and plain evidence,

[فَتَوَلَّى بِرُكْنِهِ]

(But he turned away along with his hosts,) meaning, in rebellion and arrogance, Fir`awn turned away from the plain truth that Musa was sent with,

[ثَانِىَ عِطْفِهِ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ]

(Bending his neck in pride, and leading (others) too (far) astray from the path of Allah.)(22:9 ), meaning turning away from truth in arrogance,

[وَقَالَ سَـحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ]

(and said: "A sorcerer, or a madman.'') meaning Fir`awn said to Musa, "With regards to the message that you brought me, you are either a magician or a madman.'' Allah the Exalted replied,

[فَأَخَذْنَـهُ وَجُنُودَهُ فَنَبَذْنَـهُمْ]

(So We took him and his armies, and dumped them), meaning `We threw them,'

[فِى الْيَمِّ]

(into the Yamm), into the sea,

[وَهُوَ مُلِيمٌ]

(for he was blameworthy.) meaning, Fir`awn was a denying sinner and a stubborn disbeliever worthy of blame. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَفِى عَادٍ إِذْ أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الرِّيحَ الْعَقِيمَ ]

(And in `Ad when We sent against them the barren wind) that destroys everything and produces nothing. This was said by Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and others. Allah's statement,

[مَا تَذَرُ مِن شَىْءٍ أَتَتْ عَلَيْهِ]

(It spared nothing that it reached,) meaning, everything that the wind could destroy,

[إِلاَّ جَعَلَتْهُ كَالرَّمِيمِ]

(but blew it into broken spreads of rotten ruins.) meaning, made it just like a rotten and destroyed. Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib and others commented on:

[إِذْ أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الرِّيحَ الْعَقِيمَ]

(when We sent against them the barren wind),"Southerly winds.'' However, there is a Hadith in the Sahih from Shu`bah bin Al-Hakam, from Mujahid, from Ibn `Abbas, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

نُصِرْتُ بِالصَّبَا وَأُهْلِكَتْ عَادٌ بِالدَّبُور

(I have been made victorious with the Saba (easterly wind), and the people of `Ad were destroyed with the Dabur (westerly wind).) Allah saying,

[وَفِى ثَمُودَ إِذْ قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَمَتَّعُواْ حَتَّى حِينٍ ]

(And in Thamud, when they were told: "Enjoy yourselves for a while!'') is just as He said in another Ayah,

[وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَـهُمْ فَاسْتَحَبُّواْ الْعَمَى عَلَى الْهُدَى فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَـعِقَةُ الْعَذَابِ الْهُونِ]

(And as for Thamud, We guided them to the path of truth, but they preferred blindness to guidance; so the Sa`iqah of disgracing torment seized them.) (41:17) Allah said here,

[وَفِى ثَمُودَ إِذْ قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَمَتَّعُواْ حَتَّى حِينٍ - فَعَتَوْاْ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِمْ فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ وَهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ ]

(And in Thamud, when they were told: "Enjoy yourselves for a while!'' But they insolently defied the command of their Lord, so the Sa`iqah overtook them while they were looking.) Thamud were given a respite for three days, during which they await the torment. In the early morning of the fourth day, the torment overtook them,

[فَمَا اسْتَطَـعُواْ مِن قِيَامٍ]

(Then they were unable to rise up,) they were unable to escape and run away from it,

[وَمَا كَانُواْ مُنتَصِرِينَ]

(nor could they help themselves.) nor could they save themselves from the torment that befell them. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ مِّن قَبْلُ]

((So were) the people of Nuh before them.) meaning, `We destroyed the people of Nuh before these people (Fir`awn, `Ad and Thamud).'

[إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ قَوْماً فَـسِقِينَ]

(Verily, they were a people who were revellious.) We mentioned these stories in details before in the Tafsir of several other Surahs.

[وَالسَّمَآءَ بَنَيْنَـهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ - وَالاٌّرْضَ فَرَشْنَـهَا فَنِعْمَ الْمَـهِدُونَ - وَمِن كُلِّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ - فَفِرُّواْ إِلَى اللَّهِ إِنِّى لَكُمْ مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ وَلاَ تَجْعَلُواْ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَـهاً ءَاخَرَلَكُمْ مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ]

(47. With Hands We constructed the heaven. Verily, We are able to expand the vastness of space thereof.) (48. And We have made the earth a Firash; how excellent spreader (thereof) are We!) (49. And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember.) (50. So, flee to Allah. Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him.) (51. And set not up any other god along with Allah. Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him.)

10. Proofs of Allah's Oneness abound in the Creation of the Heavens and the Earth

Allah reminds us of the creating of the higher and lower worlds,

[وَالسَّمَآءَ بَنَيْنَـهَا]

(We constructed the heaven.) meaning, `We made it as a high roof, protected from falling,'

[بِأَيْدٍ]

(with Hands), meaning, with strength, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ath-Thawri and several others,

[وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ]

(Verily, We are able to extend the vastness of space thereof.) means, `We made it vast and We brought its roof higher without pillars to support it, and thus it is hanging independently.'

[وَالاٌّرْضَ فَرَشْنَـهَا]

(And We have made the earth a Firash), meaning, `We have made it a resting place for the created,'

[فَنِعْمَ الْمَـهِدُونَ]

(how excellent a spreader (thereof) are We!), meaning, `We spread it for its inhabitants,'

[وَمِن كُلِّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ]

(And of everything We have created pairs,) meaning, all the created are in pairs, the heaven and earth, night and day, sun and moon, land and sea, light and darkness, faith and disbelief, death and life, misery and happiness, Paradise and Fire, in addition to the animals and plants. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

[لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ]

(that you may remem- ber.) and know that the Creator, Allah, is One without partners,

[فَفِرُّواْ إِلَى اللَّهِ]

(So, flee to Allah.) meaning, seek shelter with Him and trust in Him in all of your affairs,

[إِنِّى لَكُمْ مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌوَلاَ تَجْعَلُواْ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَـهاً ءَاخَرَ]

(Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him. And set not up any other god along with Allah.) do not associate any partners with Him,

[إِنِّى لَكُمْ مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ]

(Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him.)

[كَذَلِكَ مَآ أَتَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ قَالُواْ سَـحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ - أَتَوَاصَوْاْ بِهِ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ طَـغُونَ - فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ فَمَآ أَنتَ بِمَلُومٍ - وَذَكِّرْ فَإِنَّ الذِّكْرَى تَنفَعُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ - وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإِنسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ - مَآ أُرِيدُ مِنْهُم مِّن رِّزْقٍ وَمَآ أُرِيدُ أَن يُطْعِمُونِ - إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ - فَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ ذَنُوباً مِّثْلَ ذَنُوبِ أَصْحَـبِهِمْ فَلاَ يَسْتَعْجِلُونِ - فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن يَوْمِهِمُ الَّذِى يُوعَدُونَ ]

(52. Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: "A sorcerer or a madman!'') (53. Have they transmitted this saying to these Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing beyond bounds!) (54. So turn away from them, you are not blameworthy.) (55. And remind, for verily, the reminding profits the believers.) (56. And I created not the Jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me.) (57. I seek not any provision from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me.) (58. Verily, Allah is the All-Provider, Owner of power, the Most Strong.) (59. And verily, for those who do wrong, there is a portion of torment like to the evil portion of torment (which came for) their likes (of old); so let them not ask Me to hasten on!) (60. Then woe to those who disbelieve from their Day which they have been promised.)

11. All Messengers met the Same Type of Denial from Their Nations

Allah comforts His Prophet by saying to Him, `just as these idolators denied you, the disbelievers of old used the same words with their Messengers,'

[كَذَلِكَ مَآ أَتَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ قَالُواْ سَـحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ ]

(Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: "A sorcerer or a madman!'') Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[أَتَوَاصَوْاْ بِهِ]

(Have they transmitted this saying to these), meaning, have those of the past taught these words to the people of the present

[بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ طَـغُونَ]

(Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing beyond bounds!) They are tyrannical people whose hearts are the same. Therefore, the latter said the same as those before them have said. Allah the Exalted said,

[فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ]

(So turn away from them,) meaning, `O Muhammad, turn away from the Quraysh idolators,'

[فَمَآ أَنتَ بِمَلُومٍ]

(you are not blameworthy.) meaning, `We blame you not if you turn away from them,'

[وَذَكِّرْ فَإِنَّ الذِّكْرَى تَنفَعُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ]

(And remind, for verily, the reminding profits the believers.) meaning, for only the believing hearts benefit from being reminded.

12. Allah Only created Mankind and Jinns to worship Him Alone

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

[وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإِنسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ ]

(And I created not the Jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me.) meaning, `I, Allah, only created them so that I order them to worship Me, not that I need them.' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

[إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ]

(...except that they should worship Me.) meaning, "So that they worship Me, willingly or unwillingly.'' Allah the Exalted said,

[مَآ أُرِيدُ مِنْهُم مِّن رِّزْقٍ وَمَآ أُرِيدُ أَن يُطْعِمُونِ - إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ ]

(I seek not any provision from them nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Verily, Allah is the All-Provider, Owner of power, the Most Strong.) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Messenger of Allah taught the following: (إنِّي أَنَا الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِين) `Verily, I am the Provider, Owner of power, the Most Strong.' Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i also collected this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih. '' The meaning of this Ayah (51:56) is that, Allah the Exalted, the Blessed created the creatures so that they worship Him Alone without partners. Those who obey Him will be rewarded with the best rewards, while those who disobey Him will receive the worst punishment from Him. Allah stated that He does not need creatures, but rather, they are in need of Him in all conditions. He is alone their Creator and Provider. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى: يَاابْنَ آدَمَ تَفَرَّغْ لِعِبَادَتِي أَمْلَأْ صَدْرَكَ غِنًى وَأَسُدَّ فَقْرَكَ، وَإِلَّا تَفْعَلْ، مَلَأْتُ صَدْرَكَ شُغْلًا وَلَمْ أَسُدَّ فَقْرَك

(Allah the Exalted said, "O Son of Adam! Busy yourself in worshipping Me, and I will fill your chest with riches and dissipate your meekness. Otherwise, I will fill your chest with distracting affairs and will not do away with your meekness.'') At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith and At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Gharib.'' The statement of Allah the Exalted,

[فَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ ذَنُوباً]

(And verily, for those who do wrong, there is a portion), indicates that they will receive their due share of the torment,

[مِّثْلَ ذَنُوبِ أَصْحَـبِهِمْ فَلاَ يَسْتَعْجِلُونِ]

(like the evil portion (which came for) their likes (of old); so let them not ask Me to hasten on!) let them not ask that the punishment is rushed to them, for it will surely come,

[فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن يَوْمِهِمُ الَّذِى يُوعَدُونَ ]

(Then woe to those who disbelieve from their Day which they have been promised.) meaning, the Day of Resurrection. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Adh-Dhariyat; all praise is due to Allah and all the favors come from Him Alone.


The Tafsir of Surah At-Tur (De Berg) (Chapter 52)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Makkah

1. The Virtues of Surat At-Tur
2. Allah swears that the Coming of Torment is Near
3. Describing the Day of Torment, the Day of Resurrection
4. Description of the Destination of the Happy
5. The Offspring of Righteous Believers will be elevated to Their Grades in Paradise
6. Allah is Just with the Sinners
7. Description of the Khamr of Paradise and the Delight of its Dwellers
8. Absolving the Prophet of the False Accusations the Idolators made against Him
9. Affirming Tawhid and annulling the Plots of the Idolators This is the position where Tawhid of Allah's Lordship and Divinity are affirmed
10. The Stubbornness of the Idolators; Their Punishment
11. Ordering the Prophet to have Patience and to glorify Allah

1. The Virtues of Surat At-Tur

Malik narrated that Jubayr bin Mut`im said, "I heard the Prophet reciting Surat At-Tur while praying Maghrib. Surely, I have never heard a more beautiful voice or recitation than his recitation.'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs using a chain of narration that includes Malik. Al-Bukhari recorded that Umm Salamah said, "I complained of being ill to the Messenger of Allah , and he said,

طُوفِي مِنْ وَرَاءِ النَّاسِ وَأَنْتِ رَاكِبَة

(Perform Tawaf (of the Ka`bah) behind the crowd, while you are riding.) So, I performed Tawaf while the Messenger of Allah was praying beside the House, reciting At-Tur.''

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[وَالطُّورِ- وَكِتَـبٍ مُّسْطُورٍ- فِى رَقّ مَّنْشُورٍ- وَالْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ- وَالسَّقْفِ الْمَرْفُوعِ- وَالْبَحْرِ الْمَسْجُورِ- إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبّكَ لَوَاقِعٌ- مَّا لَهُ مِن دَافِعٍ- يَوْمَ تَمُورُ السَّمَآء مَوْراً- وَتَسِيرُ الْجِبَالُ سَيْراً- فَوَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لّلْمُكَذّبِينَ- الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِى خَوْضٍ يَلْعَبُونَ- يَوْمَ يُدَعُّونَ إِلَى نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ دَعًّا- هَـذِهِ النَّارُ الَّتِى كُنتُم بِهَا تُكَذّبُونَ- أَفَسِحْرٌ هَـذَا أَمْ أَنتُمْ لاَ تُبْصِرُونَ- اصْلَوْهَا فَاصْبِرُواْ أَوْ لاَ تَصْبِرُواْ سَوَآء عَلَيْكُمْ إِنَّمَا تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ-]

(1. By the Tur) (2. And the Book inscribed) (3. In parchment unrolled.) (4. And by Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur.) (5. And the roof raised high.) (6. And by the sea that is Masjur.) (7. Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass.) (8. There is none that can avert it.) (9. On the Day when Tamur the heaven Mawr,) (10. And Tasir the mountains Sayr.) (11. Then woe that Day to those who denied.) (12. Those who were, in their falsehood, playing.) (13. The Day when they will be pushed down by force to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing.) (14. This is the Fire which you used to deny.) (15. Is this magic or do you not see) (16. Enter therein and whether you are patient of it or impatient of it, it is all the same. You are only being requited for what you used to do.)

2. Allah swears that the Coming of Torment is Near

Allah swears by His creation, a testimony to His great ability, that His torment will surely befall His enemies; they will have no way of escaping it. At-Tur is the mount that has trees, similar to the mount where Allah spoke to Musa, while Musa was on it, and the mount on which Allah started the prophethood of `Isa. A mount that does not have trees is called Jabal, not Tur. Allah said,

[وَكِتَـبٍ مُّسْطُورٍ ]

(And by the Book inscribed), it is said that it means Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz, (the Preserved Table). It is also said that is refers to the divinely revealed inscribed Books that people recite, and this is why Allah said,

[فِى رَقٍّ مَّنْشُورٍ - وَالْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ ]

(In parchment unrolled. And by Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur.) In the Two Sahihs it is confirmed that the Messenger of Allah said in the Hadith about Al-Isra', after ascending to the seventh heaven:

ثُمَّ رُفِعَ بِي إِلَى الْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ، وَإِذَا هُوَ يَدْخُلُهُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا، لَا يَعُودُونَ إِلَيْهِ آخِرَ مَا عَلَيْهِم

(Then, I was taken to Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur. It is visited every day by seventy thousand angels who will not come back to visit it again.) The angels worship Allah in Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur and perform Tawaf around it just as the people of the earth perform Tawaf around the Ka`bah. Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur is the Ka`bah of those who reside in the seventh heaven. During the Isra' journey, the Prophet saw Ibrahim Al-Khalil, who was reclining with his back on Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur. It was Ibrahim who built the Ka`bah on earth, and surely, the reward is compatible with the action. Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur is parallel to the Ka`bah; every heaven has its own house of worship, which is also the direction of prayer for its residents. The house that is located in the lower heaven, is called Bayt Al-`Izzah. And Allah knows best. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

[وَالسَّقْفِ الْمَرْفُوعِ ]

(And by the roof raised high.) Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Shu`bah, and Abu Al-Ahwas, all narrated from Simak, from Khalid bin `Ar`arah, from `Ali bin Abi Talib:

[وَالسَّقْفِ الْمَرْفُوعِ ]

(And by the roof raised high) "Meaning the heaven.'' Sufyan added, "Then `Ali recited,

[وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَآءَ سَقْفاً مَّحْفُوظاً وَهُمْ عَنْ ءَايَـتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ ]

(And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs.)(21:32)'' Similar was said by Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ibn Jurayj, Ibn Zayd and preferred by Ibn Jarir. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

[وَالْبَحْرِ الْمَسْجُورِ ]

(And by the sea that is Masjur.) The majority say it refers to the oceans of the earth. Masjur, means, the sea will be kindled with fire on the Day of Resurrection just as Allah said in another Ayah,

[وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ سُجِّرَتْ ]

(And when the seas become as blazing fire.)(81:6) i.e., it will be kindled with fire and become a raging fire that surrounds the people in the gathering area, this was reported by Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib from `Ali bin Abi Talib. It was also reported from Ibn `Abbas, and it is the view of Sa`id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, `Abdullah bin `Ubayd bin `Umayr and others. Qatadah said, "Masjur is the `filled sea.''' Ibn Jarir preferred this explanation saying, "The sea is not lit with fire now, so it is filled.'' Allah's statement;

[إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ لَوَاقِعٌ ]

(Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass.) contains the subject of the vow, indicating that His torment will surely strike the disbelievers, as Allah stated in another Ayah;

[مَّا لَهُ مِن دَافِعٍ ]

(There is none that can avert it.) indicating that when Allah decides to send the torment upon them, none can prevent it or stop it from striking them. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Ad-Dunya recorded that Ja`far bin Zayd Al-`Abdi said, "One night, in Al-Madinah, `Umar went out investigating the welfare of Muslims and passed by the house of a man who was standing in voluntary prayer. `Umar stood quietly, listening to his recitation; the man was reciting,

[وَالطُّورِ ]

(By At-Tur), until he reached the Ayah,

[إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ لَوَاقِعٌ - مَّا لَهُ مِن دَافِعٍ ]

(Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass. There is none that can avert it.) `Umar said, `By the Lord of the Ka`bah, this is a true vow.' `Umar dismounted his donkey and sat next to a wall for a while. He then went back to his house and fell ill for a month. During his illness, the people would visit him, not knowing what caused his illness.'' May Allah be pleased with `Umar.

3. Describing the Day of Torment, the Day of Resurrection

Allah said;

[يَوْمَ تَمُورُ السَّمَآءُ مَوْراً ]

(On the Day when Tamur the heaven Mawr) Ibn `Abbas and Qatadah said: "Shaking violently.'' Also from Ibn `Abbas, "Split.'' Mujahid said: "Spin violently.'' Ad-Dahhak commented on the Ayah, saying, "The earth will violently spin and move by the command of Allah, and its areas will violently move towards each other.'' This was preferred by Ibn Jarir, because of the meaning of the word, Mawra, which denotes meanings of spinning and shaking. Allah said,

[وَتَسِيرُ الْجِبَالُ سَيْراً ]

(And Tasir the mountains will Sayr.) will fade away and become scattered particles of dust blown away by the wind,

[فَوَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُكَذِّبِينَ ]

(Then woe that Day to those who denied), woe to them that Day as a result of Allah's torment, punishment and affliction that He will direct at them,

[الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِى خَوْضٍ يَلْعَبُونَ ]

(Those who were in their falsehood, playing.) meaning, they live in this life in falsehood and make the religion the subject of their mockery and jest,

[يَوْمَ يُدَعُّونَ]

(The Day when they will be pushed down by force) meaning, they will be violently driven and shoved,

[إِلَى نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ دَعًّا]

(to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing.) Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and Ath-Thawri said that this Ayah means, "They will be violently shoved into the Fire.'' Allah said,

[هَـذِهِ النَّارُ الَّتِى كُنتُم بِهَا تُكَذِّبُونَ ]

(This is the Fire, which you used to deny.) meaning, the angels of punishment will say these words to them, while admonishing and chastising them,

[أَفَسِحْرٌ هَـذَا أَمْ أَنتُمْ لاَ تُبْصِرُونَ اصْلَوْهَا]

(Is this magic or do you not see Enter therein) meaning, enter the Fire, `which will encircle you from every direction,'

[فَاصْبِرُواْ أَوْ لاَ تَصْبِرُواْ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيْكُمْ]

(and whether you are patient of it or impatient of it, it is all the same.) `whether you endure its torment and afflictions or not, you will never avert it or be saved from it,'

[إِنَّمَا تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ]

(You are only being requited for what you used to do.) and surely, Allah is never unjust with anyone. Most certainly, Allah recompenses each according to their deeds.

[إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّـتٍ وَنَعِيمٍ - فَـكِهِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ وَوَقَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ ]

[كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ هَنِيئَاً بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ - مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَى سُرُرٍ مَّصْفُوفَةٍ وَزَوَّجْنَـهُم بِحُورٍ عِينٍ ]

(17. Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in Gardens and Delight.) (18. Enjoying in that which their Lord has bestowed on them, and (the fact that) their Lord saved them from the torment of the blazing Fire.) (19. "Eat and drink with happiness because of what you used to do.'') (20. They will recline on thrones Masfufah. And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes.)

4. Description of the Destination of the Happy

Allah the Exalted described the destination of the happy ones,

[إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّـتٍ وَنَعِيمٍ ]

(Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in Gardens and Delight.) in contrast to the torment and punishment of the miserable;

[فَـكِهِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ]

(Enjoying in that which their Lord has bestowed on them,) meaning, enjoying the various types of delight that Allah has granted them therein, such as various types of foods, drinks, clothes, dwelling places, mounts, and so forth,

[وَوَقَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ]

(and (the fact that) their Lord saved them from the torment of the blazing Fire.) He saved them from the torment of the Fire, which is a bounty itself. Added to this blessing is the fact that they were entered into Paradise, which has delights that no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard, nor has a heart ever imagined. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

[كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ هَنِيئَاً بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ]

("Eat and drink with happiness because of what you used to do'') is similar to another of His statements,

[كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ هَنِيئَاً بِمَآ أَسْلَفْتُمْ فِى الاٌّيَّامِ الْخَالِيَةِ ]

(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!)(69:24) meaning this is the just reward for your deeds; surely, all this is a favor from Allah and a reward from Him. Allah the Exalted said,

[مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَى سُرُرٍ مَّصْفُوفَةٍ]

(They will recline (with ease) on thrones Masfufah.) Ath-Thawri reported from Husayn, from Mujahid, from Ibn `Abbas: "Thrones in howdahs.'' And the meaning of, (Masfufah) is they will be facing each other,

[عَلَى سُرُرٍ مُّتَقَـبِلِينَ ]

(Facing one another on thrones.)(37:44) Allah said next,

[وَزَوَّجْنَـهُم بِحُورٍ عِينٍ]

(And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes.) We made for them righteous spouses, beautiful wives from Al-Hur Al-`Ayn. We mentioned the description of Al-Hur Al-`Ayn in several other places in this Tafsir, and therefore, it is not necessary to repeat their description here.

[وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُم بِإِيمَـنٍ أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَمَآ أَلَتْنَـهُمْ مِّنْ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ كُلُّ امْرِىءٍ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهَينٌ - وَأَمْدَدْنَـهُم بِفَـكِهَةٍ وَلَحْمٍ مِّمَّا يَشْتَهُونَ - يَتَنَـزَعُونَ فِيهَا كَأْساً لاَّ لَغْوٌ فِيهَا وَلاَ تَأْثِيمٌ - وَيَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ غِلْمَانٌ لَّهُمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لُؤْلُؤٌ مَّكْنُونٌ وَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ يَتَسَآءَلُونَ قَالُواْ إِنَّا كُنَّا قَبْلُ فِى أَهْلِنَا مُشْفِقِينَ فَمَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْنَا وَوَقَـنَا عَذَابَ السَّمُومِ إِنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبْلُ نَدْعُوهُ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْبَرُّ الرَّحِيمُ ]

(21. And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, -- to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything. Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) (22. And We shall provide them with fruit and meat such as they desire.) (23. There they shall pass from hand to hand a cup, free from any idle talk, and free from sin.) (24. And there will go round boy-servants of theirs, to serve them as if they were preserved pearls.) (25. And some of them draw near to others, questioning.) (26. Saying: "Aforetime, we were afraid in the midst of our families.'') (27. "So Allah has been gracious to us, and has saved us from the torment of the Fire.'') (28. "Verily, We used to invoke Him before. Verily, He is the Most Subtle, the Most Merciful.'')

5. The Offspring of Righteous Believers will be elevated to Their Grades in Paradise

In this Ayah, Allah the Exalted affirms His favor, generosity, graciousness, compassion and beneficence towards His creation. When the offspring of the righteous believers imitate their parents regarding faith, Allah will elevate the latter to the ranks of the former, even though the latter did not perform deeds as goodly as their parents. Allah will comfort the eyes of the parents by seeing their offspring elevated to their grades. Surely, Allah will gather them together in the best manner, and He will not decrease the reward or the grades of those higher in rank for joining them together, hence His statement,

[أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَمَآ أَلَتْنَـهُمْ مِّنْ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ]

(to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) Ath-Thawri reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Verily, Allah elevates the ranks of the believers' offspring to rank of their parents, even though the latter have not performed as well as the former, so that the eyes of the parents are comforted.'' Ibn `Abbas then recited this Ayah,

[وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُم بِإِيمَـنٍ أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَمَآ أَلَتْنَـهُمْ مِّنْ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ]

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, -- to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement from Sufyan Ath-Thawri from Ibn `Abbas. Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,

[وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُم بِإِيمَـنٍ أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ]

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, -- to them shall We join their offspring.) saying, "They are the offspring of the believers who died on the faith. If the ranks of their parents are higher than their ranks, they will be joined with their parents. No part of the reward their parents received for their good deeds will be reduced for them.'' `Abdullah, son of Imam Ahmad, recorded that `Ali said, "Khadijah asked the Prophet about two of her children who died during the time of Jahiliyyah, and the Messenger of Allah said;

هُمَا فِي النَّار

(They are both in the Fire.) When he saw sadness on her face, he said,

لَوْ رَأَيْتِ مَكَانَهُمَا لَأَبْغَضْتِهِمَا

(If you saw their dwelling place, you would hate them.) She said, `O Allah's Messenger! What about my children with you.' He said,

فِي الْجَنَّة

(They are in Paradise.) The Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَوْلَادَهُمْ فِي الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنَّ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَأَوْلَادَهُمْ فِي النَّار

(Verily, the believers and their offspring will dwell in Paradise, while the idolators and their offspring will dwell in the Hellfire.) The Prophet then recited the Ayah,

[وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُم بِإِيمَـنٍ]

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith...)'' Certainly, it is Allah's grace and favor that He grants the children this blessing because of the good deeds of their parents. He also grants His favor to parents on account of their offspring invoking Allah for them. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ اللهَ لَيَرْفَعُ الدَّرَجَةَ لِلْعَبْدِ الصَّالِحِ فِي الْجَنَّةِ فَيَقُولُ: يَا رَبِّ أَنْى لِي هذِهِ؟ فَيَقُولُ: بِاسْتِغْفَارِ وَلَدِكَ لَك

(Verily, Allah shall elevate the grade of a righteous servant in Paradise, who will ask, "O Lord! How did I earn this'' Allah will reply, "Through your son's invoking Me to forgive you.'') This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration, but it was not recorded in the Sahih this way. However, there is a witnessing narration for it in Sahih Muslim, from the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِذَا مَاتَ ابْنُ آدَمَ انْقَطَعَ عَمَلُهُ إِلَّا مِنْ ثَلَاثٍ: صَدَقَةٍ جَارِيَةٍ، أَوْ عِلْمٍ يُنْتَفَعُ بِهِ، أَوْ وَلَدٍ صَالِحٍ يَدْعُو لَه

(When the Son of Adam dies, his record of deeds will cease except in three cases: an ongoing charity, knowledge that people are benefiting from and a righteous son who invokes Allah for him.)

6. Allah is Just with the Sinners

Allah the Exalted said,

[كُلُّ امْرِىءٍ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهَينٌ]

(Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) After Allah mentioned His favor of elevating the offspring to the ranks of their parents, even though the deeds of the former did not qualify them, He affirmed His fairness in that, He does not punish anyone for the mistakes of others,

[كُلُّ امْرِىءٍ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهَينٌ]

(Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) Therefore, every person will be responsible for his actions. No sin committed by others shall ever be added to one's load, even if committed by his or her parents or offspring. Allah the Exalted said,

[كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ رَهِينَةٌ - إِلاَّ أَصْحَـبَ الْيَمِينِ - فِى جَنَّـتٍ يَتَسَآءَلُونَ - عَنِ الْمُجْرِمِينَ ]

(Every person is a pledge for what he has earned, except those on the Right. In Gardens, they will ask one another about the criminals.)(74:38-41)

7. Description of the Khamr of Paradise and the Delight of its Dwellers

Allah said,

[وَأَمْدَدْنَـهُم بِفَـكِهَةٍ وَلَحْمٍ مِّمَّا يَشْتَهُونَ ]

(And We shall provide them with fruit and meat such as they desire.) meaning, `We shall provide them with various types and kinds of fruits and meat, whatever they wish for and desire,'

[يَتَنَـزَعُونَ فِيهَا كَأْساً]

(There they shall pass from hand to hand a cup,) meaning, of wine, according to Ad-Dahhak,

[لاَّ لَغْوٌ فِيهَا وَلاَ تَأْثِيمٌ]

(free from any Laghw, and free from Ta'thim) meaning, when they drink, they do not say any idle, vain words or utter dirty, sinful speech like the drunken people in this life do. Ibn `Abbas said that Laghw means `falsehood' while Ta'thim means `lying'. Mujahid said, "They do not curse each other nor sin.'' Qatadah said, "These were the consequences of drinking in this life, and Shaytan helped in this regard. Allah purified the wine of the Hereafter from the ills and harm caused by the wine of this life.'' Therefore, Allah has purified the wine of the Hereafter from causing headaches, stomachaches and intoxication like the wine of this life. Allah stated that wine of the Hereafter shall not cause those who drink it to utter false, vain words that carry no benefit, full of foolishness and evil. Allah also described the wine of the Hereafter as beautiful in appearance, tasty and fruitful,

[بَيْضَآءَ لَذَّةٍ لِّلشَّـرِبِينَ - لاَ فِيهَا غَوْلٌ وَلاَ هُمْ عَنْهَا يُنزَفُونَ ]

(White, delicious to the drinkers. Neither will they have Ghawl from that nor will they suffer intoxication therefrom.)(37:46-47) and,

[لاَّ يُصَدَّعُونَ عَنْهَا وَلاَ يُنزِفُونَ ]

(Wherefrom they will get neither nay aching of the head nor any intoxication.)(56:19) Allah the Exalted said here,

[يَتَنَـزَعُونَ فِيهَا كَأْساً لاَّ لَغْوٌ فِيهَا وَلاَ تَأْثِيمٌ ]

(There they shall pass from hand to hand a (wine) cup, free from any Laghw, and free from sin.) Allah said,

[وَيَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ غِلْمَانٌ لَّهُمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لُؤْلُؤٌ مَّكْنُونٌ ]

(And there will go round boy-servants of theirs to serve them as if they were preserved pearls.) This is a description of the servants and aids, the believers will have in Paradise. Their servants will be beautiful, graceful in appearance, clean and neat as well-preserved pearls,

[يَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ وِلْدَنٌ مُّخَلَّدُونَ - بِأَكْوَابٍ وَأَبَارِيقَ وَكَأْسٍ مِّن مَّعِينٍ ]

(Immortal boys will go around them with cups, and jugs, and a glass of flowing wine.)(56:17-18) Allah the Exalted said,

[وَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ يَتَسَآءَلُونَ ]

(And some of them draw near to others, questioning.) meaning, the believers will draw near to each other talking and remembering their actions and conditions in this life, just as people in this life talk while drinking, especially when they become intoxicated,

[قَالُواْ إِنَّا كُنَّا قَبْلُ فِى أَهْلِنَا مُشْفِقِينَ ]

(Saying: "Aforetime, we were afraid in the midst of our families.'') meaning, `in the life of world and in the midst of our families, we were afraid of our Lord and fearful of His torment and punishment,'

[فَمَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْنَا وَوَقَـنَا عَذَابَ السَّمُومِ ]

(So Allah has been gracious to us, and has saved us from the torment of the Fire.) meaning, `He has granted us a favor and saved us from what we feared,'

[إِنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبْلُ نَدْعُوهُ]

(Verily, We used to invoke Him before.) meaning, `we used to invoke Him with submission and humility, and He accepted our invocation and gave us what we wished,'

[إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْبَرُّ الرَّحِيمُ]

(Verily, He is the Most Subtle, the Most Merciful.)

[فَذَكِّرْ فَمَآ أَنتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِكَـهِنٍ وَلاَ مَجْنُونٍ - أَمْ يَقُولُونَ شَاعِرٌ نَّتَرَبَّصُ بِهِ رَيْبَ الْمَنُونِ - قُلْ تَرَبَّصُواْ فَإِنِّى مَعَكُمْ مِّنَ الْمُتَرَبِّصِينَ - أَمْ تَأْمُرُهُمْ أَحْلَـمُهُمْ بِهَـذَآ أَمْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ طَاغُونَ - أَمْ يَقُولُونَ تَقَوَّلَهُ بَل لاَّ يُؤْمِنُونَ - فَلْيَأْتُواْ بِحَدِيثٍ مِّثْلِهِ إِن كَانُواْ صَـدِقِينَ ]

(29. Therefore, remind. By the grace of Allah, you are neither a Kahin nor a madman.) (30. Or do they say: "A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!'') (31. Say: "Wait! I am with you among those who wait!'') (32. Or do their minds command them this or are they people transgressing all bounds) (33. Or do they say: "He has forged it'' Nay! They believe not!) (34. Let them then produce a recitation like unto it if they are truthful.)

8. Absolving the Prophet of the False Accusations the Idolators made against Him

Allah the Exalted commands His Messenger to convey His Message to His servants and remind them of His revelation that has been sent down to him. Next, Allah refutes the false accusations that the liars and sinners accused the Prophet of,

[فَذَكِّرْ فَمَآ أَنتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِكَـهِنٍ وَلاَ مَجْنُونٍ ]

(Therefore, remind. By the grace of Allah, you are neither a Kahin nor a madman.) Allah says, `by the grace of Allah, you, O Muhammad, are not a Kahin, as the ignorant Quraysh idolators claim.' A Kahin is the soothsayer who receives information from the Jinns that the Jinns are able to eavesdrop on news from heaven,

[وَلاَ مَجْنُونٍ]

(nor a madman) whom Shaytan has possessed with insanity. Allah the Exalted said, while chastising the pagans for uttering false statements about the Prophet ,

[أَمْ يَقُولُونَ شَاعِرٌ نَّتَرَبَّصُ بِهِ رَيْبَ الْمَنُونِ ]

(Or do they say: "A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!'') They said, `We await a disaster to strike him, for example, death. We will be patient with him until death comes to him and we, thus, get rid of his bother and from his Message.' Allah the Exalted said,

[قُلْ تَرَبَّصُواْ فَإِنِّى مَعَكُمْ مِّنَ الْمُتَرَبِّصِينَ ]

(Say: "Wait! I am with you among those who wait!'') `wait and I too will wait with you, and you will come to know to whom the good end and triumph shall be granted in this life and the Hereafter.' Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that `Abdullah bin Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that Ibn `Abbas said, "When the Quraysh gathered in the Dar An-Nadwah (their meeting place) to discuss the matter of the Prophet, one of them said, `Jail him in chains. Then we will wait and in time, a calamity will strike him; he will die just as the poets before him died, such as Zuhayr and An-Nabighah, for he is a poet just like them.' Allah the Exalted said in response to their statement,

[أَمْ يَقُولُونَ شَاعِرٌ نَّتَرَبَّصُ بِهِ رَيْبَ الْمَنُونِ ]

(Or do they say: "A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!'')'' Allah the Exalted said,

[أَمْ تَأْمُرُهُمْ أَحْلَـمُهُمْ بِهَـذَآ]

(Or do their minds command them this), `do their minds command them to tell these lies against you (O Muhammad), even though they know in their hearts that they are untrue and false,'

[أَمْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ طَاغُونَ]

(or are they people transgressing all bounds) `surely, they are misguided, stubborn and unjust people, and this is why they say what they say about you (O Muhammad). ' Allah the Exalted said,

[أَمْ يَقُولُونَ تَقَوَّلَهُ]

(Or do they say: "He has forged it'') They said, `he has forged this Qur'an and brought it from his own.' Allah the Exalted responded to them,

[بَل لاَّ يُؤْمِنُونَ]

(Nay! They believe not!), meaning, their disbelief drives them to utter these statements,

[فَلْيَأْتُواْ بِحَدِيثٍ مِّثْلِهِ إِن كَانُواْ صَـدِقِينَ ]

(Let them then produce a recitation like unto it if they are truthful.) meaning, if they are truthful in their statement that Muhammad has forged this Qur'an and brought it of his own, then let them produce something similar to what he has brought forth, as in this Qur'an! And even if they combine their strength to that of the people of the earth, Jinns and mankind alike, they will never produce something like the Qur'an, or ten Surahs like it, or even one Surah!

[أَمْ خُلِقُواْ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَىْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَـلِقُونَ - أَمْ خَلَقُواْ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ بَل لاَّ يُوقِنُونَ - أَمْ عِندَهُمْ خَزَآئِنُ رَبِّكَ أَمْ هُمُ الْمُسَيْطِرُونَ - أَمْ لَهُمْ سُلَّمٌ يَسْتَمِعُونَ فِيهِ فَلْيَأْتِ مُسْتَمِعُهُم بِسُلْطَـنٍ مُّبِينٍ - أَمْ لَهُ الْبَنَـتُ وَلَكُمُ الْبَنُونَ - أَمْ تَسْـَلُهُمْ أَجْراً فَهُم مِّن مَّغْرَمٍ مُّثْقَلُونَ - أَمْ عِندَهُمُ الْغَيْبُ فَهُمْ يَكْتُبُونَ - أَمْ يُرِيدُونَ كَيْداً فَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هُمُ الْمَكِيدُونَ - أَمْ لَهُمْ إِلَـهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ سُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ]

(35. Or were they created by nothing Or were they themselves the creators) (36. Or did they create the heavens and the earth Nay, but they have no firm belief.) (37. Or are with them the treasures of your Lord Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like) (38. Or have they a stairway (to heaven), by means of which they listen Then let their listener produce some manifest proof.) (39. Or has He only daughters and you have sons) (40. Or is it that you ask a wage from them so that they are burdened with a load of debt) (41. Or that the Unseen is with them, and they write it down) (42. Or do they intend a plot But those who disbelieve are themselves plotted against!) (43. Or have they a god other than Allah Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partners.)

9. Affirming Tawhid and annulling the Plots of the Idolators This is the position where Tawhid of Allah's Lordship and Divinity are affirmed.

Allah the Exalted said,

[أَمْ خُلِقُواْ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَىْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَـلِقُونَ ]

(Or were they created by nothing Or were they themselves the creators) Allah asks them, were they created without a maker or did they create themselves Neither is true. Allah is the One Who created them and brought them into existence after they were nothing. Al-Bukhari recorded that Jubayr bin Mut`im said, "I heard the Prophet recite Surat At-Tur in Al-Maghrib prayer and when he reached this Ayah,

[أَمْ خُلِقُواْ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَىْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَـلِقُونَ - أَمْ خَلَقُواْ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ بَل لاَّ يُوقِنُونَ - أَمْ عِندَهُمْ خَزَآئِنُ رَبِّكَ أَمْ هُمُ الْمُسَيْطِرُونَ ]

(Or were they created by nothing Or were they themselves the creators Or did they create the heavens and the earth Nay, but they have no firm belief. Or are with them the treasures of your Lord Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like), I felt my heart would fly away.'' This Hadith is collected in the Two Sahihs using various chains of narration. Jubayr bin Mut`im went to the Messenger of Allah after the battle of Badr to ransom the captured idolators. At that time, he was still an idolator. Hearing the Prophet recite this Ayah was one of the reasons that he later embraced Islam. Allah the Exalted said, o

[أَمْ خَلَقُواْ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ بَل لاَّ يُوقِنُونَ ]

(Or did they create the heavens and the earth Nay, but they have no firm belief.) meaning, Allah is censuring the idolators for their idolatry, while asking them if they created the heavens and earth. They knew that Allah Alone is the Creator without partners with Him. However, they fell into idolatry because they had no firm belief,

[أَمْ عِندَهُمْ خَزَآئِنُ رَبِّكَ أَمْ هُمُ الْمُسَيْطِرُونَ ]

(Or are with them the treasures of your Lord Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like) meanings, do they have the authority to do whatever they will in His kingdom Do they hold the keys to His treasures in their hands

[أَمْ هُمُ الْمُسَيْطِرُونَ]

(or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like) meanings, are they the tyrants who would hold the creation to account Never, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored is the Only King and Owner of the existence and He does what He wills. Allah the Exalted said,

[أَمْ لَهُمْ سُلَّمٌ يَسْتَمِعُونَ فِيهِ]

(Or have they a stairway, by means of which they listen.) meaning, do they have a stairway to heaven (to the place where the angels are),

[فَلْيَأْتِ مُسْتَمِعُهُم بِسُلْطَـنٍ مُّبِينٍ]

(Then let their listener produce some manifest proof.) meaning, let their listener produce evidence to the truth of their actions and statements. They will never be able to do so and therefore, they have nothing and have no evidence for their stance. Allah admonishes them regarding their claim that He has daughters and that the angels are females! The pagans chose for themselves male offspring and preferred them instead of females, and when one of them would be brought the good news of a daughter being born, his face would turn dark on account of his suppressed anger! Yet, they made the angels Allah's daughters and worshipped them besides Allah,

[أَمْ لَهُ الْبَنَـتُ وَلَكُمُ الْبَنُونَ ]

(Or has He only daughters and you have sons) Allah sends a strong warning and stern admonition to them in this Ayah and a sure promise. Allah said,

[أَمْ تَسْـَلُهُمْ أَجْراً]

(Or is it that you ask a wage from them) meaning, `as a remuneration for your preaching Allah's Message to them Nay, you, do not ask them for a wage,'

[فَهُم مِّن مَّغْرَمٍ مُّثْقَلُونَ]

(so that they are burdened with a load of debt), meaning, for in this situation, one will complain of the least bothersome thing and feel it difficult and burdensome for him,

[أَمْ عِندَهُمُ الْغَيْبُ فَهُمْ يَكْتُبُونَ ]

(Or that the Unseen is with them, and they write it down) means, they do not have knowledge of the Unseen, for none in the heavens or earth knows the Unseen except Allah,

[أَمْ يُرِيدُونَ كَيْداً فَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هُمُ الْمَكِيدُونَ ]

(Or do they intend a plot But those who disbelieve are themselves plotted against!) Allah the Exalted is asking, `Do these people who utter such statements about the Messenger and his religion seek to deceive the people and plot against the Messenger and his Companions If they do, then let them know that their plots will only harm them. Therefore, they are being plotted against rather than being the plotters!'

[أَمْ لَهُمْ إِلَـهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ سُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ]

(Or have they a god other than Allah Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partners (to Him).) This Ayah contains harsh refutation directed at the idolators for worshipping the idols and calling upon rivals along with Allah. Allah next glorifies His Most Honorable Self from what they ascribe to Him, their lies and idolatry,

[سُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ]

(Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partners (to Him).)

[وَإِن يَرَوْاْ كِسْفاً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ سَـقِطاً يَقُولُواْ سَحَـبٌ مَّرْكُومٌ - فَذَرْهُمْ حَتَّى يُلَـقُواْ يَوْمَهُمُ الَّذِى فِيهِ يُصْعَقُونَ - يَوْمَ لاَ يُغْنِى عَنْهُمْ كَيْدُهُمْ شَيْئاً وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ - وَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ عَذَاباً دُونَ ذَلِكَ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ - وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ - وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ وَإِدْبَـرَ النُّجُومِ ]

(44. And if they were to see a piece of the heaven falling down, they would say: "Clouds gathered in heaps!'') (45. So leave them alone till they meet their Day, in which they will sink into a fainting (with horror).) (46. The Day when their plotting shall not avail them at all, nor will they be helped.) (47. And verily, for those who do wrong, there is another punishment before this; but most of them know not.) (48. So wait patiently for the decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes; and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.) (49. And in the nighttime also glorify His praises and at the setting of the stars.)

10. The Stubbornness of the Idolators; Their Punishment

Allah the Exalted reaffirms the stubbornness of the idolators and their ignorance of what goes around them,

[وَإِن يَرَوْاْ كِسْفاً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ سَـقِطاً]

(And if they were to see a piece of the heaven falling down,) meaning, on them as punishment, they would not believe it is coming their way, saying that, these are layers of clouds on top of each other. Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,

[وَلَوْ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِم بَاباً مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ فَظَلُّواْ فِيهِ يَعْرُجُونَ - لَقَالُواْ إِنَّمَا سُكِّرَتْ أَبْصَـرُنَا بَلْ نَحْنُ قَوْمٌ مَّسْحُورُونَ ]

(And even if We opened to them a gate from the heaven and they were to keep on ascending thereto (all day long), they would surely say (in the evening): "Our eyes have been dazzled. Nay, we are a people bewitched.'')(15:14-15) Allah the Exalted said,

[فَذَرْهُمْ]

(So leave them alone), `O Muhammad,'

[حَتَّى يُلَـقُواْ يَوْمَهُمُ الَّذِى فِيهِ يُصْعَقُونَ]

(till they meet their Day, in which they will sink into a fainting.) on the Day of Resurrection,

[يَوْمَ لاَ يُغْنِى عَنْهُمْ كَيْدُهُمْ شَيْئاً]

(The Day when their plotting shall not avail them at all, ) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection, their deceit and plots they planned in this life shall not help them in the least,

[وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ]

(nor will they be helped.) Allah the Exalted said,

[وَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ عَذَاباً دُونَ ذَلِكَ]

(And verily, for those who do wrong, there is another punishment before this;) meaning, that of being the torment in this world. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

[وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُمْ مِّنَ الْعَذَابِ الاٌّدْنَى دُونَ الْعَذَابِ الاٌّكْبَرِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ ]

(And verily, We will make them taste of the near torment prior to the supreme torment (in the Hereafter), in order that they may return.)(32:21) Allah said;

[وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ]

(but most of them know not.) meaning, `We will torment them in the life of the world and test them with various hardships, so that they might go back and repent. However, they do not understand what is happening to them or why, because when the torment is removed, they revert to committing the worst of what they used to do before.' A Hadith states that,

11. Ordering the Prophet to have Patience and to glorify Allah

Allah the Exalted said,

[وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا]

(So wait patiently for the decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes;) meaning, `be patient in the face of their annoyance and do not be concerned about it, for you are under Our Eyes and Protection, and We will surely protect you from the people,'

[وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ]

(and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.) Ad-Dahhak said, "Meaning to stand for the Salah (and say): "Glorious are You and with Your praise, Hallowed be Your Name, Exalted be Your majesty, and there is no God (worthy of worship) except You.'' In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that `Umar used to recite this supplication when he began Salah. Ahmad and the Sunan compilers recorded this Hadith from Abu Sa`id and other Companions, who stated that the Prophet used to say that. Abu Al-Jawza' commented on the Ayah;

[وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ]

(and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.) "From your sleep, from your bed.'' And this is the view chosen by Ibn Jarir. Suporting this view is the Hadith that Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said that the Messenger of Allah said,

مَنْ تَعَارَّ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَقَالَ: لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ، وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ، سُبْحَانَ اللهِ وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ وَلَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ، وَلَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللهِ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي أو قال: ثُمَّ دَعَا اسْتُجِيبَ لَهُ، فَإِنْ عَزَمَ فَتَوَضَّأَ ثُمَّ صَلَّى، قُبِلَتْ صَلَاتُه

(Whoever gets up at night and says: `La ilaha illallah, He is One without partners. For Him is the kingdom and all praise is due to Him. He has power over all things. Glory be to Allah, and all praise is due to Allah, and La illaha illallah and Allah is Greater. There is neither might nor power except Allah.' And then says, `O Lord! Forgive me.' Or invokes (Allah), he will be responded to it, and if he intends and performs ablution and prays, his prayer will be accepted.) Al-Bukhari and the Sunan compilers also recorded this Hadith. Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid commented on the Ayah,

[وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ]

(and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.) saying, "From every gathering you sit in.'' Ath-Thawri said that Abu Ishaq narrated that Abu Al-Ahwas said that,

[وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ]

(and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.) "When a person wants to stand from a gathering, he says: `Glory be to You, O Allah, and with Your praise.''' Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said,

مَنْ جَلَسَ فِي مَجْلِسٍ فَكَثُرَ فِيهِ لَغَطُهُ، فَقَالَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقُومَ مِنْ مَجْلِسِهِ: سُبْحَانَكَ اللْهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ، أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْكَ، إِلَّا غَفَرَ اللهُ لَهُ مَا كَانَ فِي مَجْلِسِهِ ذلِك

(Whoever sits in a gathering in which he speaks idle excessively, but says before he stands up to depart that gathering, `Glory be to You O Allah , and with Your praise, I testify that there is no God (worthy of worship) except You, I seek Your forgiveness, and I repent to You.' Then, Allah will forgive him what he has said in that gathering.) This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, and this is his wording, and it was also recorded by An-Nasa'i in [`Amal] Al-Yawm wal-Laylah. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' It was also recorded by Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, and he said, "Its chain meets the criteria of Muslim.'' Allah the Exalted said;

[وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ]

(And in the nighttime also glorify His praises), meaning remember and worship Allah by reciting the Qur'an and praying at night. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

[وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةً لَّكَ عَسَى أَن يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَاماً مَّحْمُودًا ]

(And in some of the night, offer Tahajjud in it as an additional (prayer) for you. It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud.)(17:79) Allah said;

[وَإِدْبَـرَ النُّجُومِ]

(and at the setting of the stars.) is in reference to the two voluntary Rak`ahs before the Dawn prayer, according to a Hadith from Ibn `Abbas. These two Rak`ahs are an established Sunnah performed before the stars are about to set. It is confimred in the Two Sahihs from `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, who said, "The Prophet was never more regular and particular in offering any voluntary prayer than the two (Sunnah) Rak`ahs of the Fajr prayer.'' In another narration collected by Muslim, [the Prophet said,]

رَكْعَتَا الْفَجْرِ خَيْرٌ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا

(Two (Sunnah) Rak`ahs before Fajr are better than this life and all that in it.)This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat At-Tur, all praise and gratitude is due to Allah.


The Tafsir of Surah An-Najm (De Ster) (Chapter 53)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Makkah

1. The First Surah in which a Prostration is revealed
2. Allah swears the Messenger is True and His Words are a Revelation from Him
3. Muhammad was sent as a Mercy for all that exists; He does not speak of His Desire
4. The Trustworthy Angel brought Allah's Revelation to the Trustworthy Messenger
5. Meaning of "at a distance of two bows' length or less
6. Did the Prophet see His Lord during the Night of Isra
7. Angels, Light and colors covered Sidrat Al-Muntaha
8. Refuting Idolatry, Al-Lat and Al-`Uzza
9. Refuting the Idolators Who appoint Rivals to Allah and claim that the Angels were Females
10. Wishful Thinking does not earn One Righteousness
11. No Interecession except with Allah's Leave
12. Refuting the Claim of the Idolators that the Angels are Allah's Daughters
13. The Necessity of turning away from the People of Misguidance
14. Allah knows Every Matter, whether Small or Big, and He rewards Each according to His or Her Deeds
15. Qualities of the Good-doers; Allah forgives the Small Faults
16. Encouraging Repentance and forbidding Claims of Purity for Oneself
17. Chastising Those Who disobey Allah and stop giving Charity
18. The Meaning of `fulfilled
19. None shall carry the Burden of Any Other on the Day of Resurrection
20. Some Attributes of the Lord, that He returns Man as He originated Him, and some of what He does with His Servants
21. A Warning and Exhortation, the Order to prostrate and to be humble

1. The First Surah in which a Prostration is revealed

Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah [bin Mas`ud] said, "Surat An-Najm was the first Surah in which a prostration was revealed. The Prophet (recited it in Makkah) and prostrated. Those who were with him did the same, except an old man who took a handful of soil and prostrated on it. Later on, I saw him killed as a disbeliever; he was Umayyah bin Khalaf.'' Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in several places of his Sahih, as did Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i, using various chains of narration through Abu Ishaq from `Abdullah.

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى - مَا ضَلَّ صَـحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى - وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى - إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ وَحْىٌ يُوحَى ]

(1. By the star when it goes down.) (2. Your companion has neither gone astray nor has he erred.) (3. Nor does he speak of desire.) (4. It is only a revelation revealed.)

2. Allah swears the Messenger is True and His Words are a Revelation from Him

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ash-Sha`bi and others stated that the Creator swears by whatever He wills among His creation, but the created only vow by the Creator. Allah said,

[وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى ]

(By the star when it goes down.) Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said, "The star refers to Pleiades when it sets at Fajr.'' Ad-Dahhak said "When the Shayatin are shot with it.'' And this Ayah is like Allah's saying;

[فَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِمَوَقِعِ النُّجُومِ - وَإِنَّهُ لَقَسَمٌ لَّوْ تَعْلَمُونَ عَظِيمٌ - إِنَّهُ لَقُرْءَانٌ كَرِيمٌ - فِى كِتَـبٍ مَّكْنُونٍ - لاَّ يَمَسُّهُ إِلاَّ الْمُطَهَّرُونَ - تَنزِيلٌ مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ ]

(So, I swear by the setting of the stars. And verily, that is indeed a great oath, if you but know. That is indeed an honorable recitation. In a Book well-guarded. Which none can touch but the pure. A revelation from the Lord of all that exists.)(56:75-80) Allah said;

[مَا ضَلَّ صَـحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى ]

(Your companion has neither gone astray nor has erred.) This contains the subject of the oath. This part of the Ayah is the witness that the Messenger of Allah is sane and a follower of Truth. He is neither led astray, such as in the case of the ignorant who does not proceed on any path with knowledge, nor is he one who erred, such as in the case of the knowledgeable, who knows the Truth, yet deviates from it intentionally to something else. Therefore, Allah exonerated His Messenger and his Message from being similar to the misguided ways of the Christians and the erroneous paths of the Jews, such as knowing the Truth and hiding it, while abiding by falsehood. Rather, he, may Allah's peace and blessings be on him, and his glorious Message that Allah has sent him with, are on the perfect straight path, following guidance and what is correct.

3. Muhammad was sent as a Mercy for all that exists; He does not speak of His Desire

Allah said,

[وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى ]

(Nor does he speak of desire), asserting that nothing the Prophet utters is of his own desire or wish,

[إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ وَحْىٌ يُوحَى ]

(It is only a revelation revealed.), means, he only conveys to the people what he was commanded to convey, in its entirety without additions or deletions. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Umamah said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

لَيَدْخُلَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ بِشَفَاعَةِ رَجُلٍ لَيْسَ بِنَبِيَ مِثْلُ الْحَيَّيْنِ أَوْ مِثْلُ أَحَدِ الْحَيَّيْنِ رَبِيعَةَ وَمُضَر

(Verily, numbers similar to the two tribes, or one of them, Rabi`ah and Mudar, will enter Paradise on account of the intercession of one man, who is not a Prophet.) A man asked, "O Allah's Messenger! Is not Rabi`ah a subtribe of Mudar.'' The Prophet said,

إِنَّمَا أَقُولُ مَا أَقُول

(I said what I said.) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, "I used to record everything I heard from the Messenger of Allah so it would be preserved. The Quraysh discouraged me from this, saying, `You record everything you hear from the Messenger of Allah , even though he is human and sometimes speaks when he is angry' I stopped recording the Hadiths for a while, but later mentioned what they said to the Messenger of Allah , who said,

اكْتُبْ، فَوَ الَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ مَا خَرَجَ مِنِّي إِلَّا الْحَق

(Write! By He in Whose Hand is my soul, every word that comes out of me is the Truth.)'' Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.

[عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى - ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَوَى - وَهُوَ بِالاٍّفُقِ الاٌّعْلَى - ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلَّى - فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى - فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَآ أَوْحَى - مَا كَذَبَ الْفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَى - أَفَتُمَـرُونَهُ عَلَى مَا يَرَى - وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرَى - عِندَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنتَهَى - عِندَهَا جَنَّةُ الْمَأْوَى - إِذْ يَغْشَى السِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَى - مَا زَاغَ الْبَصَرُ وَمَا طَغَى - لَقَدْ رَأَى مِنْ ءَايَـتِ رَبِّهِ الْكُبْرَى ]

(5. He has been taught by one mighty in power.) (6. Dhu Mirrah then he Istawa.) (7. While he was in the highest part of the horizon,) (8. Then he approached and came closer,) (9. And was at a distance of two bows' length or less.) (10. So (Allah) revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.) (11. The heart lied not in what he saw.) (12. Will you then dispute with him about what he saw) (13. And indeed he saw him at a second descent.) (14. Near Sidrat Al-Muntaha.) (15. Near it is the Paradise of Abode.) (16. When that covered the lote tree which did cover it!) (17. The sight turned not aside, nor it transgressed beyond the limit.) (18. Indeed he saw of the greatest Ssgns of his Lord.)

4. The Trustworthy Angel brought Allah's Revelation to the Trustworthy Messenger

Allah the Exalted states that the Message His servant and Messenger Muhammad brought to people was taught to him by,

[شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى]

(mighty in power), he is Jibril, peace be upon him,

[إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ ذِى قُوَّةٍ عِندَ ذِى الْعَرْشِ مَكِينٍ مُّطَـعٍ ثَمَّ أَمِينٍ ]

(Verily, this is the Word a most honorable messenger, owner of power, with (Allah) the Lord of the Throne, obeyed (by the angels) and trustworthy.)(81:19-21) Allah said here,

[ذُو مِرَّةٍ]

(Dhu Mirrah), meaning, he is mighty in power, according to Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Ibn Zayd. In an authentic Hadith from `Abdullah bin `Umar and Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet said,

لَا تَحِلُّ الصَّدَقَةُ لِغَنِيَ وَلَا لِذِي مِرَّةٍ سَوِي

(Charity is not allowed for a rich person nor Dhu Mirrah (a strong person) of sound mind and body.) Allah said;

[فَاسْتَوَى]

(then he Istawa (rose).) this refers to the angel Jibril, according to Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas,

[وَهُوَ بِالاٍّفُقِ الاٌّعْلَى ]

(While he was in the highest part of the horizon.) meaning, Jibril rose to the highest part of the horizon, according to `Ikrimah and several others; `Ikrimah said, "The highest horizon where the morning comes from.'' Mujahid said, "It is (the place of) sunrise.'' Qatadah said, "That from which the day comes.'' Ibn Zayd and several others said similarly. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Messenger of Allah saw Jibril in his original shape having six hundred wings, each wing filling the side of the horizon, with a colorful array, and pearls and rubies falling from each wing as much as only Allah knows.'' Only Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, "The Prophet asked Jibril to appear himself to him in his original shape and Jibril said to him, `Invoke your Lord.' The Prophet invoked his Lord the Exalted and Most Honored, and a great huge figure appeared to him from the east and kept rising and spreading. When the Prophet saw Jibril in his original shape, he was knocked unconscious. Jibril came down and revived the Prophet and wiped the saliva off of his cheeks.''' Only Ahmad collected this Hadith.

5. Meaning of "at a distance of two bows' length or less

Allah's statement,

[فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى ]

(And was at a distance of two bows` length or less.) means, Jibril came closer to Muhammad when Jibril was descending to him on earth. At that time, the distance between them became only two bow lengths, when the bows are extended to full length, according to Mujahid and Qatadah. It was said that the meaning here is the distance between the bow's string and its wood center. Allah's statement,

[أَوْ أَدْنَى]

(or less) indicates that the distance was as only as far described, not more. This type of usage is found in several instances in the Qur'an, such as,

[ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ مِّن بَعْدِ ذلِكَ فَهِىَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً]

(Then, after that, your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness.)(2:74) The Ayah says that their hearts became not softer than rocks, but as hard and difficult as rocks, and more. There is a similar Ayah,

[يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً]

(fear men as they fear Allah or even more.)(4:77), and Allah's statement,

[وَأَرْسَلْنَـهُ إِلَى مِاْئَةِ أَلْفٍ أَوْ يَزِيدُونَ ]

(And We sent him to hundred thousand (people) or even more.)(37:147), indicating that they were not less than a hundred thousand, but that amount or more. Therefore, this verifies the facts mentioned, leaving no doubt or means of refute. Similarly, Allah said,

[فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى ]

(And was at a distance of two bow lengths or less.) We stated before that it was Jibril who came down near the Prophet , according to `A'ishah, the Mother of the faithful, `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Abu Dharr and Abu Hurayrah. We will mention their statements about this soon afterwards, Allah willing. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said about this Ayah,

[فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى ]

(And was at a distance of two bow lengths or less.) "Allah's Messenger said,

رَأَيْتُ جِبْرِيلَ لَهُ سِتُّمِائَةِ جَنَاح

(I saw Jibril; he had six hundred wings.)'' Al-Bukhari recorded that Talq bin Ghannam said that Za'idah said that Ash-Shaybani said, "I asked Zirr about the Ayah,

[فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى - فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَآ أَوْحَى ]

(And was at a distance of two bow lengths or less. So (Allah) revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.) Zirr said, "Abdullah narrated to us that Muhammad saw Jibril having six hundred wings.'' Allah's statement,

[فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَآ أَوْحَى ]

(So he revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.) means, Jibril conveyed to Allah's servant Muhammad whatever he conveyed. Or, the meaning here could be: Allah revealed to His servant Muhammad whatever He revealed through Jibril. Both meanings are correct. Sa`id bin Jubayr said about Allah's statement,

[فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَآ أَوْحَى ]

(So He revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.) "Allah revealed to him,

[أَلَمْ يَجِدْكَ يَتِيماً]

(Did He not find you an orphan.)(93:6), and,

[وَرَفَعْنَا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَ ]

(And have We not raised high your fame)(94:4)'' Someone else said, "Allah revealed to the Prophet that the Prophets will not enter Paradise until he enters it first, and the nations will not enter it until his Ummah enters it first.''

6. Did the Prophet see His Lord during the Night of Isra

Allah said next,

[مَا كَذَبَ الْفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَى - أَفَتُمَـرُونَهُ عَلَى مَا يَرَى ]

(The heart lied not in what he saw. Will you then dispute with him about what he saw) Muslim recorded from Ibn `Abbas about:

[مَا كَذَبَ الْفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَى ]

(The heart lied not in what he saw), and,

[وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرَى ]

(And indeed he saw him at a second descent.) "He saw Allah twice in his heart.'' Simak reported a similar from `Ikrimah from Ibn `Abbas. Abu Salih, As-Suddi and several others said similarly that the Prophet saw Allah twice in his heart.Masruq said, "I went to `A'ishah and asked her, `Did Muhammad see his Lord' She said, `You said something that caused my hair to rise!' I said, `Behold!' and recited this Ayah,

[لَقَدْ رَأَى مِنْ ءَايَـتِ رَبِّهِ الْكُبْرَى ]

(Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.) She said, `Where did your mind wander It was Jibril. Whoever says to you that Muhammad saw his Lord, or hid any part of what he was commanded (i.e., Allah's Message), or knew any of the five things which only Allah knows,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ]

(Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain...)(31:34), Then he invents a great lie against Allah! The Prophet only saw Jibril twice, in his original shape, once near Sidrat Al-Muntaha and another time in Ajyad (in Makkah) while Jibril had six hundred wings that covered the horizon.''' Muslim recorded that Abu Dharr said, "I asked the Messenger of Allah , `Have you seen your Lord' He said,

نُورٌ أَنَّى أَرَاه

(How can I see Him since there was a light)'' In another narration, the Prophet said,

رَأَيْتُ نُورًا

(I only saw a light.) Allah's statement,

[وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرَى - عِندَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنتَهَى - عِندَهَا جَنَّةُ الْمَأْوَى ]

(And indeed he saw him at a second descent. Near Sidrat Al-Muntaha.) "The Messenger of Allah said,

رَأَيْتُ جِبْرِيلَ وَلَهُ سِتُّمِائَةِ جَنَاحٍ يَنْتَثِرُ مِنْ رِيشِهِ التَّهَاوِيلُ مِنَ الدُّرِّ وَالْيَاقُوت

(I saw Jibril while he had six hundred wings and a colorful array of pearls and rubies falling from the feathers of his wings.)'' This Hadith has a good, strong chain of narration. Ahmad also recorded that `Abdullah [Ibn Mas`ud] said, "The Messenger of Allah saw Jibril in his original shape while Jibril had six hundred wings, each wing covering the side of the horizon. From his wings, precious stones were dropping of which only Allah has knowledge.'' This Hadith has a good chain of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Messenger of Allah said,

رَأَيْتُ جِبْرِيلَ عَلَى سِدْرَةِ الْمُنْتَهَى وَلَهُ سِتُّمِائَةِ جَنَاح

(I saw Jibril over Sidrat Al-Muntaha while he had six hundred wings.)'' One of the subnarrators of the Hadith asked `Asim about Jibril's wings and `Asim refused to elaborate. So some of his companions were asked and one of them said, "Each wing was covering what is between the east and the west.'' This Hadith has a good chain of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that Allah's Messenger said:

أَتَانِي جِبْرِيلُ فِي خُضْرٍ مُعَلَّقٍ بِهِ الدُّر

(Jibril came to me wearing green with pearls hanging down.) This Hadith has a good chain of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amir said that Masruq asked `A'ishah, "O Mother of the faithful, has Muhammad seen his Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored'' She said, "Glorious is Allah! My hair is standing on end because of what you said. Three matters, if one tells you about any of them, will have lied. Whoever tells you that Muhammad has seen his Lord, will have lied.'' She then recited these two Ayat,

[لاَّ تُدْرِكُهُ الاٌّبْصَـرُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الاٌّبْصَـرَ]

(No vision can grasp Him, but He grasps all vision.)(6:103), and,

[وَمَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُكَلِّمَهُ اللَّهُ إِلاَّ وَحْياً أَوْ مِن وَرَآءِ حِجَابٍ]

(It is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by revelation, or from behind a veil.)(42:51) She went one, "And whoever tells you that Muhammad knew what the morrow will bring, will have uttered a lie.'' She then recited,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الاٌّرْحَامِ]

(Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs.)(31:34) `A'ishah said, "And whoever tells you that Muhammad has hidden any part of the Message will have lied,'' and she then recited this Ayah,

[يَـأَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ]

(O Messenger proclaim which has been sent down to you from your Lord.)(5:67).She went one, "However, he saw Jibril twice in his original shape.'' Imam Ahmad also recorded that Masruq said, "I asked `A'ishah, `Did not Allah say,

[وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ بِالاٍّفُقِ الْمُبِينِ ]

(And indeed he saw him in the clear horizon.)(81:23), and,

[وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرَى ]

(And indeed he saw him at a second descent)' She said, `I was the first among this Ummah to ask Allah's Messenger about it. He said,

إِنَّمَا ذَاكَ جِبْرِيل

(That was Jibril.) He only saw him twice in his actual and real figure. He saw Jibril descend from heaven to earth and was so huge that he covered the whole horizon between the sky and earth.)''' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs via Ash-Sha`bi.

7. Angels, Light and colors covered Sidrat Al-Muntaha

Allah said,

[إِذْ يَغْشَى السِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَى ]

(When that covered the lote tree which did cover it!) We mentioned before, in the Hadiths about Al-Isra' that the angels, Allah's Light, and spectacular colors covered the Sidrah. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "When the Messenger of Allah was taken on the Isra' journey, he ascended to Sidrat Al-Muntaha, which is in the seventh heaven. There everything terminates that ascends from the earth and is held there, and terminates everything that descends from above it is held there,

[إِذْ يَغْشَى السِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَى ]

(When that covered the lote tree which did cover it!) He said, "Golden butterflies. The Messenger of Allah was given three things: He was given the five prayers, he was given the concluding verses of Surat Al-Baqarah (2:284-286), and remission of serious sins for those among his Ummah who do not associate anything with Allah.'' Muslim collected this Hadith. Allah's statement,

[مَا زَاغَ الْبَصَرُ وَمَا طَغَى ]

(The sight turned not aside, nor it transgressed beyond the limit.) indicates that the Prophet's sight did not turn right or left, according to `Ibn `Abbas,

[وَمَا طَغَى]

(nor it transgressed beyond the limit.) not exceeding what has been ordained for it. This is a tremendous quality that demonstrates the Prophet's firm obedience to Allah, because he only did what was commanded and did ask beyond what he was given. Allah's statement,

[لَقَدْ رَأَى مِنْ ءَايَـتِ رَبِّهِ الْكُبْرَى ]

(Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.) is similar to another Ayah,

[لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ ءْايَـتِنَآ]

(In order that We might show him of Our Ayat.)(17:1), meaning, signs that testify to Allah's might and greatness. Relying on these two Ayat, some scholars of Ahl us-Sunnah said that the Prophet did not see Allah during the Isra' journey, because Allah said,

[لَقَدْ رَأَى مِنْ ءَايَـتِ رَبِّهِ الْكُبْرَى ]

(Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.) They said that, had the Prophet seen his Lord, Allah would have conveyed this news and the Prophet would have narrated it to the people.

[أَفَرَءَيْتُمُ اللَّـتَ وَالْعُزَّى - وَمَنَوةَ الثَّالِثَةَ الاٍّخْرَى - أَلَكُمُ الذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ الاٍّنثَى - تِلْكَ إِذاً قِسْمَةٌ ضِيزَى - إِنْ هِىَ إِلاَّ أَسْمَآءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَآ أَنتُمْ وَءَابَآؤُكُم مَّآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَـنٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى الاٌّنفُسُ وَلَقَدْ جَآءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ الْهُدَى - أَمْ لِلإِنسَـنِ مَا تَمَنَّى - فَلِلَّهِ الاٌّخِرَةُ والاٍّولَى - وَكَمْ مِّن مَّلَكٍ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ لاَ تُغْنِى شَفَـعَتُهُمْ شَيْئاً إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ أَن يَأْذَنَ اللَّهُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَرْضَى ]

(19. Have you then considered Al-Lat, and Al-`Uzza.) (20. And Manat, the other third) (21. Is it for you the males and for Him the females) (22. That indeed is a division most unfair!) (23. They are but names which you have named - you and your fathers - for which Allah has sent down no authority. They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!) (24. Or shall man have what he wishes) (25. But to Allah belongs the last (Hereafter) and the first (the world).) (26. And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing, except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.)

8. Refuting Idolatry, Al-Lat and Al-`Uzza

Allah the Exalted rebukes the idolators for worshipping idols and taking rivals to Him. They built houses for their idols to resemble the Ka`bah built by Prophet Ibrahim, Allah's Khalil.

[أَفَرَءَيْتُمُ اللَّـتَ]

(Have you then considered Al-Lat,) Al-Lat was a white stone with inscriptions on. There was a house built around Al-Lat in At-Ta'if with curtains, servants and a sacred courtyard around it. The people of At-Ta'if, the tribe of Thaqif and their allies, worshipped Al-Lat. They would boast to Arabs, except the Quraysh, that they had Al-Lat. Ibn Jarir said, "They derived Al-Lat's name from Allah's Name, and made it feminine. Allah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. It was reported that Al-Lat is pronounced Al-Lat because, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Mujahid, and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Al-Lat was a man who used to mix Sawiq (a kind of barley mash) with water for the pilgrims during the time of Jahiliyyah. When he died, they remained next to his grave and worshipped him.'' Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,

[اللَّـتَ وَالْعُزَّى]

(Al-Lat, and Al-`Uzza.) "Al-Lat was a man who used to mix Sawiq for the pilgrims.'' Ibn Jarir said, "They also derived the name for their idol Al-`Uzza from Allah's Name Al-`Aziz. Al-`Uzza was a tree on which the idolators placed a monument and curtains, in the area of Nakhlah, between Makkah and At-Ta'if. The Quraysh revered Al-`Uzza.'' During the battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan said, "We have Al-`Uzza, but you do not have Al-`Uzza.'' Allah's Messenger replied,

قُولُوا: اللهُ مَوْلَانَا وَلَا مَوْلَى لَكُم

(Say, "Allah is Our Supporter, but you have no support.'') Manat was another idol in the area of Mushallal near Qudayd, between Makkah and Al-Madinah. The tribes of Khuza`ah, Aws and Khazraj used to revere Manat during the time of Jahiliyyah. They used to announce Hajj to the Ka`bah from next to Manat. Al-Bukhari collected a statement from `A'ishah with this meaning. There were other idols in the Arabian Peninsula that the Arabs revered just as they revered the Ka`bah, besides the three idols that Allah mentioned in His Glorious Book. Allah mentioned these three here because they were more famous than the others. An-Nasa'i recorded that Abu At-Tufayl said, "When the Messenger of Allah conquered Makkah, he sent Khalid bin Al-Walid to the area of Nakhlah where the idol of Al-`Uzza was erected on three trees of a forest. Khalid cut the three trees and approached the house built around it and destroyed it. When he went back to the Prophet and informed him of the story, the Prophet said to him,

ارْجِعْ فَإِنَّكَ لَمْ تَصْنَعْ شَيْئًا

(Go back and finish your mission, for you have not finished it.) Khalid went back and when the custodians who were also its servants of Al-`Uzza saw him, they started invoking by calling Al-`Uzza! When Khalid approached it, he found a naked woman whose hair was untidy and who was throwing sand on her head. Khalid killed her with the sword and went back to the Messenger of Allah , who said to him,

تِلْكَ الْعُزَّى

(That was Al-`Uzza!)'' Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated, "Al-Lat belonged to the tribe of Thaqif in the area of At-Ta'if. Banu Mu`attib were the custodians of Al-Lat and its servants.'' I say that the Prophet sent Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah and Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb to destroy Al-Lat. They carried out the Prophet's command and built a Masjid in its place in the city of At-Ta'if. Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Manat used to be the idol of the Aws and Khazraj tribes and those who followed their religion in Yathrib (Al-Madinah). Manat was near the coast, close to the area of Mushallal in Qudayd. The Prophet sent Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb or `Ali bin Abi Talib to demolish it. Ibn Ishaq said that Dhul-Khalasah was the idol of the tribes of Daws, Khath`am and Bajilah, and the Arabs who resided in the area of Tabalah. I say that Dhul-Khalasah was called the Southern Ka`bah, and the Ka`bah in Makkah was called the Northern Ka`bah. The Messenger of Allah sent Jarir bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali to Dhul-Khalasah and he destroyed it. Ibn Ishaq said that Fals was the idol of Tay' and the neighboring tribes in the Mount of Tay', such as Salma and Ajja. Ibn Hisham said that some scholars of knowledge told him that the Messenger of Allah sent `Ali bin Abi Talib to Fals and he destroyed it and found two swords in its treasure, which the Prophet then gave to `Ali as war spoils. Muhammad bin Ishaq also said that the tribes of Himyar, and Yemen in general, had a house of worship in San`a' called Riyam. He mentioned that there was a black dog in it and that the religious men who went with Tubba` removed it, killed it and demolished the building. Ibn Ishaq said that Ruda' was a structure of Bani Rabi`ah bin Ka`b bin Sa`d bin Zayd Manat bin Tamim, which Al-Mustawghir bin Rabi`ah bin Ka`b bin Sa`d demolished after Islam. In Sindad there was Dhul-Ka`bat, the idol of the tribes of Bakr and Taghlib, the sons of the Wa'il, and also the Iyad tribes.

9. Refuting the Idolators Who appoint Rivals to Allah and claim that the Angels were Females

Allah the Exalted said,

[أَفَرَءَيْتُمُ اللَّـتَ وَالْعُزَّى - وَمَنَوةَ الثَّالِثَةَ الاٍّخْرَى ]

(Have you then considered Al-Lat, and Al-`Uzza. And Manat, the other third), then Allah said,

[أَلَكُمُ الذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ الاٍّنثَى ]

(Is it for you the males and for Him the females) Allah asked the idolators, `do you choose female offspring for Allah and give preference to yourselves with the males If you made this division between yourselves and the created, it would be,

[قِسْمَةٌ ضِيزَى]

(a division most unfair!)' meaning, it would be an unfair and unjust division. `How is it then that you make this division between you and Allah, even though this would be foolish and unjust, if you made it between yourselves and others' Allah the Exalted refutes such innovated lies, falsehood and atheism they invented through worshipping the idols and calling them gods,

[إِنْ هِىَ إِلاَّ أَسْمَآءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَآ أَنتُمْ وَءَابَآؤُكُم]

(They are but names which you have named -- you and your fathers) of your own desire,

[مَّآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَـنٍ]

(for which Allah has sent down no authority.) meaning, proof,

[إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى الاٌّنفُسُ]

(They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire,) they have no proof, except their trust in their forefathers who took this false path in the past, as well as, their lusts and desires to become leaders, and thereby gain honor and reverence for their forefathers,

[وَلَقَدْ جَآءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ الْهُدَى]

(whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!), meaning, Allah has sent them Messengers with the clear truth and unequivocal evidence. However, they did not adhere to or follow the guidance that came to them through the Prophets.

10. Wishful Thinking does not earn One Righteousness

Allah the Exalted said,

[أَمْ لِلإِنسَـنِ مَا تَمَنَّى ]

(Or shall man have what he wishes), asserting that not everyone gets the goodness that he wishes,

[لَّيْسَ بِأَمَـنِيِّكُمْ وَلا أَمَانِىِّ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ]

(It will not be in accordance with desires (of Muslims), nor those of the People of Scripture.)(4:123) Allah says, not everyone who claims to be guided is truly guided, and not everyone gets what he wishes for himself. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِذَا تَمَنَّى أَحَدُكُمْ فَلْيَنْظُرْ مَا يَتَمَنَّى، فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَدْرِي مَا يُكْتَبُ لَهُ مِنْ أُمْنِيَّتِه

(When one of you wishes for something, let him be careful with what he wishes for, because he does not know what part of his wish will be written for him.)Only Ahmad collected this Hadith. Allah's statement,

[فَلِلَّهِ الاٌّخِرَةُ والاٍّولَى ]

(But to Allah belongs the last and the first.) meaning, all matters belong to Allah and He is the King and Owner of this world and the Hereafter, Who does what He will in both lives. Whatever He wills, occurs and whatever He does not will, never occurs.

11. No Interecession except with Allah's Leave

Allah said,

[وَكَمْ مِّن مَّلَكٍ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ لاَ تُغْنِى شَفَـعَتُهُمْ شَيْئاً إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ أَن يَأْذَنَ اللَّهُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَرْضَى ]

(And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.) As He said;

[مَن ذَا الَّذِى يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ]

(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission )(2:255) and,

[وَلاَ تَنفَعُ الشَّفَـعَةُ عِندَهُ إِلاَّ لِمَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ]

(Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits.) (34:23) `If this is the case with the angels who are close to Him, how can you, O ignorant ones, hope for Allah to grant you the intercession of the idols and rivals you worship with Him without having His permission or any divine legislation permitting you to worship them' Rather, Allah has forbidden idol worshipping by the tongues of all of His Messengers and He revealed this prohibition in all of His Books.

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالاٌّخِرَةِ لَيُسَمُّونَ الْمَلَـئِكَةَ تَسْمِيَةَ الاٍّنثَى - وَمَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ لاَ يُغْنِى مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئاً - فَأَعْرِضْ عَن مَّن تَوَلَّى عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَلَمْ يُرِدْ إِلاَّ الْحَيَوةَ الدُّنْيَا - ذَلِكَ مَبْلَغُهُمْ مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اهْتَدَى ]

(27. Verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter, name the angels with female names.) (28. But they have no knowledge thereof. They follow but conjecture, and verily, conjecture is no substitute for the truth.) (29. Therefore withdraw from him who turns away from Our Reminder and desires nothing but the life of this world.) (30. That is what they could reach of knowledge. Verily, your Lord is He, Who knows best him who goes astray from His path, and He knows best him who receives guidance.)

12. Refuting the Claim of the Idolators that the Angels are Allah's Daughters

Allah the Exalted admonishes the idolators for calling the angels female names and claiming that they are Allah's daughters. Allah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

[وَجَعَلُواْ الْمَلَـئِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـنِ إِنَـثاً أَشَهِدُواْ خَلْقَهُمْ سَتُكْتَبُ شَهَـدَتُهُمْ وَيُسْـَلُونَ ]

(And they make females the angels, who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious. Did they witness their creation Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned!)(43:19) Allah's statement here,

[وَمَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ]

(But they have no knowledge thereof.) meaning, they have no correct knowledge testifying to their statements. What they say is all lies, falsehood, fake and utter atheism,

[إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ لاَ يُغْنِى مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئاً]

(They follow but conjecture, and verily, conjecture is no substitute for the truth.) meaning, conjecture is of no benefit and never takes the place of truth. In a Hadith recorded in the Sahih, the Messenger of Allah said,

إِيَّاكُمْ وَالظَّنَّ، فَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ أَكْذَبُ الْحَدِيث

(Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the most lying speech.)

13. The Necessity of turning away from the People of Misguidance

Allah's statement,

[فَأَعْرِضْ عَن مَّن تَوَلَّى عَن ذِكْرِنَا]

(Therefore withdraw from him who turns away from Our Reminder), means, stay away from those who turn away from the Truth and shun them,

[وَلَمْ يُرِدْ إِلاَّ الْحَيَوةَ الدُّنْيَا]

(and desires nothing but the life of this world.) meaning, whose aim and knowledge are concentrated on this life; this is the goal of those who have no goodness in them,

[ذَلِكَ مَبْلَغُهُمْ مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ]

(That is what they could reach of knowledge.) meaning, seeking this life and striving hard in its affairs is the best knowledge they have acquired. There is also the reported supplication:

اللْهُمَّ لَا تَجْعَلِ الدُّنْيَا أَكْبَرَ هَمِّنَا، وَلَا مَبْلَغَ عِلْمِنَا

(O Allah! Make not this life the greatest of our concerns nor the best knowledge that we can attain.) Allah's statement,

[إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اهْتَدَى]

(Verily, your Lord is He, Who knows best him who goes astray from His path, and He knows best him who receives guidance.) meaning, He is the Creator of all creatures and He knows whatever benefits His servants. Allah is the One Who guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills, and all of this indicates His power, knowledge and wisdom. Certainly, He is Just and never legislates or decrees unjustly.

[وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ لِيَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُواْ بِمَا عَمِلُواْ وَيِجْزِى الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ بِالْحُسْنَى - الَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَـئِرَ الإِثْمِ وَالْفَوَحِشَ إِلاَّ اللَّمَمَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ وَسِعُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ إِذْ أَنشَأَكُمْ مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ وَإِذْ أَنتُمْ أَجِنَّةٌ فِى بُطُونِ أُمَّهَـتِكُمْ فَلاَ تُزَكُّواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اتَّقَى ]

(31. And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best.) (32. Those who avoid great sins and Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) except Al-Lamam -- verily, your Lord is of vast forgiveness. He knows you well when He created you from the earth (Adam), and when you were fetuses in your mothers' wombs. So, ascribe not purity to yourselves. He knows best him who has Taqwa.)

14. Allah knows Every Matter, whether Small or Big, and He rewards Each according to His or Her Deeds

Allah asserts that He is the King and Owner of the heavens and earth and that He is independent of the need for anyone. He is the authority over His creation and rules them with justice. He created the creation in truth,

[لِيَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُواْ بِمَا عَمِلُواْ وَيِجْزِى الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ بِالْحُسْنَى]

(that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best.) He recompenses each according to his or her deeds, good for good and evil for evil.

15. Qualities of the Good-doers; Allah forgives the Small Faults

Allah stated that the gooddoers are those who avoid major sins and immoral sins. They sometimes commit minor sins, but they will be forgiven these minor sins and covered from exposure, as Allah mentioned in another Ayah;

[إِن تَجْتَنِبُواْ كَبَآئِرَ مَا تُنهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنْكُمْ سَيِّئَـتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُمْ مُّدْخَلاً كَرِيماً ]

(If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall expiate from you your (small) sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance.)(4:31) Allah said here,

[الَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَـئِرَ الإِثْمِ وَالْفَوَحِشَ إِلاَّ اللَّمَمَ]

(Those who avoid great sins and Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) except Al-Lamam), Al-Lamam means, small faults and minor errors. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "I have not seen anything that resembles Al-Lamam better than the Hadith that Abu Hurayrah narrated from the Prophet ,

إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى كَتَبَ عَلَى ابْنِ آدَمَ حَظَّهُ مِنَ الزِّنَا، أَدْرَكَ ذلِكَ لَا مَحَالَةَ، فَزِنَا الْعَيْنِ النَّظَرُ، وَزِنَا اللِّسَانِ النُّطْقُ، وَالنَّفْسُ تَتَمَنَّى وَتَشْتَهِي، وَالْفَرْجُ يُصِدِّقُ ذلِكَ أَوْ يُكَذِّبُه

(Verily, Allah the Exalted has decreed for the Son of Adam his share of Zina and he will certainly earn his share. The Zina of the eye is by looking, the Zina of the tongue is by talking and the heart wishes and lusts, but the sexual organ either substantiates all this or not.)'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said, "The eyes commit Zina by looking, the lips by kissing, the hands by transgressing, the feet by walking, and the sexual organ either materializes all of this or not. When one commits sexual intercourse, he will be someone who committed Zina. Otherwise, it is Al-Lamam.'' Masruq and Ash-Sha`bi also held the same view. `Abdur-Rahman bin Nafi`, who is also known as Ibn Lubabah At-Ta'ifi, said, "I asked Abu Hurayrah about Allah's statement,

[إِلاَّ اللَّمَمَ]

(except the Lamam), and he said, `It pertains to kissing, winking one's eye, looking and embracing. When the sexual organ meets the sexual organ in intercourse then Ghusl is obligatory, and that is Zina.''

16. Encouraging Repentance and forbidding Claims of Purity for Oneself

Allah's statement,

[إِنَّ رَبَّكَ وَسِعُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ]

(verily, your Lord is of vast forgiveness.) asserts that His Mercy encompasses everything, and His forgiveness entails every type of sin, if one repents,

[قُلْ يعِبَادِىَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُواْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ لاَ تَقْنَطُواْ مِن رَّحْمَةِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعاً إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ ]

(Say: "O My servants who have transgressed against them- selves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah: verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.'') (39:53) Allah said,

[هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ إِذْ أَنشَأَكُمْ مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ]

(He knows you well when He created you from the earth,) Allah says, `He was and still is the All-Knowing Whose knowledge encompasses your affairs, statements and all of the actions that will be committed by you, even when He created your father `Adam from the earth and took his offspring from his loin, as small as ants. He then divided them into two groups, a group destined for Paradise and a group to Hellfire,'

[وَإِذْ أَنتُمْ أَجِنَّةٌ فِى بُطُونِ أُمَّهَـتِكُمْ]

(and when you were fetuses in your mothers' wombs.) when He commanded the angel to record one's provisions, age, actions and if he would be among the miserable or the happy. Allah said,

[فَلاَ تُزَكُّواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ]

(So, ascribe not purity to yourselves.) forbidding one from ascribing purity and praising himself and thinking highly of his actions,

[هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اتَّقَى]

(He knows best him who has Taqwa.) Allah said in another Ayah,

[أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ بَلِ اللَّهُ يُزَكِّى مَن يَشَآءُ وَلاَ يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً ]

(Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves. Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills, and they will not be dealt with unjustly, even equal to the extent of a Fatil.) (4:49) In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Muhammad bin `Amr bin `Ata said, "I called my daughter, Barrah (the pious one), and Zaynab bint Abu Salamah said to me, `The Messenger of Allah forbade using this name. I was originally called Barrah and he said,

لَا تُزَكُّوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ، إِنَّ اللهَ أَعْلَمُ بِأَهْلِ الْبِرِّ مِنْكُم

(Do not ascribe purity to yourselves; Allah knows best who the pious people among you are)' They said, `What should we call her' He said,

سَمُّوهَا زَيْنَب

(Call her Zaynab.)'' Imam Ahmad recorded a Hadith from `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakrah, from his father who said, "A man praised another man before the Prophet . The Messenger of Allah said,

وَيْلَكَ قَطَعْتَ عُنُقَ صَاحِبِكَ مرارًا إِذَا كَانَ أَحَدُكُمْ مَادِحًا صَاحِبَهُ لَا مَحَالَةَ، فَلْيَقُلْ: أَحْسِبُ فُلَانًا وَاللهُ حَسِيبُهُ، وَلَا أُزَكِّي عَلَى اللهِ أَحَدًا، أَحْسِبُهُ كَذَا وَكَذَا، إِنْ كَانَ يَعْلَمُ ذلِك

(Woe to you, you have cut off the neck of your friend! (He repeated this) If one of you must praise a friend of his, let him say, "I think that so-and-so is this and that; Allah knows best about him and I will never purify anyone before Allah,'' if he knows his friend to be as he is describing him.)'' Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hammam bin Al-Harith said, "A man came before `Uthman bin `Affan and praised him. Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad started throwing sand in the face of that man, saying, `The Messenger of Allah ordered us to throw sand in their faces when we see those who praise.''' Muslim and Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.

[أَفَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِى تَوَلَّى - وَأَعْطَى قَلِيلاً وَأَكْدَى - فأَعِندَهُ عِلْمُ الْغَيْبِ فَهُوَ يَرَى - أَمْ لَمْ يُنَبَّأْ بِمَا فِى صُحُفِ مُوسَى - وَإِبْرَهِيمَ الَّذِى وَفَّى - أَلاَّ تَزِرُ وَزِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى - وَأَن لَّيْسَ لِلإِنسَـنِ إِلاَّ مَا سَعَى - وَأَنَّ سَعْيَهُ سَوْفَ يُرَى - ثُمَّ يُجْزَاهُ الْجَزَآءَ الأَوْفَى ]

(33. Did you observe him who turned away (from Islam).) (34. And gave a little, then stopped) (35. Is with him the knowledge of the Unseen so that he sees) (36. Or is he not informed with what is in the Suhuf of Musa,) (37. And of Ibrahim who fulfilled all that:) (38. That no burdened person (with sins) shall bear the burden (sins) of another.) (39. And that man can have nothing but what he does.) (40. And that his deeds will be seen.) (41. Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense.)

17. Chastising Those Who disobey Allah and stop giving Charity

Allah the Exalted chastises those who turn away from His obedience,

[فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى - وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى ]

(So he (the disbeliever) neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he belied and turned away!)(75:31-32),

[وَأَعْطَى قَلِيلاً وَأَكْدَى ]

(And gave a little, then stopped) Ibn `Abbas said, "Gave a little, then stopped giving.'' Similar was said by Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, Qatadah and several others. `Ikrimah and Sa`id said: "Like the case of a people who dig a well, during the course of which they find a rock preventing them from completing their work. So they say, `We are finished' and they abandon the work.'' Allah's statement,

[فأَعِندَهُ عِلْمُ الْغَيْبِ فَهُوَ يَرَى ]

(Is with him the knowledge of the Unseen so that he sees) means, does this person, who stopped giving for fear of poverty and ended his acts of charity have knowledge of the Unseen and thus knows that if he does not stop giving, his wealth will go away No. Such a person has stopped giving in charity for righteous causes and did not keep relations with kith and kin because of his miserliness, being stingy and out of fear of poverty. The Prophet said in a Hadith,

أَنْفِقْ بِلَالُ، وَلَا تَخْشَ مِنْ ذِي الْعَرْشِ إِقْلَالًا

(O Bilal, spend and fear not less provisions from the Owner of the Thone.) Allah the Exalted and Most honored said,

[وَمَآ أَنفَقْتُمْ مِّن شَىْءٍ فَهُوَ يُخْلِفُهُ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ]

(And whatsoever you spend of anything (in Allah's cause), He will replace it. And He is the Best of providers.)(34:39)

18. The Meaning of `fulfilled

Allah the Exalted said,

[أَمْ لَمْ يُنَبَّأْ بِمَا فِى صُحُفِ مُوسَى - وَإِبْرَهِيمَ الَّذِى وَفَّى ]

(Or is he not informed with what is in the Suhuf of Musa. And of Ibrahim who fulfilled), Sa`id bin Jubayr and Ath-Thawri said it means: "Conveyed all that he was ordered to convey.'' Ibn `Abbas said about:

[وَفَّى]

(fulfilled) "He delivered all that Allah ordered him to deliver.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said about:

[وَفَّى]

(fulfilled), "What he was ordered.'' Qatadah said about:

[وَفَّى]

(fulfilled), "He obeyed Allah and delivered His Message to His creatures.'' This is the view preferred by Ibn Jarir because it includes the statement before it and supports it. Allah said,

[وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَـتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ قَالَ إِنِّى جَـعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا]

(And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim tried him with (certain) commands, which he fulfilled. He said: "Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind.'')(2:124) Therefore, Ibrahim fulfilled all the commands of his Lord, stayed away from all the prohibitions, and conveyed Allah's Message in its entirety. Therefore, he is worthy of being made a leader for mankind in all of his affairs, statements and actions. Allah the Exalted said,

[ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ]

(Then, We have sent the revelation to you (saying): "Follow the religion of Ibrahim, a Hanif, and he was not of the idolators.'')(16:123)

19. None shall carry the Burden of Any Other on the Day of Resurrection

Allah the Exalted explained what He has revealed in the Scripture of Ibrahim and Musa,

[أَلاَّ تَزِرُ وَزِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى ]

(That no burdened person shall bear the burden of another.) Meaning, every soul shall carry its own injustices, whether disbelief or sin, and none else shall carry its burden of sin, as Allah states

[وَإِن تَدْعُ مُثْقَلَةٌ إِلَى حِمْلِهَا لاَ يُحْمَلْ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَى]

(And if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin.)(35:18) Allah said,

[وَأَن لَّيْسَ لِلإِنسَـنِ إِلاَّ مَا سَعَى ]

(And that man can have nothing but what he does.) So just as no soul shall carry the burden of any other, the soul shall only benefit from the good that one earns for himself. As for the Hadith recorded by Muslim in the Sahih, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِذَا مَاتَ الْإِنْسَانُ انْقَطَعَ عَمَلُهُ إِلَّا مِنْ ثَلَاثٍ: مِنْ وَلَدٍ صَالِحٍ يَدْعُو لَهُ، أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ جَارِيَةٍ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ، أَوْ عِلْمٍ يُنْتَفَعُ بِه

(When a person dies, his deeds will cease except in three cases: from a righteous son who invokes Allah for him, or an ongoing charity after his death, or knowledge that people benefit from.) These three things are, in reality, a result of one's own deeds, efforts and actions. For example, a Hadith states,

إِنَّ أَطْيَبَ مَا أَكَلَ الرَّجُلُ مِنْ كَسْبِهِ، وَإِنَّ وَلَدَهُ مِنْ كَسْبِه

(Verily, the best type of provision that one consumes is from what he himself has earned, and one's offspring are among what he has earned.) The ongoing charity that one leaves behind, like an endowment, for example, are among the traces of his own actions and deeds. Allah the Exalted said,

[إِنَّا نَحْنُ نُحْىِ الْمَوْتَى وَنَكْتُبُ مَاَ قَدَّمُواْ وَءَاثَارَهُمْ]

(Verily, We give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before (them) and their traces.)(36:12) The knowledge that one spreads among people which they are guided by is among his actions and deeds. A Hadith collected in the Sahih states,

مَنْ دَعَا إِلَى هُدًى كَانَ لَهُ مِنَ الْأَجْرِ مِثْلُ أُجُورِ مَنِ اتَّبَعَهُ، مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يَنْقُصَ مِنْ أُجُورِهِمْ شَيْئًا

(Whoever invites to guidance, he will earn as much reward as those who follow him, without decreasing anything out of their own rewards.) Allah said,

[وَأَنَّ سَعْيَهُ سَوْفَ يُرَى ]

(And that his deeds will be seen.) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection,

[وَقُلِ اعْمَلُواْ فَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَـلِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَـدَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ]

(And say: "Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers. And you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. Then He will inform you of what you used to do.'')(9:105), Then Allah will remind you of your actions and recompense you for them in the best manner, good for good and evil for evil. Allah's statement here,

[ثُمَّ يُجْزَاهُ الْجَزَآءَ الأَوْفَى ]

(Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense.)

[وَأَنَّ إِلَى رَبِّكَ الْمُنتَهَى - وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَضْحَكَ وَأَبْكَى - وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَمَاتَ وَأَحْيَا - وَأَنَّهُ خَلَقَ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى - مِن نُّطْفَةٍ إِذَا تُمْنَى - وَأَنَّ عَلَيْهِ النَّشْأَةَ الاٍّخْرَى - وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَغْنَى وَأَقْنَى - وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ رَبُّ الشِّعْرَى - وَأَنَّهُ أَهْلَكَ عَاداً الاٍّولَى - وَثَمُودَ فَمَآ أَبْقَى - وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ مِّن قَبْلُ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ هُمْ أَظْلَمَ وَأَطْغَى - وَالْمُؤْتَفِكَةَ أَهْوَى - فَغَشَّـهَا مَا غَشَّى - فَبِأَىِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكَ تَتَمَارَى ]

(42. And that to your Lord is the End.) (43. And that it is He Who makes laugh, and makes weep.) (44. And that it is He Who causes death and gives life.) (45. And that He creates the pairs, male and female,) (46. From Nutfah when it is emitted.) (47. And that upon Him is another bringing forth (Resurrection).) (48. And that it is He Who Aghna and Aqna.) (49. And that He is the Lord of Ash-Shi`ra.) (50. And that it is He Who destroyed the former `Ad,) (51. And Thamud. He spared none of them.) (52. And the people of Nuh aforetime. Verily, they were more unjust and more rebellious and transgressing.) (53. And He destroyed the overthrown cities.) (54. So, there covered them that which did cover.) (55. Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt)

20. Some Attributes of the Lord, that He returns Man as He originated Him, and some of what He does with His Servants

Allah the Exalted said,

[وَأَنَّ إِلَى رَبِّكَ الْمُنتَهَى ]

(And that to your Lord is the End.) meaning, the return of everything on the Day of Resurrection. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Amr bin Maymun Al-Awdi said, "Once, Mu`adh bin Jabal stood up among us and said, `O Children of Awd! I am the emissary of Allah's Messenger to you; know that the Return is to Allah, either to Paradise or the Fire.''' Allah's statement,

[وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَضْحَكَ وَأَبْكَى ]

(And that it is He Who makes you laugh, and makes you weep.) means that He created in His creatures the ability to laugh or weep and the causes for each of these opposites,

[وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَمَاتَ وَأَحْيَا ]

(And that it is He Who causes death and gives life.) In a similar statement, Allah said,

[الَّذِى خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَالْحَيَوةَ]

(Who has created death and life.)(67:2) Allah said,

[وَأَنَّهُ خَلَقَ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى - مِن نُّطْفَةٍ إِذَا تُمْنَى ]

(And that He creates the pairs, male and female. From Nutfah when it is emitted.) as He said:

[أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى - أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِىٍّ يُمْنَى - ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّى - فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى - أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(Does man think that he will be left neglected Was he not a Nutfah Then he became an `Alaqah (something that clings); then (Allah) shaped and fashioned (him) in due proportion. And made of him two sexes, male and female. Is not He (Allah) able to give life to the dead)(75:36-40) Allah the Exalted said,

[وَأَنَّ عَلَيْهِ النَّشْأَةَ الاٍّخْرَى ]

(And that upon Him is another bringing forth.) meaning, just as He first originated creation, He is able to bring it back to life, resurrecting it for the Day of Judgement,

[وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَغْنَى وَأَقْنَى ]

(And that it is He Who Aghna (gives much) and Aqna (a little).) It is Allah Who gives wealth to His servants and this wealth remains with them. This means they are able to use it to their benefit, is this out of the completeness of His favor. Most of the statements of the scholars of Tafsir revolve around this meaning, such as those from Abu Salih, Ibn Jarir and others. Mujahid said that,

[أَغْنَى]

(Aghna) meaning: He gives wealth.

[وَأَقْنَى]

(Aqna) meaning: He gives servants. Similar was said by Qatadah. Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said;

[أَغْنَى]

(Aghna) means: He granted; while,

[وَأَقْنَى]

(Aqna) means: He gave contentment.

[وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ رَبُّ الشِّعْرَى ]

(And that He is the Lord of Ash-Shi`ra.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said about Ash-Shi`ra that it is the bright star, named Mirzam Al-Jawza' (Sirius), which a group of Arabs used to worship.

[وَأَنَّهُ أَهْلَكَ عَاداً الاٍّولَى ]

(And that it is He Who destroyed the former `Ad) the people of Hud. They are the descendants of `Ad, son of Iram, son of Sam, son of Nuh. As Allah the Exalted said,

[أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِعَادٍ - إِرَمَ ذَاتِ الْعِمَادِ - الَّتِى لَمْ يُخْلَقْ مِثْلُهَا فِى الْبِلَـدِ ]

(Saw you not how your Lord dealt with `Ad. Of Iram, with the lofty pillars, the like of which were not created in the land)(89:6-8) The people of `Ad were among the strongest, fiercest people and the most rebellious against Allah the Exalted and His Messenger. Allah destroyed them,

[بِرِيحٍ صَرْصَرٍ عَاتِيَةٍسَخَّرَهَا عَلَيْهِمْ سَبْعَ لَيَالٍ وَثَمَـنِيَةَ أَيَّامٍ حُسُوماً]

(By a furious violent wind! Which Allah imposed in them for seven nights and eight days in succession.)(69:6-7) Allah's statement,

[وَثَمُودَ فَمَآ أَبْقَى ]

(And Thamud. He spared none), declares that He destroyed them all and spared none of them,

[وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ مِّن قَبْلُ]

(And the people of Nuh aforetime.) before `Ad and Thamud,

[إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ هُمْ أَظْلَمَ وَأَطْغَى]

(Verily, they were more unjust and more rebellious and transgressing.) more unjust in disobeying Allah than those who came after them,

[وَالْمُؤْتَفِكَةَ أَهْوَى ]

(And He destroyed the overthrown cities.) meaning, the cities (of Sodom and Gomorrah) to which Prophet Lut was sent. Allah turned their cities upside down over them and sent on them stones of Sijjil. Allah's statement that whatever has covered it, has covered it, is like the case with the stones of Sijjil that He sent on them,

[وَأَمْطَرْنَا عَلَيْهِم مَّطَراً فَسَآءَ مَطَرُ الْمُنذَرِينَ ]

(And We rained on them a rain (of torment). And how evil was the rain of those who had been warned!)(26:173) Allah said,

[فَبِأَىِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكَ تَتَمَارَى ]

(Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt) meaning, `which of Allah's favors for you, O man, do you doubt,' according to Qatadah. Ibn Jurayj said that the Ayah,

[فَبِأَىِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكَ تَتَمَارَى ]

(Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt), is directed towards the Prophet saying: "O Muhammad!'' However, the first ex- planation is better, and it is the meaning that Ibn Jarir preferred.

[هَـذَا نَذِيرٌ مِّنَ النُّذُرِ الاٍّوْلَى - أَزِفَتِ الاٌّزِفَةُ - لَيْسَ لَهَا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ كَاشِفَةٌ - أَفَمِنْ هَـذَا الْحَدِيثِ تَعْجَبُونَ - وَتَضْحَكُونَ وَلاَ تَبْكُونَ - وَأَنتُمْ سَـمِدُونَ - فَاسْجُدُواْ لِلَّهِ وَاعْبُدُواْ ]

(56. This is a warner from the warners of old.) (57. The Azifah draws near.) (58. None besides Allah can avert it.) (59. Do you then wonder at this reci- tation) (60. And you laugh at it and weep not,) (61. While you are Samidun.) (62. So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him.)

21. A Warning and Exhortation, the Order to prostrate and to be humble

Allah said,

[هَـذَا نَذِيرٌ]

(This is a warner) in reference to Muhammad ,

[مِّنَ النُّذُرِ الاٍّوْلَى]

(from the warners of old.) means, just like the warners of old, he was sent as a Messenger as they were sent as Messengers. Allah the Exalted said,

[قُلْ مَا كُنتُ بِدْعاً مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ]

(Say: "I am not a new thing among the Messengers.'')(46:9) Allah said;

[أَزِفَتِ الاٌّزِفَةُ ]

(The Azifah draws near.) that which is near, the Day of Resurrection, has drawn nearer,

[لَيْسَ لَهَا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ كَاشِفَةٌ ]

(None besides Allah can avert it.) no one besides Allah can prevent it from coming, nor does anyone know when it will come, except Him. The warner is eager to convey his knowledge of the imminence of a calamity, so that it does not befall those to whom he is a warner. As He said;

[إِنِّينَذِيرٌ لَّكُمْ بَيْنَ يَدَىْ عَذَابٍ شَدِيدٍ]

(He is only a warner to you in face of a severe torment.) (34:46) And in the Hadith:

أَنَا النَّذِيرُ الْعُرْيَان

(I am the naked warner,) meaning, I was in such a hurry to warn against the evil I saw coming, that I did not wear anything. In this case, one rushes to warn his people in such haste that he will be naked. This meaning befits the meaning of the A0yah,

[أَزِفَتِ الاٌّزِفَةُ ]

(the Azifah draws near.), in reference to the nearing Day of Resurrection. Allah said in the beginning of the Surah:

[اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ]

(The Hour has drawn near.)(54:1) Imam Ahmad recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِيَّاكُمْ وَمُحَقَّرَاتِ الذُّنُوبِ، فَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ مُحَقَّرَاتِ الذُّنُوبِ كَمَثَلِ قَوْمٍ نَزَلُوا بِبَطْنِ وَادٍ، فَجَاءَ ذَا بِعُودٍ وَجَاءَ ذَا بِعُودٍ، حَتْى أَنْضَجُوا خُبْزَتَهُمْ، وَإِنَّ مُحَقَّرَاتِ الذُّنُوبِ، مَتَى يُؤْخَذُ بِهَا صَاحِبُهَا، تُهْلِكُه

(Beware of small sins! The example of the effect of small sin is that of people who settled near the bottom of a valley. One of them brought a piece of wood, and another brought another piece of wood, until they cooked their bread! Verily, small sins will destroy its companion, if one is held accountable for them.) Allah the Exalted admonishes the idolators because they hear the Qur'an, yet they turn away from it in heedless play,

[تَعْجَبُونَ]

(wonder) doubting that it is true.

[وَتَضْحَكُونَ]

(And you laugh) in jest and mock at it,

[وَلاَ تَبْكُونَ]

(and weep not,) just as those who believe in it weep,

[وَيَخِرُّونَ لِلاٌّذْقَانِ يَبْكُونَ وَيَزِيدُهُمْ خُشُوعًا ]

(And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility.)(17:109) Allah said;

[وَأَنتُمْ سَـمِدُونَ ]

(While you are Samidun.) Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported that his father narrated that Ibn `Abbas said about Samidun, "Singing; in Yemenite dialect `Ismid for us' means `Sing for us.''' `Ikrimah said something similar. In another narration from Ibn `Abbas, he said that,

[سَـمِدُونَ]

(Samidun) means, "Turning away.'' Similar was reported from Mujahid and `Ikrimah. Allah the Exalted ordered His servants to prostrate to Him, worship Him according to the way of His Messenger, and to fulfill the requirement of Tawhid and sincerity,

[فَاسْجُدُواْ لِلَّهِ وَاعْبُدُواْ ]

(So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him.) meaning, with submission, sincerity, and Tawhid. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Ma`mar said that `Abdul-Warith said that Ayyub said that `Ikrimah said that, Ibn `Abbas said, "The Prophet prostrated upon reciting An-Najm and the Muslims, idolators, Jinns and mankind who were present prostrated along with him.'' Only Muslim collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Muttalib bin Abi Wada`ah said, "While in Makkah, the Messenger of Allah once recited Surat An-Najm, then prostrated along with all those who were with him at the time. I raised my head, however, and I refused to prostrate.'' Al-Muttalib had not embraced Islam yet, but ever since he became Muslim, he would never hear anyone recite this Surah until the end, without prostrating with whomever was prostrating after reciting it. An-Nasa'i also collected this Hadith in the Book of Al-Bukhari, excluding prayer in his Sunan. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Najm. All praise and thanks are due to Allah.


The Tafsir of Surah Al-Qamar (De Maan) (Chapter 54)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Makkah

1. Which was revealed in Makkah
2. The Hour draws near; the cleaving of the Moon
3. Hadiths about the Last Hour
4. The Narration of Anas bin Malik
5. The Narration of Jubayr bin Mut`im
6. The Narration of `Abdullah bin `Abbas
7. The Narration of `Abdullah bin `Umar Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr
8. The Narration of `Abdullah bin Mas`ud
9. The Stubbornness of the idolators
10. The terrible End the Disbelievers will meet on the Day of Resurrection
11. The Story of the People of Nuh and the Lesson from it
12. The Story of `Ad Allah states that `Ad, the People of Hud, denied their Messenger, just as the people of Nuh did
13. The Story of Thamud
14. The Story of the People of the Prophet Lut
15. The Story of Fir`awn and His People
16. The Destination of the Criminals
17. Everything was created with Qadar
18. A Warning to beware of Allah's Threats
19. The Good End for Those with Taqwa

1. Which was revealed in Makkah

The Hadith of Abu Waqid preceded, in which it is mentioned that the Messenger of Allah would recite Surah Qaf (chapter 53) and Iqtarabat As-Sa`ah (Al-Qamar, chapter 54), during (the `Id Prayers of) Al-Adha and Al-Fitr. The Prophet used to recite these two Surahs during major gatherings and occasions because they contain Allah's promises and warnings, and information about the origin of creation, Resurrection, Tawhid, the affirmation of prophethood, and so forth among the great objectives.

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ - وَإِن يَرَوْاْ ءَايَةً يُعْرِضُواْ وَيَقُولُواْ سِحْرٌ مُّسْتَمِرٌّ - وَكَذَّبُواْ وَاتَّبَعُواْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ وَكُلُّ أَمْرٍ مُّسْتَقِرٌّ - وَلَقَدْ جَآءَهُم مِّنَ الاٌّنبَآءِ مَا فِيهِ مُزْدَجَرٌ - حِكْمَةٌ بَـلِغَةٌ فَمَا تُغْنِـى النُّذُرُ ]

(1. The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.) (2. And if they see an Ayah, they turn away and say: "This is magic, Mustamir.'') (3. They denied and followed their own lusts. And every matter will be settled.) (4. And indeed there has come to them news wherein there is Muzdajar.) (5. Perfect wisdom, but warners benefit them not.)

2. The Hour draws near; the cleaving of the Moon

Allah informs about the approach of the Last Hour and the imminent end and demise of the world,

[أَتَى أَمْرُ اللَّهِ فَلاَ تَسْتَعْجِلُوهُ]

(The Event ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it.)(16:1),

[اقْتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَـبُهُمْ وَهُمْ فِى غَفْلَةٍ مُّعْرِضُونَ ]

(Draws near for mankind their reckoning, while they turn away in heedlessness.)(21:1)

3. Hadiths about the Last Hour

There are several Hadiths with this meaning. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded that Anas said that one day, when the sun was about to set, the Messenger of Allah gave a speech to his Companions, saying,

وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا فِيمَا مَضَى مِنْهَا إِلَّا كَمَا بَقِيَ مِنْ يَوْمِكُمْ هذَا فِيمَا مَضَى مِنْه

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! Not much of this world is left compared to what has already passed of it, except as much as what is left in this day of yours compared to what has already passed of it.) Anas said, "We could only see a small part of the setting sun at the time.'' Another Hadith that supports and explains the above Hadith is recorded by Imam Ahmad that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "We were sitting with the Prophet while the sun was rising above Qu`ayqa`an, after `Asr. He said,

مَا أَعْمَارُكُمْ فِي أَعْمَارِ مَنْ مَضَى إِلَّا كَمَا بَقِيَ مِنَ النَّهَارِ فِيمَا مَضَى

(What remains of your time, compared to what has passed, is as long as what remains of this day compared to what has passed of it.)'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

بُعِثْتُ أَنَا وَالسَّاعَةُ هكَذَا

(I was sent like this with the Last Hour.) and he pointed with his middle and index finger. The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Wahb As-Suwa'i said that the Messenger of Allah said,

بُعِثْتُ أَنَا وَالسَّاعَةُ كَهذِهِ مِنْ هذِهِ، إِنْ كَادَتْ لَتَسْبِقُنِي

(I was sent just before the Last Hour, like the distance between this and this; the latter almost overtook the former.) Al-A`mash joined between his index and middle fingers while narrating this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Awza`i said that Isma`il bin `Ubaydullah said, "Anas bin Malik went to Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik who asked him about what he heard from the Messenger of Allah about the Last Hour. Anas said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

أَنْتُمْ وَالسَّاعَةُ كَهَاتَيْن

(You and the Last Hour are as close as these two (fingers).)''' Only Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith. There is proof to support these Hadiths in the Sahih listing, Al-Hashir (literally the Gatherer), among the names of the Messenger of Allah ; he is the first to be gathered, and all people will be gathered thereafter (for the Day of Judgement). Allah's statement,

[وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ]

(and the moon has been cleft asunder.) It occurred during the time of Allah's Messenger , according to the authentic Mutawatir Hadiths the scholars agree that the moon was cleft asunder during the lifetime of the Prophet, and it was among the clear miracles that Allah gave him. Hadiths mentioning that the Moon was split

4. The Narration of Anas bin Malik

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "The people of Makkah asked the Prophet for a miracle and the moon was split into two parts in Makkah. Allah said,

[اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ ]

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.)'' Muslim also collected this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "The people of Makkah asked the Messenger of Allah to produce a miracle, and he showed them the splitting of the moon into two parts, until they saw (the mount of) Hira' between them.'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs with various chains of narration.

5. The Narration of Jubayr bin Mut`im

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jubayr bin Mut`im said, "The moon was split into two pieces during the time of Allah's Prophet ; a part of the moon was over one mountain and another part over another mountain. So they said, `Muhammad has taken us by his magic.' They then said, `If he was able to take us by magic, he will not be able to do so with all people.''' Only Imam Ahmad recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration. Al-Bayhaqi used another chain of narration in a similar Hadith he collected in Ad-Dala'il.

6. The Narration of `Abdullah bin `Abbas

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The moon was split during the time of the Prophet .'' Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's saying:

[اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ - وَإِن يَرَوْاْ ءَايَةً يُعْرِضُواْ وَيَقُولُواْ سِحْرٌ مُّسْتَمِرٌّ ]

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder. And if they see a sign, they turn away and say: "This is magic, Mustamir.'') "This occurred before the Hijrah; the moon was split and they saw it in two parts.''

7. The Narration of `Abdullah bin `Umar Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr

Al-Bayhaqi recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar commented on Allah's statement:

[اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ ]

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.) "This occurred during the time of Allah's Messenger ; the moon was split in two parts. A part of it was before the mount and a part on the other side. The Prophet said,

اللْهُمَّ اشْهَد

(O Allah! Be witness.)'' This is the narration that Muslim and At-Tirmidhi collected. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''

8. The Narration of `Abdullah bin Mas`ud

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said, "The moon was split in two parts during the time of Allah's Messenger, and they saw its two parts. Allah's Messenger said,

اشْهَدُوا

(Be witnesses.)'' Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah (Ibn Mas`ud) said, "I saw the mountain between the two parts of the moon when it was split.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah said, "The moon was split during the time of Allah's Messenger and I saw the mount between its two parts.

9. The Stubbornness of the idolators

Allah said,

[وَإِن يَرَوْاْ ءَايَةً]

(And if they see an Ayah), if they see proof, evidence and a sign,

[يُعْرِضُواْ]

(they turn away), they do not believe in it. Rather, they turn away from it, abandoning it behind their backs,

[وَيَقُولُواْ سِحْرٌ مُّسْتَمِرٌّ]

(and say: "This is magic, Mustamir.'') They say, `the sign that we saw was magic, which was cast on us.' Mustamir, means, `will soon go away', according to Mujahid, Qatadah and several others. The Quraysh said that the cleaving of the moon was false and will soon diminish and fade away,

[وَكَذَّبُواْ وَاتَّبَعُواْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ]

(They denied and followed their own lusts.), they rejected the truth when it came to them, following the ignorance and foolishness that their lusts and desires called them to. Allah's statement,

[وَكُلُّ أَمْرٍ مُّسْتَقِرٌّ]

(And every matter will be settled.) means, the good deeds will take their doers to all that is good and righteous, and similarly evil deeds will take their doers to all that is evil, according to Qatadah, while Ibn Jurayj said, "will settle according to its people.'' Mujahid commented on the meaning of,

[وَكُلُّ أَمْرٍ مُّسْتَقِرٌّ]

(And every matter will be settled.) by saying, "On the Day of Resurrection.'' Allah's statement,

[وَلَقَدْ جَآءَهُم مِّنَ الاٌّنبَآءِ]

(And indeed there has come to them news); in this Qur'an, there has come to them the news of the earlier nations that disbelieved in their Messengers and the torment, punishment and affliction that befell them,

[مَا فِيهِ مُزْدَجَرٌ]

(wherein there is Muzdajar), wherein there are warnings and lessons to stop them from idolatry and persisting in denial,

[حِكْمَةٌ بَـلِغَةٌ]

(Perfect wisdom,) in that Allah guides whomever He wills and misguides whomever He wills,

[فَمَا تُغْنِـى النُّذُرُ]

(but warners benefit them not.) but the preaching of warnings does not benefit those upon whom Allah has written misery and sealed their hearts. Who can guide such people after Allah This Ayah is similar to Allah's statements,

[قُلْ فَلِلَّهِ الْحُجَّةُ الْبَـلِغَةُ فَلَوْ شَآءَ لَهَدَاكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ ]

(Say: "With Allah is the perfect proof and argument; had He so willed, He would indeed have guided you all.'')(6:149) and,

[وَمَا تُغْنِى الآيَـتُ وَالنُّذُرُ عَن قَوْمٍ لاَّ يُؤْمِنُونَ]

(But neither Ayat nor warners benefit those who believe not.)(10:101)

[فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَ يَدْعُو الدَّاعِ إِلَى شَىْءٍ نُّكُرٍ - خُشَّعاً أَبْصَـرُهُمْ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الاٌّجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُّنتَشِرٌ - مُّهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاعِ يَقُولُ الْكَـفِرُونَ هَـذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ ]

(6. So withdraw from them. The Day that the caller will call (them) to a terrible thing.) (7. They will come forth, with humbled eyes from (their) graves as if they were locusts spread abroad,) (8. Hastening towards the caller. The disbelievers will say: "This is a hard Day.'')

10. The terrible End the Disbelievers will meet on the Day of Resurrection

Allah the Exalted says, `O Muhammad, turn away from these people who, when they witness a miracle, they deny it and say that this is continuous magic.' Turn away from them and wait until,

[يَوْمَ يَدْعُو الدَّاعِ إِلَى شَىْءٍ نُّكُرٍ]

(The Day that the caller will call (them) to a terrible thing.) to the Recompense and the afflictions, horrors and tremendous hardships that it brings forth,

[خُشَّعاً أَبْصَـرُهُمْ]

(with humbled eyes), their eyes will be covered with disgrace,

[يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الاٌّجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُّنتَشِرٌ]

(they will come forth from (their) graves as if they were locusts spread abroad.) They will gather towards the area of Reckoning in such haste and crowds, in response to the caller, as if they were crowds of locusts spreading all about. Allah said,

[مُهْطِعِينَ]

(Hastening) meaing hurriedly,

[إِلَى الدَّاعِ]

(towards the caller.) without being able to hesitate or slow down,

[يَقُولُ الْكَـفِرُونَ هَـذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ]

(The disbelievers will say: "This is a hard Day.''), meaing, `this is a hard, terrible, horrifying and distressful Day,'

[فَذَلِكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوْمٌ عَسِيرٌ - عَلَى الْكَـفِرِينَ غَيْرُ يَسِيرٍ ]

(Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day -- far from easy for the dis- believers.) (74:9-10)

[كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ فَكَذَّبُواْ عَبْدَنَا وَقَالُواْ مَجْنُونٌ وَازْدُجِرَ - فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنُّى مَغْلُوبٌ فَانتَصِرْ - فَفَتَحْنَآ أَبْوَبَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَاءٍ مُّنْهَمِرٍ - وَفَجَّرْنَا الاٌّرْضَ عُيُوناً فَالْتَقَى المَآءُ عَلَى أَمْرٍ قَدْ قُدِرَ - وَحَمَلْنَاهُ عَلَى ذَاتِ أَلْوَحٍ وَدُسُرٍ - تَجْرِى بِأَعْيُنِنَا جَزَآءً لِّمَن كَانَ كُفِرَ - وَلَقَدْ تَّرَكْنَـهَا ءايَةً فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ - فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِى وَنُذُرِ - وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْءَانَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ ]

(9. The people of Nuh denied (their Messenger) before them. They rejected Our servant and said: "A madman!'' Wazdujir.) (10. Then he invoked his Lord (saying): "I have been overcome, so help (me)!'') (11. So, We opened the gates of the heaven with water Munhamir.) (12. And We caused springs to gush forth from the earth. So, the waters met for a matter predestined.) (13. And We carried him on a (ship) made of planks and nails (Dusur)) (14. Floating under Our Eyes, a reward for him who had been rejected!) (15. And indeed, We have left this as a sign. Then is there any that will remember) (16. Then how (terrible) was My torment and My warnings) (17. And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember; then is there anyone who will remember)

11. The Story of the People of Nuh and the Lesson from it

Allah the Exalted said,

[كَذَّبَتْ]

(denied) `before your people, O Muhammad,'

[قَوْمُ نُوحٍ فَكَذَّبُواْ عَبْدَنَا]

(the people of Nuh. They rejected Our servant) means, they denied him categorically and accused him of madness,

[وَقَالُواْ مَجْنُونٌ وَازْدُجِرَ]

(and said: "A madman!'' Wazdujir.) Mujahid said about Wazdujir: "He was driven out accused on account of madness.'' It was also said that Wazdujir means, he was rebuked, deterred, threatened and warned by his people saying:

[لَئِنْ لَّمْ تَنْتَهِ ينُوحُ لَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُرْجُومِينَ]

("If you do not stop O Nuh, you will be among those who will be stoned.'') [26:116] This was said by Ibn Zayd, and it is sound.

[فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنُّى مَغْلُوبٌ فَانتَصِرْ ]

(Then he invoked his Lord (saying): "I have been overcome, so help (me)!'') meaning, `I am weak and cannot overcome or resist my people, so help Your religion!' Allah the Exalted said,

[فَفَتَحْنَآ أَبْوَبَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَاءٍ مُّنْهَمِرٍ ]

(So, We opened the gates of the heaven with water Munhamir.) As-Suddi said about Munhamir, "It means abundant.''

[وَفَجَّرْنَا الاٌّرْضَ عُيُوناً]

(And We caused springs to gush forth from the earth.) means, from every part of the earth, and even ovens in which fire was burning -- water and springs gushed forth,

[فَالْتَقَى المَآءُ]

(So, the waters met), means, of the heaven and the earth,

[عَلَى أَمْرٍ قَدْ قُدِرَ]

(for a matter predestined.) Ibn Jurayj reported from Ibn `Abbas:

[فَفَتَحْنَآ أَبْوَبَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَاءٍ مُّنْهَمِرٍ ]

(So, We opened the gates of the heaven with water Munhamir), Torrential rain, the only water that fell from the sky before that day and ever since was from clouds. But the sky's gates were opened on them that day, and therefore, the water that came down was not from clouds. So both the waters (of the earth and the heaven) met according to a matter ordained.'' Allah said,

[وَحَمَلْنَاهُ عَلَى ذَاتِ أَلْوَحٍ وَدُسُرٍ ]

(And We carried him on a (ship) made of planks and nails (Dusur)), Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Qurazi, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said that Dusur means nails. Ibn Jarir preferred this view. Allah's statement,

[تَجْرِى بِأَعْيُنِنَا]

(Floating under Our Eyes), means, `by Our command and under Our protection and observation,'

[جَزَآءً لِّمَن كَانَ كُفِرَ]

(a reward for him who had been rejected!) meaning, as recompense for them because of their disbelief in Allah and as reward for Nuh, peace be upon him. Allah the Exalted said,

[وَلَقَدْ تَّرَكْنَـهَا ءايَةً]

(And indeed, We have left this as a sign.) Qatadah said, "Allah left the ship of Nuh intact until the first generation of this Ummah were able to see it.'' However, it appears that the meaning here is that Allah kept ships as a sign. For instance, Allah the Exalted said,

[وَءَايَةٌ لَّهُمْ أَنَّا حَمَلْنَا ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ فِى الْفُلْكِ الْمَشْحُونِ - وَخَلَقْنَا لَهُمْ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ مَا يَرْكَبُونَ ]

(And a sign for them is that We bore their offspring in the laden ship. And We have created for them of the like thereunto, on which they ride.)(36:41-42),

[إِنَّا لَمَّا طَغَا الْمَآءُ حَمَلْنَـكُمْ فِى الْجَارِيَةِ - لِنَجْعَلَهَا لَكُمْ تَذْكِرَةً وَتَعِيَهَآ أُذُنٌ وَعِيَةٌ ]

(Verily, when the water rose beyond its limits, We carried you in the boat. That We might make it an admonition for you and that it might be retained by the retaining ears.)(69:11-12) Allah's statement here,

[فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ]

(Then is there any that will remember) means, `is there any that will receive admonition and reminder. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Prophet recited to me,

[فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ]

(Then is there any that will remember)'' Al-Bukhari collected a similar Hadith from `Abdullah that he said, "I recited to the Prophet (فَهَلْ مِن مُّذَّكِرٍ) (then is there any that will remember) and the Prophet said,

[فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ]

(Then is there any that will remember)'' Allah's statement,

[فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِى وَنُذُرِ ]

(Then how (terrible) was My torment and My warnings) means, `how terrible was My torment that I inflicted on those who disbelieved in Me and denied My Messengers, who did not heed to My warnings How was My help that I extended to My Messengers and the revenge exerted on their behalf,'

[وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْءَانَ لِلذِّكْرِ]

(And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember); meaning, `We have made the Qur'an easy to recite and comprehend for those who seek these traits, to remind mankind,' as Allah said,

[كِتَـبٌ أَنزَلْنَـهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَـرَكٌ لِّيَدَّبَّرُواْ ءَايَـتِهِ وَلِيَتَذَكَّرَ أُوْلُو الاٌّلْبَـبِ ]

((This is) a Book which We have sent down to you, full of blessings, that they may ponder over its Ayat, and that men of understanding may remember.)(38:29),

[فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرْنَـهُ بِلَسَانِكَ لِتُبَشِّرَ بِهِ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَتُنْذِرَ بِهِ قَوْماً لُّدّاً ]

(So We have made this (the Qur'an) easy in your own tongue, only that you may give glad tidings to those who have Taqwa and warn with it the most quarrelsome people.)(19:97) Allah said,

[فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ]

(then is there any that will remember), meaning, `is there anyone who will remember through this Qur'an, which We made easy to memorize and easy to understand' Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi commented on this Ayah, "Is there anyone who will avoid evil''

[كَذَّبَتْ عَادٌ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِى وَنُذُرِ - إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِيحاً ص¡