Haroen Soebratie

In de naam van Allah, de Barmhartige, de Genadevolle.


The Tafsir of Al-Qur'an

29. Al-`Ankabut (De Spin)
30. Ar-Rum (De Romeinen)
31. Luqman
32. As-Sajdah (De Neerknieling)
33. Al-Ahzab (De Bondgenoten)
34. Saba
35. Fatir (De Schepper)
36. Ya Sin
37. As-Saffat (De in Rijen staanden)
38. Saad
39. Az-Zumar (De Menigten)
40. Ghafir (De Vergever)
41. Fussilat (Duidelijk Uitgelegd)
42. Ash-Shura (Het Overleg)
43. Az-Zukhruf (Gouden, Juwelen)
44. Ad-Dukhan (De Rook)
45. Al-Djatsiyah (De Geknielden)
46. Al-Ahqaf (De Zandheuvels)

The Tafsir of Surah Al-`Ankabut (De Spin) (Chapter 29)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Makkah

1. Which was revealed in Makkah
2. The Believers are tested so that it may be known Who is Sincere and Who is Lying In the beginning of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah, we discussed the letters which appear at the beginning of some Surahs
3. The Evildoers cannot escape from Allah Allah said
4. Allah will fulfill the Hopes of the Righteous Allah's saying
5. The Command to be Good and Dutiful to Parents
6. The Attitudes of the Hypocrites and the Ways in which Allah tests People
7. The Arrogant Claim of the Disbelievers that They would carry the Sins of Others if They would return to Disbelief
8. Nuh and His People
9. Ibrahim's preaching to His People
10. The Evidence for Life after Death
11. The Response of Ibrahim's People -- and how Allah controlled the Fire
12. The Faith of Lut and His Emigration with Ibrahim
13. The preaching of Lut and what happened between Him and His People
14. The Angels went to Ibrahim and then to Lut, may peace be upon them both
15. Shu`ayb and His People
16. The Destruction of Nations Who rejected Their Messengers
17. Likening the gods of the Idolators to the House of a Spider
18. The Command to convey the Message, to recite the Qur'an and to pray
19. Arguing with the People of the Book
20. Evidence for the Fact that the Qur'an was revealed from Allah
21. The Idolators' demand for Signs, and the Response
22. How the Idolators asked for the Torment to be hastened on
23. Advice to migrate and the Promise of Provision and a Goodly Reward
24. Evidences of Tawhid
25. Allah tells us how insignificant and transient this world is, and how it will soon end. All that it is, is amusement and play:
26. The Blessing of the Sanctuary Here


1. Which was revealed in Makkah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ - الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلوةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ - وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالأْخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ ]

(1. Alif Lam Mim.) (2. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe,'' and will not be tested.) (3. And We indeed tested those who were before them so that Allah will indeed know those who are true, and He will know those who are liars.) (4. Or think those who do evil deeds that they can outstrip Us Evil is that which they judge!)

The Believers are tested so that it may be known Who is Sincere and Who is Lying In the beginning of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah, we discussed the letters which appear at the beginning of some Surahs

[أَحَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَن يُتْرَكُواْ أَن يَقُولُواْ ءَامَنَّا وَهُمْ لاَ يُفْتَنُونَ ]

(Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe,'' and will not be tested.) This is a rebuke in the form of a question, meaning that Allah will inevitably test His believing servants according to their level of faith, as it recorded in the authentic Hadith:

أَشَدُّ النَّاسِ بَلَاءً الْأَنْبِيَاءُ، ثُمَّ الصَّالِحُونَ، ثُمَّ الْأَمْثَلُ فَالْأَمْثَلُ، يُبْتَلَى الرَّجُلُ عَلَى حَسَبِ دِينِهِ، فَإِنْ كَانَ فِي دِينِهِ صَلَابَةٌ زِيدَ لَهُ فِي الْبَلَاء

(The people most severly tested are the Prophets, then the righteous, then the next best and the next best. A man will be tested in accordance with the degree of his religious commitment; the stonger his religious commitment, the stronger his test.) This Ayah is like the Ayah,

[أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَـهَدُواْ مِنكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّـبِرِينَ ]

(Do you think that you will enter Paradise without Allah knowing those of you who fought (in His cause) and knowing those who are the patient) (3:142) There is a similar Ayah in Surat At-Tawbah. And Allah says:

[أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُم مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْاْ مِن قَبْلِكُم مَّسَّتْهُمُ الْبَأْسَآءُ وَالضَّرَّآءُ وَزُلْزِلُواْ حَتَّى يَقُولَ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَعَهُ مَتَى نَصْرُ اللَّهِ أَلاَ إِنَّ نَصْرَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ ]

(Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, "When (will come) the help of Allah'' Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near!) (2:214) Allah says here:

[وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ فَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُواْ وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ الْكَـذِبِينَ ]

(And We indeed tested those who were before them so that Allah will know those who are true, and will know those who are liars.) meaning, He will make know which are sincere in their claim to be believers from those who are lying. Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, knows what has happened in the past and what is yet to come, and He knows how that which will not happen would have happened if it were to happen. All the Imams of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah are agreed on this. This is the view of Ibn `Abbas and others concerning phrases such as the Ayah,

[إِلاَّ لِنَعْلَمَ]

(only that We know) (2:143). Meaning, only to see -- because seeing has to do with what is there, but knowledge is broader than seeing, since it includes what is not present as well as what is.

3. The Evildoers cannot escape from Allah Allah said

[أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ أَن يَسْبِقُونَا سَآءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ ]

(Or think those who do evil deeds that they can outstrip Us Evil is that which they judge!) means, those who are not believers should not think that they will escape such trials and tests, for ahead of them lies a greater and more severe punishment. Allah says:

[أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ أَن يَسْبِقُونَا]

(Or think those who do evil deeds that they can outstrip Us) meaning, "escape'' from Us.

[سَآءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ]

(Evil is that which they judge!) what they think is evil.

[مَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَآءَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ أَجَلَ اللَّهِ لآتٍ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ - وَمَن جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَـهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِىٌّ عَنِ الْعَـلَمِينَ - وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ لَنُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَحْسَنَ الَّذِى كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ]

(5. Whoever hopes in meeting with Allah, then Allah's term is surely coming, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.) (6. And whosoever strives, he strives only for himself. Verily, Allah stands not in need of any of the creatures. ) (7. Those who believe, and do righteous good deeds, surely, We shall expiate from them their evil deeds and We shall indeed reward them according to the best of that which they used to do.)

4. Allah will fulfill the Hopes of the Righteous Allah's saying;

[مَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَآءَ اللَّهِ]

(Whoever hopes in meeting with Allah,) means, in the Hereafter, and does righteous deeds, and hopes for a great reward with Allah, then Allah will fulfill his hopes and reward him for his deeds in full. This will undoubtedly come to pass, for He is the One Who hears all supplications, He knows and understands the needs of all created beings. Allah says:

[مَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَآءَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ أَجَلَ اللَّهِ لآتٍ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ ]

(Whoever hopes in meeting with Allah, then Allah's term is surely coming, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.)

[وَمَن جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَـهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ]

(And whosoever strives, he strives only for himself.) This is like the Ayah,

[مَّنْ عَمِلَ صَـلِحاً فَلِنَفْسِهِ]

(Whosoever does righteous good deed, it is for himself) (41:46). Whoever does a righteous deed, the benefit of that deed will come back to him, for Allah has no need of the deeds of His servants, and even if all of them were to be as pious as the most pious man among them, that would not add to His dominion in the slightest. Allah says:

[وَمَن جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَـهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِىٌّ عَنِ الْعَـلَمِينَ ]

(And whosoever strives, he strives only for himself. Verily, Allah stands not in need of any of the creatures.) Then Allah tells us that even though He has no need of His creatures, He is kind and generous to them. He will still give to those who believe and do righteous deeds the best of rewards, which is that He will expiate for them their bad deeds, and will reward them according to the best deeds that they did. He will accept the fewest good deeds and in return for one good deed will give anything between ten rewards and seven hundred, but for every bad deed, He will give only one evil merit, or even that He may overlook and forgive. This is like the Ayah,

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ وَإِن تَكُ حَسَنَةً يُضَـعِفْهَا وَيُؤْتِ مِن لَّدُنْهُ أَجْراً عَظِيماً ]

(Surely, Allah wrongs not even the weight of a speck of dust, but if there is any good, He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward.) (4:40). And He says here:

[وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ لَنُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَحْسَنَ الَّذِى كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ]

(Those who believe, and do righteous good deeds, surely, We shall expiate from them their evil deeds and We shall indeed reward them according to the best of that which they used to do.)

[وَوَصَّيْنَا الإِنْسَـنَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حُسْناً وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَآ إِلَىَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ - وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ لَنُدْخِلَنَّهُمْ فِى الصَّـلِحِينَ ]

(8. And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful to his parents; but if they strive to make you associate with Me, which you have no knowledge of, then obey them not. Unto Me is your return and I shall tell you what you used to do.) (9. And for those who believe and do righteous deeds, surely, We shall admit them among the righteous.)

5. The Command to be Good and Dutiful to Parents

Allah commands His servants to be dutiful to parents, after urging them to adhere to belief in His Tawhid, because a person's parents are the cause of his existence. So he must treat them with the utmost kindness and respect, his father for spending on him and his mother because of her compassion for him. Allah says:

[وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّـهُ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـناً إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلاَهُمَا فَلاَ تَقُل لَّهُمَآ أُفٍّ وَلاَ تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلاً كَرِيمًا - وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُل رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِى صَغِيرًا ]

(And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them, but address them in terms of honor. And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: "My Lord! Bestow on them Your mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.'') (17:23-24) Although Allah orders us to show kindness, mercy and respect towards them in return for their previous kindness, He says:

[وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَآ]

(but if they strive to make associate with Me, which you have no knowledge of, then obey them not.) meaning, if they are idolators, and they try to make you follow them in their religion, then beware of them, and do not obey them in that, for you will be brought back to Me on the Day of Resurrection, and Allah will reward you for your kindness towards them and your patience in adhering to your religion. It is Allah Who will gather you with the group of the righteous, not with the group of your parents, even though you were the closest of people to them in the world. For a person will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection with those whom he loves, meaning, religious love. Allah says:

[وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ لَنُدْخِلَنَّهُمْ فِى الصَّـلِحِينَ ]

(And for those who believe and do righteous good deeds, surely, We shall make them enter with the righteous.) In his Tafsir of this Ayah, At-Tirmidhi recorded that Sa`d said: "Four Ayat were revealed concerning me -- and he told his story. He said: "Umm Sa`d said: `Did Allah not command you to honor your parents By Allah, I will not eat or drink anything until I die or you renounce Islam.' When they wanted to feed her, they would force her mouth open. Then this Ayah was revealed:

[وَوَصَّيْنَا الإِنْسَـنَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حُسْناً وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَآ]

(And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful to his parents; but if they strive to make you associate with Me, of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not.)'' This Hadith was also recorded by Imam Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.

[وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يِقُولُ ءَامَنَّا بِاللَّهِ فَإِذَآ أُوذِىَ فِى اللَّهِ جَعَلَ فِتْنَةَ النَّاسِ كَعَذَابِ اللَّهِ وَلَئِنْ جَآءَ نَصْرٌ مِّن رَّبِّكَ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّا كُنَّا مَعَكُمْ أَوَ لَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِأَعْلَمَ بِمَا فِى صُدُورِ الْعَـلَمِينَ - وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ ]

(10. Of mankind are some who say: "We believe in Allah.'' But if they are made to suffer for Allah, they consider the trial of mankind as Allah's punishment; and if victory comes from your Lord, they will say: "Verily, we were with you.'' Is not Allah Best Aware of what is in the breasts of the creatures) (11. And indeed Allah knows those who believe, and verily, He knows the hypocrites.)

6. The Attitudes of the Hypocrites and the Ways in which Allah tests People

Allah mentions the descriptions of the liars who falsely claim faith with their lips, while faith is not firm in their hearts. When a test or trial comes in this world, they think that this is a punishment from Allah, so they leave Islam. Allah says:

[وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يِقُولُ ءَامَنَّا بِاللَّهِ فَإِذَآ أُوذِىَ فِى اللَّهِ جَعَلَ فِتْنَةَ النَّاسِ كَعَذَابِ اللَّهِ]

(Of mankind are some who say: "We believe in Allah.'' But if they are made to suffer for Allah, they consider the trial of mankind as Allah's punishment;) Ibn `Abbas said, "Meaning that their trial is leaving Islam if they are made to suffer for Allah.'' This was also the view of others among the Salaf. This Ayah is like the Ayah,

[وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ عَلَى حَرْفٍ فَإِنْ أَصَابَهُ خَيْرٌ اطْمَأَنَّ بِهِ وَإِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ فِتْنَةٌ انْقَلَبَ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ]

(And among mankind is he who worships Allah as it were upon the edge: if good befalls him, he is content therewith; but if a trial befalls him, he turns back on his face...) until:

[ذلِكَ هُوَ الضَّلَـلُ الْبَعِيدُ]

(That is a straying far away) [22:11-12]. Then Allah says:

[وَلَئِنْ جَآءَ نَصْرٌ مِّن رَّبِّكَ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّا كُنَّا مَعَكُمْ]

(and if victory comes from your Lord, they will say: "Verily, we were with you.'') meaning, "if victory comes from your Lord, O Muhammad, and there are spoils of war, these people will say to you, `We were with you,' i.e., we are your brothers in faith.'' This is like the Ayat:

[الَّذِينَ يَتَرَبَّصُونَ بِكُمْ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ فَتْحٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ قَالُواْ أَلَمْ نَكُنْ مَّعَكُمْ وَإِن كَانَ لِلْكَـفِرِينَ نَصِيبٌ قَالُواْ أَلَمْ نَسْتَحْوِذْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَنَمْنَعْكُمْ مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ]

(Those who wait and watch about you; if you gain a victory from Allah, they say: "Were we not with you'' But if the disbelievers gain a success, they say (to them): "Did we not gain mastery over you and did we not protect you from the believers'') (4:141).

[فَعَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَأْتِىَ بِالْفَتْحِ أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِّنْ عِندِهِ فَيُصْبِحُواْ عَلَى مَآ أَسَرُّواْ فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ نَـدِمِينَ]

(Perhaps Allah may bring a victory or a decision according to His will. Then they will become regretful for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves) (5:52). And Allah tells us about them here:

[وَلَئِنْ جَآءَ نَصْرٌ مِّن رَّبِّكَ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّا كُنَّا مَعَكُمْ]

(and if victory comes from your Lord, they will say: "Verily, we were with you.'') Then Allah says:

[أَوَ لَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِأَعْلَمَ بِمَا فِى صُدُورِ الْعَـلَمِينَ]

(Is not Allah Best Aware of what is in the breasts of the creatures) meaning, `does Allah not know best what is in their hearts and what they store secretly within themselves, even though outwardly they may appear to be in agreement with you'

[وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ ]

(And indeed Allah knows those who believe, and verily He knows the hypocrites.) Allah will test the people with calamities and with times of ease, so that He may distinguish the believers from the hypocrites, to see who will obey Allah both in times of hardship and of ease, and who will obey Him only when things are going in accordance with their desires. As Allah says:

[وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَـهِدِينَ مِنكُمْ وَالصَّـبِرِينَ وَنَبْلُوَ أَخْبَـرَكُمْ ]

(And surely, We shall try you till We test those who strive hard and the patient, and We shall test your facts.) (47:31) After the battle of Uhud, with its trials and tribulations for the Muslims, Allah said:

[مَّا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَذَرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى مَآ أَنتُمْ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى يَمِيزَ الْخَبِيثَ مِنَ الطَّيِّبِ]

(Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good...) (3:179)

[وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اتَّبِعُواْ سَبِيلَنَا وَلْنَحْمِلْ خَطَـيَـكُمْ وَمَا هُمْ بِحَـمِلِينَ مِنْ خَطَـيَـهُمْ مِّن شَىْءٍ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَـذِبُونَ - وَلَيَحْمِلُنَّ أَثْقَالَهُمْ وَأَثْقَالاً مَّعَ أَثْقَالِهِمْ وَلَيُسْـَلُنَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ عَمَّا كَانُواْ يَفْتَرُونَ ]

(12. And those who disbelieve say to those who believe: "Follow our way and let us bear your sins.'' Never will they bear anything of their sins. Surely, they are liars.) (13. And verily, they shall bear their own loads, and other loads besides their own; and verily, they shall be questioned on the Day of Resurrection about that which they used to fabricate.)

7. The Arrogant Claim of the Disbelievers that They would carry the Sins of Others if They would return to Disbelief

Allah tells us that the disbelievers of Quraysh said to those who believed and followed the truth: leave your religion, come back to our religion, and follow our way;

[وَلْنَحْمِلْ خَطَـيَـكُمْ]

(and let us bear your sins.) meaning, `if there is any sin on you, we will bear it and it will be our responsibility'. It is like a person saying: "Do this, and your sin will be on my shoulders.'' Allah says, proving this to be a lie:

[وَمَا هُمْ بِحَـمِلِينَ مِنْ خَطَـيَـهُمْ مِّن شَىْءٍ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَـذِبُونَ]

(Never will they bear anything of their sins. Surely, they are liars.) in their claim that they will bear the sins of others, for no person will bear the sins of another. Allah says:

[وَإِن تَدْعُ مُثْقَلَةٌ إِلَى حِمْلِهَا لاَ يُحْمَلْ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَى]

(and if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin) (35:18).

[وَلاَ يَسْـَلُ حَمِيمٌ حَمِيماً يُبَصَّرُونَهُمْ]

(And no friend will ask a friend (about his condition), though they shall be made to see one another) (70:10-11).

[وَلَيَحْمِلُنَّ أَثْقَالَهُمْ وَأَثْقَالاً مَّعَ أَثْقَالِهِمْ]

(And verily, they shall bear their own loads, and other loads besides their own.) Here Allah tells us that those who call others to disbelief and misguidance will, on the Day of Resurrection, bear their own sins and the sins of others, because of the people they misguided. Yet that will not detract from the burden of those other people in the slightest, as Allah says:

[لِيَحْمِلُواْ أَوْزَارَهُمْ كَامِلَةً يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ وَمِنْ أَوْزَارِ الَّذِينَ يُضِلُّونَهُمْ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ]

(That they may bear their own burdens in full on the Day of Resurrection, and also of the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge) (16:25). In the Sahih, it says:

مَنْ دَعَا إِلَى هُدًى كَانَ لَهُ مِنَ الْأَجْرِ مِثْلُ أُجُورِ مَنِ اتَّبَعَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يَنْقُصَ مِنْ أُجُورِهِمْ شَيْئًا، وَمَنْ دَعَا إِلَى ضَلَالَةٍ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْإثْمِ مِثْلُ آثَامِ مَنِ اتَّبَعَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يَنْقُصَ مِنْ آثَامِهِمْ شَيْئًا

(Whoever calls others to true guidance, will have a reward like that of those who follow him until the Day of Resurrection, without it detracting from their reward in the slightest. Whoever calls others to misguidance, will have a burden of sin like that of those who follow him until the Day of Resurrection, without it detracting from their burden in the slightest.) In the Sahih, it also says:

مَا قُتِلَتْ نَفْسٌ ظُلْمًا إِلَّا كَانَ عَلَى ابْنِ آدَمَ الْأَوَّلِ كِفْلٌ مِنْ دَمِهَا، لِأَنَّهُ أَوَّلُ مَنْ سَنَّ الْقَتْل

(No person is killed unlawfully, but a share of the guilt will be upon the first son of Adam, because he was the first one to initiate the idea of killing another.)

[وَلَيُسْـَلُنَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ عَمَّا كَانُواْ يَفْتَرُونَ]

(and verily, they shall be questioned on the Day of Resurrection about that which they used to fabricate.) means, the lies they used to tell and the falsehood they used to fabricate. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Umamah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah conveyed the Message with which he was sent, then he said:

إِيَّاكُمْ وَالظُّلْمَ، فَإِنَّ اللهَ يَعْزِمُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَيَقُولُ: وَعِزَّتِي وَجَلَالِي لَا يَجوزُنِي الْيَوْمَ ظُلْمٌ، ثُمَّ يُنَادِي مُنَادٍ فَيَقُولُ: أَيْنَ فُلَانُ بْنُ فُلَانٍ؟ فَيَأْتِي يَتْبَعُهُ مِنَ الْحَسَنَاتِ أَمْثَالَ الْجِبَالِ، فَيَشْخَصُ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهَا أَبْصَارَهُمْ، حَتَّى يَقُومَ بَيْنَ يَدَيِ الرَّحْمنِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ، ثُمَّ يَأْمُرُ الْمُنَادِيَ فَيُنَادِي: مَنْ كَانَتْ لَهُ تِبَاعَةٌ أَوْ ظَلَامَةٌ عِنْدَ فُلَانِ بْنِ فُلَانٍ فَهَلُمَّ، فَيُقْبِلُونَ حَتَّى يَجْتَمِعُوا قِيَامًا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ الرَّحْمنِ، فَيَقُولُ الرَّحْمنُ: اقْضُوا عَنْ عَبْدِي، فَيَقُولُونَ: كَيْفَ نَقْضِي عَنْهُ؟ فَيَقُولُ: خُذُوا لَهُمْ مِنْ حَسَنَاتِهِ، فَلَا يَزَالُونَ يَأْخُذُونَ مِنْهَا حَتَّى لَا يَبْقَى مِنْهَا حَسَنَةٌ، وَقَدْ بَقِيَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الظَّلَامَاتِ، فَيَقُولُ: اقْضُوا عَنْ عَبْدِي، فَيَقُولُونَ: لَمْ يَبْقَ لَهُ حَسَنَةٌ، فَيَقُولُ: خُذُوا مِنْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ فَاحْمِلُوهَا عَلَيْه

(Beware of injustice, for Allah will swear an oath of the Day of Resurrection and will say: "By My glory and majesty, no injustice will be overlooked today.'' Then a voice will call out, "Where is so-and-so the son of so-and-so'' He will be brought forth, followed by his good deeds which appear like mountains while the people are gazing at them in wonder, until he is standing before the Most Merciful. Then the caller will be commanded to say: "Whoever is owed anything by so-and-so the son of so-and-so, or has been wronged by him, let him come forth.'' So they will come forth and gather before the Most Merciful, then the Most Merciful will say: "Settle the matter for My servant.'' They will say, "How can we settle the matter'' He will say, "Take from his good deeds and give it to them.'' They will keep taking from his good deeds until there is nothing left, and there will still people with scores to be settled. Allah will say, "Settle the matter for My servant.'' They will say, "He does not have even one good deed left.'' Allah will say, "Take from their evil deeds and give them to him.'') Then the Prophet quoted this Ayah:

[وَلَيَحْمِلُنَّ أَثْقَالَهُمْ وَأَثْقَالاً مَّعَ أَثْقَالِهِمْ وَلَيُسْـَلُنَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ عَمَّا كَانُواْ يَفْتَرُونَ ]

(And verily, they shall bear their own loads, and other loads besides their own; and verily, they shall be questioned on the Day of Resurrection about that which they used to fabricate.) There is a corroborating report in the Sahih with a different chain of narration:

إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَأْتِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ بِحَسَنَاتٍ أَمْثَالِ الْجِبَالِ وَقَدْ ظَلَمَ هَذَا، وَأَخَذَ مَالَ هَذَا، وَأَخَذَ مِنْ عِرْضِ هَذَا، فَيَأْخُذُ هَذَا مِنْ حَسَنَاتِهِ، وَهَذَا مِنْ حَسَنَاتِهِ، فَإِذَا لَمْ تَبْقَ لَهُ حَسَنَةٌ، أُخِذَ مِنْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ فَطُرِحَ عَلَيْه

(A man will come on the Day of Resurrection with good deeds like mountains, but he had wronged this one, taken the wealth of that one and slandered the honor of another. So each of them will take from his good deeds. And if there is nothing left of his good deeds, it will be taken from their evil and placed on him.)

[وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحاً إِلَى قَوْمِهِ فَلَبِثَ فِيهِمْ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ إِلاَّ خَمْسِينَ عَاماً فَأَخَذَهُمُ الطُّوفَانُ وَهُمْ ظَـلِمُونَ - فأَنْجَيْنـهُ وأَصْحَـبَ السَّفِينَةِ وَجَعَلْنَـهَآ ءَايَةً لِّلْعَـلَمِينَ ]

(14. And indeed We sent Nuh to his people, and he stayed among them a thousand years less fifty years; so the Deluge overtook them while they were wrongdoers.) (15. Then We saved him and the Companions of the Boat, and made it an Ayah for all people.)

8. Nuh and His People

Here Allah consoles His servant and Messenger Muhammad by telling him that Nuh, peace be upon him, stayed among his people for this long period of time, calling them night and day, in secret and openly, but in spite of all that they still persisted in their aversion to the truth, turning away from it and disbelieving in him. Only a few of them believed with him. Allah says:

[فَلَبِثَ فِيهِمْ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ إِلاَّ خَمْسِينَ عَاماً فَأَخَذَهُمُ الطُّوفَانُ وَهُمْ ظَـلِمُونَ]

(and he stayed among them a thousand years less fifty years; and the Deluge overtook them while they were wrongdoers.) meaning, `after this long period of time, when the Message and the warning had been of no avail, so, O Muhammad, do not feel sorry because of those among your people who disbelieve in you, and do not grieve for them, for Allah guides whomsoever He wills and leaves astray whomsoever He wills. The matter rests with Him and all things will return to Him.'

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَلَوْ جَآءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ ءايَةٍ]

(Truly, those, against whom the Word of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them) (10:96-97). Know that Allah will help you and support you and cause you to prevail, and He will defeat and humiliate your enemies, and make them the lowest of the low. It was recorded that Ibn `Abbas said: "Nuh received his mission when he was forty years old, and he stayed among his people for a thousand years less fifty; after the Flood he lived for sixty years until people had increased and spread.''

[فأَنْجَيْنـهُ وأَصْحَـبَ السَّفِينَةِ]

(Then We saved him and the Companions of the Boat,) means, those who believed in Nuh, peace be upon him. We have already discussed this in detail in Surah Hud, and there is no need to repeat it here.

[وَجَعَلْنَـهَآ ءَايَةً لِّلْعَـلَمِينَ]

(and made it (the ship) an Ayah for all people.) means, `We caused that ship to remain,' whether in itself, as Qatadah said, that it remained until the beginning of Islam, on Mount Judi, or whether the concept of sailing in ships was left as a reminder to mankind of how Allah had saved them from the Flood. This is like the Ayat: s

[وَءَايَةٌ لَّهُمْ أَنَّا حَمَلْنَا ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ فِى الْفُلْكِ الْمَشْحُونِ - وَخَلَقْنَا لَهُمْ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ مَا يَرْكَبُونَ ]

(And an Ayah for them is that We bore their offspring in the laden ship. And We have created for them of the like thereunto, on which they ride) until:

[وَمَتَاعاً إِلَى حِينٍ]

(and as an enjoyment for a while) [36:41-44].

[إِنَّا لَمَّا طَغَا الْمَآءُ حَمَلْنَـكُمْ فِى الْجَارِيَةِ - لِنَجْعَلَهَا لَكُمْ تَذْكِرَةً وَتَعِيَهَآ أُذُنٌ وَعِيَةٌ ]

(Verily, when the water rose beyond its limits, We carried you in the ship. That We might make it an admonition for you and that it might be retained by the retaining ears.) (69:11-12) And Allah says here:

[فأَنْجَيْنـهُ وأَصْحَـبَ السَّفِينَةِ وَجَعَلْنَـهَآ ءَايَةً لِّلْعَـلَمِينَ ]

(Then We saved him and the Companions of the Boat, and made it an Ayah for all people.) This is a shift from referring to one specific ship to speaking about ships in general. A similar shift from specific to general is to be seen in the Ayat:

[وَلَقَدْ زَيَّنَّا السَّمَآءَ الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَـبِيحَ وَجَعَلْنَـهَا رُجُوماً لِّلشَّيَـطِينِ]

(And indeed We have adorned the nearest heaven with lamps, and We have made such lamps missiles to drive away the Shayatin (devils)) (67:5). meaning, `We have made these lamps missiles, but the lamps which are used as missiles are not the same lamps as are used to adorn the heaven.' And Allah says:

[وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الإِنْسَـنَ مِن سُلَـلَةٍ مِّن طِينٍ - ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَـهُ نُطْفَةً فِى قَرَارٍ مَّكِينٍ ]

(And indeed We created man out of an extract of clay. Thereafter We made him a Nutfah in a safe lodging.) (23:12-13). There are many other similar examples.

[وَإِبْرَهِيمَ إِذْ قَالَ لِقَوْمِهِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَاتَّقُوهُ ذلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ - إِنَّمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْثَـناً وَتَخْلُقُونَ إِفْكاً إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ لاَ يَمْلِكُونَ لَكُمْ رِزْقاً فَابْتَغُواْ عِندَ اللَّهِ الرِّزْقَ وَاعْبُدُوهُ وَاشْكُرُواْ لَهُ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ - وَإِن تُكَذِّبُواْ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَ أُمَمٌ مِّن قَبْلِكُمْ وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلاَّ الْبَلاَغُ الْمُبِينُ ]

(16. And (remember) Ibrahim when he said to his people: "Worship Allah, and have Taqwa of Him, that is better for you if you know.'') (17. You worship besides Allah only idols, and you only invent falsehood. Verily, those whom you worship besides Allah have no power to give you provision, so seek from Allah your provision, and worship Him, and be grateful to Him. To Him you will be brought back.) (18. And if you deny, then nations before you have denied. And the duty of the Messenger is only to convey plainly.'')

9. Ibrahim's preaching to His People

Allah tells us how His servant, Messenger and close friend Ibrahim, the Imam of the monotheists, called his people to worship Allah alone, with no partner or associate, to fear Him alone, to seek provision from Him alone, with no partner or associate, to give thanks to Him alone, for He is the One to Whom thanks should be given for the blessings which none can bestow but He. Ibrahim said to his people:

[اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَاتَّقُوهُ]

(Worship Allah, and have Taqwa of Him,) meaning worship Him and fear Him Alone, with all sincerity.

[ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ]

(that is better for you if you know.) if you do that you will attain good in this world and the next, and you will prevent evil from yourselves in this world and the Hereafter. Then Allah states that the idols which they worshipped were not able to do any harm or any good, and tells them, "You made up names for them and called them gods, but they are created beings just like you.'' This interpretation was reported by Al-`Awfi from Ibn `Abbas. It was also the view of Mujahid and As-Suddi. Al-Walibi reported from Ibn `Abbas: "You invent falsehood, means, you carve idols,'' which do not have the power to provide for you.

[فَابْتَغُواْ عِندَ اللَّهِ الرِّزْقَ]

(so seek from Allah your provision,) This emphasizes the idea of asking Allah Alone. This is like the Ayat:

[إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ ]

(You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help.) (1:5) And His saying:

[رَبِّ ابْنِ لِى عِندَكَ بَيْتاً فِى الْجَنَّةِ]

(My Lord! Build for me, with You, a home in Paradise) (66:11). Allah says here:

[فَابْتَغُواْ]

(so seek) meaning, ask for

[عِندَ اللَّهِ الرِّزْقَ]

(from Allah your provision,) meaning, do not seek it from anyone or anything other than Him, for no one else possesses the power to do anything.

[وَاعْبُدُوهُ وَاشْكُرُواْ لَهُ]

(and worship Him, and be grateful to Him.) Eat from what He has provided and worship Him Alone, and give thanks to Him for the blessings He has given you.

[إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ]

(To Him you will be brought back.) means, on the Day of Resurrection, when He will reward or punish each person according to his deeds. His saying:

[وَإِن تُكَذِّبُواْ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَ أُمَمٌ مِّن قَبْلِكُمْ]

(And if you deny, then nations before you have denied.) means, `you have heard what happened to them by way of punishment for opposing the Messengers.'

[وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلاَّ الْبَلَـغُ الْمُبِينُ]

(And the duty of the Messenger is only to convey plainly.) All the Messengers have to do is to convey the Message as Allah has commanded them. Allah guides whoever He wills and leaves astray whoever He wills, so strive to be among the blessed. Qatadah said concerning the Ayah:

[وَإِن تُكَذِّبُواْ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَ أُمَمٌ مِّن قَبْلِكُمْ]

(And if you deny, then nations before you have denied.) "These are words of consolation to His Prophet, peace be upon him.'' This suggestion by Qatadah implies that the narrative (about Ibrahim) is interrupted here, and resumes with the words "And nothing was the answer of (Ibrahim's) people...'' in Ayah 24. This was also stated by Ibn Jarir. From the context it appears that Ibrahim, peace be upon him, said all of what is in this section. Here he establishes proof against them that the Resurrection will indeed come to pass, because at the end of this passage it says:

[فَمَا كَانَ جَوَابَ قَوْمِهِ]

("And nothing was the answer of his people...'')(29:24) And Allah knows best.

[أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ كَيْفَ يُبْدِىءُ اللَّهُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ إِنَّ ذلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ - قُلْ سِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَانظُرُواْ كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ اللَّهُ يُنشِىءُ النَّشْأَةَ الاٌّخِرَةَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ - يُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَرْحَمُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُقْلَبُونَ - وَمَآ أَنتُمْ بِمُعْجِزِينَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَلاَ فِى السَّمَآءِ وَمَا لَكُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِىٍّ وَلاَ نَصِيرٍ - وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَايَـتِ اللَّهِ وَلِقَآئِهِ أُوْلَـئِكَ يَئِسُواْ مِن رَّحْمَتِى وَأُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ]

(19. See they not how Allah originates the creation, then repeats it. Verily, that is easy for Allah.) (20. Say: "Travel in the land and see how He originated the creation, and then Allah will bring forth the creation of the Hereafter. Verily, Allah is able to do all things.'') (21. He punishes whom He wills, and shows mercy to whom He wills; and to Him you will be returned.) (22. And you cannot escape in the earth or in the heaven. And besides Allah you have neither any protector nor any helper.) (23. And those who disbelieve in the Ayat of Allah and meeting with Him, such have no hope of My mercy: and for such there is a painful torment.)

10. The Evidence for Life after Death

Allah tells us that Ibrahim, peace be upon him, showed them the proof of life after death, which they denied, in their souls. For Allah created them after they had been nothing at all, then they came into existence and became people who could hear and see. The One Who originated this is able to repeat it, it is very easy for Him. Then he taught them to contemplate the visible signs on the horizons and the things that Allah has created: the heavens with their stars and planets, moving and stationary, the earth with its plains and mountains, its valleys, deserts and wildernesses, trees and rivers, fruits and oceans. All of that indicates that these are themselves created things, and that there must be a Creator Who does as He chooses, Who merely says to a thing "Be!'' and it is. Allah says:

[أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ كَيْفَ يُبْدِىءُ اللَّهُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ إِنَّ ذلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ ]

(See they not how Allah originates the creation, then repeats it. Verily, that is easy for Allah.) This is like the Ayah:

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ]

(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him) (30:27). Then Allah says:

[قُلْ سِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَانظُرُواْ كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ اللَّهُ يُنشِىءُ النَّشْأَةَ الاٌّخِرَةَ]

(Say: "Travel in the land and see how He originated the creation, and then Allah will bring forth the creation of the Hereafter.'') meaning, the Day of Resurrection.

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ]

(Verily, Allah is able to do all things.)

[يُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَرْحَمُ مَن يَشَآءُ]

(He punishes whom He wills, and shows mercy to whom He wills;) He is the Ruler Who is in control, Who does as He wishes and judges as He wants, and there is none who can put back His judgement. None can question Him about what He does; rather it is they who will be questioned, for His is the power to create and to command, and whatever He decides is fair and just, for He is the sovereign who cannot be unjust in the slightest. According to a Hadith recorded by the Sunan compilers:

إِنَّ اللهَ لَوْ عَذَّبَ أَهْلَ سَمَاوَاتِهِ وَأَهْلَ أَرْضِهِ لَعَذَّبَهُمْ وَهُوَ غَيْرُ ظَالِم لَهُم

(If Allah willed to punish the dwellers of His heavens and His earth, He would do so, while He would not be unjust to them.) Allah says:

[يُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَرْحَمُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُقْلَبُونَ ]

(He punishes whom He wills, and shows mercy to whom He wills; and to Him you will be returned.) You will return to Him on the Day of Resurrection.

[وَمَآ أَنتُمْ بِمُعْجِزِينَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَلاَ فِى السَّمَآءِ]

(And you cannot escape on the earth or in the heaven. ) No one in heaven or on earth can flee from Him, for He is the Subduer Who is above His servants, and everything fears Him and is in need of Him, while He is the One Who is Independent of all else.

[وَمَا لَكُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِىٍّ وَلاَ نَصِيرٍوَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَايَـتِ اللَّهِ وَلِقَآئِهِ]

(And besides Allah you have neither any protector nor any helper. And those who disbelieve in the Ayat of Allah and the meeting with Him,) Those who disbelieved in the signs of Allah and denied the Resurrection,

[أُوْلَـئِكَ يَئِسُواْ مِن رَّحْمَتِى]

(such have no hope of My mercy) they will have no share in it,

[وَأُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ]

(and for such there is a painful torment.) meaning, extremely painful, in this world and the next.

[فَمَا كَانَ جَوَابَ قَوْمِهِ إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ اقْتُلُوهُ أَوْ حَرّقُوهُ فَأَنْجَاهُ اللَّهُ مِنَ النَّارِ إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لاَيَـتٍ لّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَقَالَ إِنَّمَا اتَّخَذْتُمْ مّن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْثَـناً مَّوَدَّةَ بَيْنِكُمْ فِى الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ يَكْفُرُ بَعْضُكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ وَيَلْعَنُ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضاً وَمَأْوَاكُمُ النَّارُ وَمَا لَكُمْ مّن نَّـصِرِينَ]

(24. So nothing was the answer of people except that they said: "Kill him or burn him.'' Then Allah saved him from the fire. Verily, in this are indeed signs for a people who believe.) (25. And (Ibrahim) said: "You have taken idols instead of Allah. The love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall deny each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper.'')

11. The Response of Ibrahim's People -- and how Allah controlled the Fire

Allah tells us how Ibrahim's people stubbornly and arrogantly disbelieved, and how they resisted the truth with falsehood. After Ibrahim addressed them with his words of clear guidance,

[إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ اقْتُلُوهُ أَوْ حَرِّقُوهُ]

(except that they said: "Kill him or burn him.'') This was because proof had clearly been established against them, so they resorted to using their power and strength.

[قَالُواْ ابْنُواْ لَهُ بُنْيَـناً فَأَلْقُوهُ فِى الْجَحِيمِ - فَأَرَادُواْ بِهِ كَيْداً فَجَعَلْنَـهُمُ الاٌّسْفَلِينَ ]

(They said: "Build for him a building and throw him into the blazing fire!'' So they plotted a plot against him, but We made them the lowest.) (37:97-98). They spent a long time gathering a huge amount of firewood, they built a fence around it, then they set it ablaze until its flames reached up to the sky. No greater fire had ever been lit. Then they went to Ibrahim, seized him and put him into a catapult, then they threw him into the fire. But Allah made it cool and safe for him, and after spending several days in it, he emerged unscathed. For this reason and others, Allah made him an Imam for mankind, for he offered himself to the Most Merciful, he offered his body to the flames, he offered his son as a sacrifice, and he gave his wealth to care for his guests. For all of these reasons he is beloved by the followers of all religions.

[فَأَنْجَاهُ اللَّهُ مِنَ النَّارِ]

(Then Allah saved him from the fire. ) means, He rescued him from it by making it cool and safe for him.

[إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ]

(Verily, in this are indeed signs for a people who believe.) Ibrahim, peace be upon him, explains to his people that idols are incapable of doing anything,

[وَقَالَ إِنَّمَا اتَّخَذْتُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْثَـناً مَّوَدَّةَ بَيْنِكُمْ فِى الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا]

(And (Ibrahim) said: "You have taken idols instead of Allah. The love between you is only in the life of this world,) Here Ibrahim was rebuking his people for their evil deed of worshipping idols, and telling them: `You have taken these as gods and you come together to worship them so that there is friendship and love among you in this world,'

[ثُمَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ]

(but on the Day of Resurrection,) the situation will be the opposite, and this love and friendship will turn into hatred and enmity. Then

[يَكْفُرُ بَعْضُكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ]

(you shall deny each other,) meaning, `you will denounce one another and deny whatever was between you,'

[وَيَلْعَنُ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضاً]

(and curse each other, ) means, the followers will curse their leaders and the leaders will curse their followers.

[كُلَّمَا دَخَلَتْ أُمَّةٌ لَّعَنَتْ أُخْتَهَا]

a(Every time a new nation enters (the Fire), it curses its sister nation (that went before)) (7:37).

[الاٌّخِلاَءُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ إِلاَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ ]

(Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except those who have Taqwa.) (43:67) And Allah says here:

[ثُمَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ يَكْفُرُ بَعْضُكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ وَيَلْعَنُ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضاً وَمَأْوَاكُمُ النَّارُ]

(but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall deny each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire,) meaning, `your ultimate destiny after all accounts have been settled, will be the fire of Hell, and you will have no one to help you or save you from the punishment of Allah.' This will be the state of the disbelievers. As for the believers, it will be an entirely different matter.

[فَـَامَنَ لَهُ لُوطٌ وَقَالَ إِنِّى مُهَاجِرٌ إِلَى رَبِّى إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ - وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِ النُّبُوَّةَ وَالْكِتَـبَ وَءَاتَيْنَاهُ أَجْرَهُ فِى الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِى لاٌّخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ ]

(26. So, Lut believed in him. He said: "I will emigrate for the sake of my Lord. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.'') (27. And We bestowed on him, Ishaq and Ya`qub, and We ordained among his offspring prophethood and the Book, and We granted him his reward in this world; and verily, in the Hereafter he is indeed among the righteous.)

12. The Faith of Lut and His Emigration with Ibrahim

Allah tells us that Lut believed in Ibrahim. It was said that he was the son of Ibrahim's brother, and that his name was Lut bin Haran bin Azar. None of Ibrahim's people believed in Ibrahim besides Lut and Sarah the wife of Ibrahim. But if it is asked how we may reconcile this Ayah with the Hadith narrated in the Sahih which says that when Ibrahim passed by that tyrant and he asked about Sarah and what her relationship was to him, Ibrahim said, "My sister.'' Then he went to her and said, "I told him that you are my sister, so do not let him think I am lying, for there are no believers on earth except for you and I, and you are my sister in faith.'' It seems -- and Allah knows best -- that the meaning here is, there is no other Muslim couple on earth apart from you and I. Among his people, only Lut believed in him and migrated with him to Syria, then during Ibrahim's lifetime he was sent as a Messenger to the people of Sadum (Sodom) where he settled. We have already discussed their story and more is to come.

[وَقَالَ إِنِّى مُهَاجِرٌ إِلَى رَبِّى]

(He (Ibrahim) said: "I will emigrate for the sake of my Lord.'') It may be that the pronoun in the verb "he said'' refers to Lut, because he was the last person mentioned before this phrase; or it may refer to Ibrahim. Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak said that Ibrahim is the one who is referred in the phrase.

[فَـَامَنَ لَهُ لُوطٌ]

(So, Lut believed in him.) i.e., out of all his people. Then Allah tells us that he chose to leave them so that he might be able to follow his religion openly. So he said:

[إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ]

(Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.) Power belongs to Him and to His Messenger and to those who believe in him, and He is Wise in all that He says and does, and in all His rulings and decrees, both universal and legislative. Qatadah said, "They migrated together from Kutha, which is on the outskirts of Kufa, and went to Syria.'' Allah gave Ibrahim, Ishaq and Ya`qub, and ordained Prophethood in His Offspring

[وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ]

(And We bestowed on him, Ishaq and Ya`qub,) This is like the Ayah,

[فَلَمَّا اعْتَزَلَهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَكُلاًّ جَعَلْنَا نَبِيّاً ]

(So, when he had turned away from them and from those whom they worshipped besides Allah, We gave him Ishaq and Ya`qub, and each one of them We made a Prophet.) (19:49) That is, when he left his people, Allah gave him joy in a righteous son who was also a Prophet, to whom in turn was born, in his grandfather's lifetime, a righteous son who was also a Prophet. Allah also says:

[وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَـقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ نَافِلَةً]

(And We bestowed upon him Ishaq, and Ya`qub in addition) (21:72) meaning, as an additional gift. This is like the Ayah,

[فَبَشَّرْنَـهَا بِإِسْحَـقَ وَمِن وَرَآءِ إِسْحَـقَ يَعْقُوبَ]

(But We gave her glad tidings of Ishaq, and after Ishaq, of Ya`qub.) (11:71) meaning, to this son would be born a son during their lives, who would be a delight to them.

[وَجَعَلْنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِ النُّبُوَّةَ وَالْكِتَـبَ]

(and We ordained among his offspring prophethood and the Book,) This is a tremendous blessing. Not only did Allah take him as a close friend and make him an Imam for mankind, but He also ordained prophethood and the Book among his offspring. After the time of Ibrahim there was no Prophet who was not from among his descendants. All of the Prophets of the Children of Israel were from among his descendants, from Ya`qub bin Ishaq bin Ibrahim to the last of them, `Isa bin Maryam, who stood in the midst of his people and announced the good news of the Hashimi Qurashi Arab Prophet, the last of all the Messengers, the leader of the sons of Adam in this world and the next, whom Allah chose from the heart of the Arab nation, from the descendants of Isma`il bin Ibrahim, may peace be upon them. There is no Prophet from the line of Isma`il besides him, may the best of blessings and peace be upon him.

[وَءَاتَيْنَاهُ أَجْرَهُ فِى الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِى لاٌّخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ]

(and We granted him his reward in this world; and verily, in the Hereafter he is indeed among the righteous.) Allah granted him happiness in this world that was connected to happiness in the Hereafter, for in this world he had plentiful provision, a splendid home, a beautiful and righteous wife, and he was and still is spoken of highly, for everyone loves him and regards him as a friend. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and others said: "He obeyed Allah in all ways.'' This is like the Ayah,

[وَإِبْرَهِيمَ الَّذِى وَفَّى ]

(And of Ibrahim who fulfilled all.) (53:37) He did all that he was commanded to do and obeyed his Lord to the utmost. Allah says:

[وَءَاتَيْنَاهُ أَجْرَهُ فِى الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِى لاٌّخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ]

(and We granted him his reward in this world; and verily, in the Hereafter he is indeed among the righteous.) And He says:

[إِنَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً قَـنِتًا لِلَّهِ حَنِيفًا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ]

(Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah, Qanit to Allah, a Hanif, and he was not one of the idolators) until:

[وَإِنَّهُ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ]

(and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous) (16:120-122).

[وَلُوطاً إِذْ قَالَ لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّكُمْ لَتَأْتُونَ الْفَـحِشَةَ مَا سَبَقَكُمْ بِهَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِّنَ الْعَـلَمِينَ - أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَأْتُونَ الرِّجَالَ وَتَقْطَعُونَ السَّبِيلَ وَتَأْتُونَ فِى نَادِيكُمُ الْمُنْكَرَ فَمَا كَانَ جَوَابَ قَوْمِهِ إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ ائْتِنَا بِعَذَابِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتَ مِنَ الصَّـدِقِينَ - قَالَ رَبِّ انصُرْنِى عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْمُفْسِدِينَ ]

(28. And (remember) Lut, when he said to his people: "You commit immoral sins which none has preceded you in (committing) it in all creatures.'') (29. "Verily, you practice sodomy with men, and rob the wayfarer! And practice Al-Munkar in your meetings.'' But his people gave no answer except that they said: "Bring Allah's torment upon us if you are one of the truthful.'') (30. He said: "My Lord! Give me victory over the people who are corrupt.'')

13. The preaching of Lut and what happened between Him and His People

Allah tells us that His Prophet Lut, peace be upon him, denounced his people for their evil deed and their immoral actions in having intercourse with males, a deed which none of the sons of Adam had ever committed before them. As well as doing this, they also disbelieved in Allah and rejected and opposed His Messenger, they robbed wayfarers, they would lie in wait on the road, kill people and loot their possessions.

[وَتَأْتُونَ فِى نَادِيكُمُ الْمُنْكَرَ]

(And practice Al-Munkar in your meetings.) This means, `in your gatherings you do and say things that are not befitting, and you do not denounce one another for doing such things.' Some said that they used to have intercourse with one another in public; this was the view of Mujahid. Some said that they used to compete in passing gas and laughing. This was the view of `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, and Al-Qasim. Some of them said that they used to make rams fight one another, or organize cockfights. They used to do all of these things, and they were even eviler than that.

[فَمَا كَانَ جَوَابَ قَوْمِهِ إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ ائْتِنَا بِعَذَابِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتَ مِنَ الصَّـدِقِينَ]

(But his people gave no answer except that they said: "Bring Allah's torment upon us if you are one of the truthful.'') This is indicative of their disbelief, scornful attitude and stubbornness. So Allah's Prophet asked for help against them, and said:

[رَبِّ انصُرْنِى عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْمُفْسِدِينَ]

(My Lord! Give me victory over the people who are corrupt.)

[وَلَمَّا جَآءَتْ رُسُلُنَآ إِبْرَهِيمَ بِالْبُشْرَى قَالُواْ إِنَّا مُهْلِكُو أَهْلِ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ إِنَّ أَهْلَهَا كَانُواْ ظَـلِمِينَ - قَالَ إِنَّ فِيهَا لُوطاً قَالُواْ نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن فِيهَا لَنُنَجِّيَنَّهُ وَأَهْلَهُ إِلاَّ امْرَأَتَهُ كَانَتْ مِنَ الْغَـبِرِينَ - وَلَمَّآ أَن جَآءَتْ رُسُلُنَا لُوطاً سِىءَ بِهِمْ وَضَاقَ بِهِمْ ذَرْعاً وَقَالُواْ لاَ تَخَفْ وَلاَ تَحْزَنْ إِنَّا مُنَجُّوكَ وَأَهْلَكَ إِلاَّ امْرَأَتَكَ كَانَتْ مِنَ الْغَـبِرينَ - إِنَّا مُنزِلُونَ عَلَى أَهْلِ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ رِجْزاً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ - وَلَقَد تَّرَكْنَا مِنْهَآ ءَايَةً بَيِّنَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ ]

(31. And when Our messengers came to Ibrahim with the glad tidings they said: "Verily, we are going to destroy the people of this town; truly, its people have been wrongdoers.'') (32. Ibrahim said: "But there is Lut in it.'' They said: "We know better who is there. We will verily, save him and his family - except his wife, she will be of those who remain behind.'') (33. And when Our messengers came to Lut, he was grieved because of them, and felt straitened on their account. They said: "Have no fear, and do not grieve! Truly, we shall save you and your family except your wife: she will be of those who remain behind.'') (34. "Verily, we are about to bring down on the people of this town a great torment from the sky, because they have been rebellious.'') (35. And indeed We have left thereof an evident Ayah for a folk who understand.)

14. The Angels went to Ibrahim and then to Lut, may peace be upon them both

When Lut, peace be upon him, asked Allah to help him against them, Allah sent angels to help him. They first came to Ibrahim in the form of guests, so he offered them hospitality in the appropriate manner. When he saw that they had no interest in the food, he felt some mistrust of them and was fearful of them. They started to calm him down and gave him the news of a righteous son born by his wife Sarah, who was present, and she was astonished by this, as we have already explained in our Tafsir of Surat Hud and Surat Al-Hijr. When they brought this news to Ibrahim and told him that they were sent to destroy the people of Lut, he began to speak up for them, hoping to win more time for them so that they might be guided by Allah. When they said, "We have come to destroy the people of this township,''

[قَالَ إِنَّ فِيهَا لُوطاً قَالُواْ نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن فِيهَا لَنُنَجِّيَنَّهُ وَأَهْلَهُ إِلاَّ امْرَأَتَهُ كَانَتْ مِنَ الْغَـبِرِينَ ]

((Ibrahim) said: "But there is Lut in it.'' They said: "We know better who is there. We will verily, save him and his family except his wife, she will be of those who remain behind.'') meaning, one of those who will be destroyed, because she used to support them in their disbelief and wrongdoing. Then the angels left him and visited Lut in the form of handsome young men. When he saw them like that,

[سِىءَ بِهِمْ وَضَاقَ بِهِمْ ذَرْعًا]

(he was grieved because of them, and felt straitened on their account.) means, he was worried since if he had them as guests then he was afraid for them and what his people might do to them, but if he did not host them, he was still afraid of what might happen to them. At that point he did not know who they were.

[وَلَمَّآ أَن جَآءَتْ رُسُلُنَا لُوطاً سِىءَ بِهِمْ وَضَاقَ بِهِمْ ذَرْعاً وَقَالُواْ لاَ تَخَفْ وَلاَ تَحْزَنْ إِنَّا مُنَجُّوكَ وَأَهْلَكَ إِلاَّ امْرَأَتَكَ كَانَتْ مِنَ الْغَـبِرينَ - إِنَّا مُنزِلُونَ عَلَى أَهْلِ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ رِجْزاً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ ]

(They said: "Have no fear, and do not grieve! Truly, we shall save you and your family except your wife: she will be of those who remain behind. Verily, we are about to bring down on the people of this town a great torment from the sky, because they have been rebellious.'') Jibril, peace be upon him, uprooted their town from the depths of the earth, lifted it up to the sky, then threw it upside down upon them. Allah rained upon them:

[فَلَمَّا جَآءَ أَمْرُنَا جَعَلْنَا عَـلِيَهَا سَافِلَهَا وَأَمْطَرْنَا عَلَيْهَا حِجَارَةً مِّن سِجِّيلٍ مَّنْضُودٍ - مُّسَوَّمَةً عِندَ رَبِّكَ وَمَا هِى مِنَ الظَّـلِمِينَ بِبَعِيدٍ ]

(stones of Sijjil, in a well-arranged manner one after another. Marked from your Lord; and they are not ever far from the evil doers.) [11:82-83] Allah turned the place where they had lived into a putrid, stinking lake, which will remain as a lesson to mankind until the Day of Resurrection, and they will be among those who are most severely punished on the Day of Resurrection. Allah says:

[وَلَقَد تَّرَكْنَا مِنْهَآ ءَايَةً بَيِّنَةً]

(And indeed We have left thereof an evident Ayah) i. e., a clear sign, n

[لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ]

(for a folk who understand.) This is like the Ayah,

[وَإِنَّكُمْ لَّتَمُرُّونَ عَلَيْهِمْ مُّصْبِحِينَ - وَبِالَّيْلِ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ ]

(Verily, you pass by them in the morning And at night; will you not then reflect) (37:137-138)

[وَإِلَى مَدْيَنَ أَخَـهُمْ شُعَيْباً فَقَالَ يقَوْمِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَارْجُواْ الْيَوْمَ الاٌّخِرَ وَلاَ تَعْثَوْاْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ - فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ فَأَصْبَحُواْ فِى دَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ ]

(36. And to Madyan, We sent their brother Shu`ayb. He said: "O my people! Worship Allah and hope for the last Day, and commit no mischief on the earth as mischief-makers.'') (37. And they denied him; so the earthquake seized them, and they lay, prostrate in their dwellings.)

15. Shu`ayb and His People

Allah tells us that His servant and Messenger Shu`ayb, peace be upon him, warned his people, the people of Madyan, and commanded them to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and to fear the wrath and punishment of Allah on the Day of Resurrection. He said:

[يقَوْمِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَارْجُواْ الْيَوْمَ الاٌّخِرَ]

(O my people! Worship Allah and hope for the last Day,) Ibn Jarir said: "Some of them said that this meant: Fear the Last Day.'' This is like the Ayah,

[لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الاٌّخِرَ]

(for those who look forward to (meeting with) Allah and the Last Day) (60:6).

[وَلاَ تَعْثَوْاْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ]

(and commit no mischief on the earth as mischief-makers.) This is forbidding them to make mischief on earth by spreading corruption, which means going around doing evil to people. They used to cheat in weights and measures, and ambush people on the road; this is in addition to their disbelief in Allah and His Messenger. So Allah destroyed them with a mighty earthquake that convulsed their land, and the Sayhah (shout) which tore their hearts from their bodies, and the torment of the Day of Shade, when their souls were taken. This was the torment of a great day. We have already examined their story in detail in Surat Al-A`raf, Surat Hud and Surat Ash-Shu`ara'.

[فَأَصْبَحُواْ فِي دَارِهِمْ جَـثِمِينَ]

(and they lay, prostrate in their dwellings.) Qatadah said, "They were dead.'' Others said that they were thrown on top of one another.

[وَعَاداً وَثَمُودَ وَقَد تَّبَيَّنَ لَكُم مِّن مَّسَـكِنِهِمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَكَانُواْ مُسْتَبْصِرِينَ - وَقَـرُونَ وَفِرْعَوْنَ وَهَـمَـنَ وَلَقَدْ جَآءَهُمْ مُّوسَى بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ فَاسْتَكْبَرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَمَا كَانُواْ سَـبِقِينَ - فَكُلاًّ أَخَذْنَا بِذَنبِهِ فَمِنْهُم مَّن أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِ حَاصِباً وَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ أَخَذَتْهُ الصَّيْحَةُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ خَسَفْنَا بِهِ الاٌّرْضَ وَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ أَغْرَقْنَا وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَظْلِمَهُمْ وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ ]

(38. And `Ad and Thamud! And indeed (their destruction) is clearly apparent to you from their (ruined) dwellings. Shaytan made their deeds fair seeming to them, and turned them away from the path, though they were intelligent.) (39. And Qarun, Fir`awn, and Haman. And indeed Musa came to them with clear Ayat, but they were arrogant in the land, yet they could not outstrip Us.) (40. So, We punished each for his sins, of them were some on whom We sent a Hasib, and of them were some who were overtaken by As-Sayhah, and of them were some whom We caused the earth to swallow, and of them were some whom We drowned. It was not Allah Who wronged them, but they wronged themselves.)

16. The Destruction of Nations Who rejected Their Messengers

Allah tells us about these nations who disbelieved in their Messengers, and how He destroyed them and sent various kinds of punishments and vengeance upon them. `Ad, the people of Hud, peace be upon him, used to live in the Ahqaf (curved sand-hills), near Hadramawt, in the Yemen. Thamud, the people of Salih, lived in Al-Hijr, near Wadi Al-Qura. The Arabs used to know their dwelling place very well, and they often used to pass by it. Qarun was the owner of great wealth and had the keys to immense treasures. Fir`awn, the king of Egypt at the time of Musa, and his minister Haman were two Coptics who disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, peace be upon him.

[فَكُلاًّ أَخَذْنَا بِذَنبِهِ]

(So, We punished each for his sins,) their punishments fit their crimes.

[فَمِنْهُم مَّن أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِ حَاصِباً]

(of them were some on whom We sent a Hasib,) This was the case with `Ad, and this happened because they said: "Who is stronger than us'' So, there came upon them a violent, intensely cold wind, which was very strong and carried pebbles which it threw upon them. It carried them through the air, lifting a man up to the sky and then hurling him headlong to the ground, so that his head split and he was left as a body without a head, like uprooted stems of date palms.

[وَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ أَخَذَتْهُ الصَّيْحَةُ]

(and of them were some who were overtaken by As-Sayhah,) This is what happened to Thamud, against whom evidence was established because of the she-camel who came forth when the rock was split, exactly as they had asked for. Yet despite that they did not believe, rather they persisted in their evil behavior and disbelief, and threatening to expel Allah's Prophet Salih and the believers with him, or to stone them. So the Sayhah struck them, taking away their powers of speech and movement.

[وَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ خَسَفْنَا بِهِ الاٌّرْضَ]

(and of them were some whom We caused the earth to swallow,) This refers to Qarun who transgressed, he was evil and arrogant. He disobeyed his Lord, the Most High, and paraded through the land in a boastful manner, filled with self-admiration, thinking that he was better than others. He showed off as he walked, so Allah caused the earth to swallow him and his house, and he will continue sinking into it until the Day of Resurrection.

[وَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ أَغْرَقْنَا]

(and of them were some whom We drowned.) This refers to Fir`awn, his minister Haman and their troops, all of whom were drowned in a single morning, not one of them escaped.

[وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَظْلِمَهُمْ]

(It was not Allah Who wronged them,) in what He did to them,

[وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ]

(but they wronged themselves.) that happened to them as a punishment for what they did with their own hands.

[مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَآءَ كَمَثَلِ الْعَنكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتاً وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنكَبُوتِ لَوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ - إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ مِن شَىْءٍ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ - وَتِلْكَ الاٌّمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ وَمَا يَعْقِلُهَآ إِلاَّ الْعَـلِمُونَ ]

(41. The parable of those who seek protectors from other than Allah is that of a spider who builds a house; but indeed, the weakest of houses is the spider's house -- if they but knew.) (42. Verily, Allah knows what things they invoke instead of Him. He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.) (43. And these are the examples We give for mankind; but none will understand them except those who have knowledge (of Allah).)

17. Likening the gods of the Idolators to the House of a Spider

This is how Allah described the idolators in their reverence of gods besides Him, hoping that they would help them and provide for them, and turning to them in times of difficulties. In this regard, they were like the house of a spider, which is so weak and frail, because by clinging to these gods they were like a person who holds on to a spider's web, who does not gain any benefit from that. If they knew this, they would not take any protectors besides Allah. This is unlike the Muslim believer, whose heart is devoted to Allah, yet he still does righteous deeds and follows the Laws of Allah, for he has grasped the most trustworthy handle that will never break because it is so strong and firm. Then Allah warns those who worship others besides Him and associate others with Him that He knows what they do and the rivals they associate with Him. He will punish them for their attribution, for He is All-Wise and All-Knowing. Then He says:

[وَتِلْكَ الاٌّمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ وَمَا يَعْقِلُهَآ إِلاَّ الْعَـلِمُونَ ]

(And these are the examples We give for mankind; but none will understand them except those who have knowledge.) meaning, no one understands them or ponders them except those who are possessed of deep knowledge. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Amr bin Murrah said, "I never came across an Ayah of the Book of Allah that I did not know, but it grieved me, because I heard that Allah says:

[وَتِلْكَ الاٌّمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ وَمَا يَعْقِلُهَآ إِلاَّ الْعَـلِمُونَ ]

(And these are the examples We give for mankind; but none will understand them except those who have knowledge. )''

[خَلَقَ اللَّهُ السَّمَـوَاتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَةً لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ - اتْلُ مَا أُوْحِىَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَـبِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَوةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَوةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَآءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ ]

(44. Allah created the heavens and the earth with truth. Verily, therein is surely a sign for those who believe.) (45. Recite what has been revealed to you of the Book, and perform the Salah. Verily, the Salah prevents from Al-Fahsha' (immoral sins) and Al-Munkar (evil deeds) and the remembering (praising) of Allah is greater indeed. And Allah knows what you do.) Allah tells us of His immense power, that He created the heavens and the earth with truth, meaning for a higher purpose than mere play,

[لِتُجْزَى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا تَسْعَى]

(that every person may be rewarded for that which he strives) (20:15).

[لِيَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُواْ بِمَا عَمِلُواْ وَيِجْزِى الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ بِالْحُسْنَى]

(that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best) (53:31).

[إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لآيَةً لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ]

(Verily, therein is surely a sign for those who believe. ) meaning, there is clear evidence that Allah is alone in creating, controlling, and in His divinity.

18. The Command to convey the Message, to recite the Qur'an and to pray

Then Allah commands His Messenger and the believers to recite the Qur'an, which means both reciting it and conveying it to people.

[وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَوةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَوةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَآءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ]

(and perform the Salah. Verily, the Salah prevents from Al-Fahsha' and Al-Munkar and the remembrance of Allah is greater indeed.) Prayer includes two things: the first of which is giving up immoral behavior and evil deeds, i.e., praying regularly enables a person to give up these things. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said: "A man came to the Prophet and said, `So-and-so prays at night, but when morning comes, he steals.' The Prophet said:

إِنَّهُ سَيَنْهَاهُ مَا تَقُول

(What you are saying (i.e., the Salah) will stop him from doing that.)'' Prayer also includes the remembering of Allah, which is the higher objective, Allah says:

[وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ]

(and the remembrance of Allah is greater indeed.) more important than the former.

[وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ]

(And Allah knows what you do.) means, He knows all that you do and say. Abu Al-`Aliyah commented on the Ayah:

[إِنَّ الصَّلَوةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَآءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ]

(Verily, the Salah prevents from immoral sins and evil wicked deeds) "Prayer has three attributes, and any prayer that contains none of these attributes is not truly prayer: Being done purely and sincerely for Allah alone (Ikhlas), fear of Allah, and remembrance of Allah. Ikhlas makes a person do good deeds, fear prevents him from doing evil deeds, and the remembrance of Allah is the Qur'an which contains commands and prohibitions.'' Ibn `Awn Al-Ansari said: "When you are praying, you are doing good, it is keeping you away from immoral sins and evil wicked deeds and what you are doing is part of the remembrance of Allah which is greater.''

[وَلاَ تُجَـدِلُواْ أَهْلَ الْكِتَـبِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ وَقُولُواْ ءَامَنَّا بِالَّذِى أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَأُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ وَإِلَـهُنَا وَإِلَـهُكُمْ وَاحِدٌ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ ]

(46. And argue not with the People of the Scripture, except with that which is better -- except with such of them as do wrong; and say (to them): "We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our God and your God is One, and to Him we have submitted.'')

19. Arguing with the People of the Book

What is meant here is that anyone who wants to find out about religion from them should argue with them in a manner that is better, as this will be more effective. Allah says:

[ادْعُ إِلِى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ]

(Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching...) (16:125) And Allah said to Musa and Harun when he sent them to Fir`awn:

[فَقُولاَ لَهُ قَوْلاً لَّيِّناً لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ أَوْ يَخْشَى ]

(And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear.) (20:44) Allah says here:

[إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ]

(except with such of them as do wrong;) meaning, those who turn away from the truth, turning a blind eye to clear evidence, being stubborn and arrogant. In this case you should progress from debate to combat, fighting them in such a way as to deter them from committing aggression against you. Allah says:

[لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ وَأَنزْلْنَا الْحَدِيدَ فِيهِ بَأْسٌ شَدِيدٌ]

(Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance that mankind may keep up justice. And We brought forth iron wherein is mighty power) until: r

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ]

(Verily, Allah is All-Strong, All-Mighty) (57:25). Jabir said: "We were commanded to strike with the sword whoever opposes the Book of Allah.'' And His saying:

[وَقُولُواْ ءَامَنَّا بِالَّذِى أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَأُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ]

(and say (to them): "We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you;) means, `if they tell you something which you do not know to be true or false, say to them: We do not hasten to say it is a lie, because it may be true, and we do not hasten to say it is true because it may be false. We believe in it in general, under the condition that it has been revealed and has not been altered or deliberately misinterpreted.' Imam Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "The People of the Book used to read the Tawrah in Hebrew and explain it in Arabic to the Muslims. The Messenger of Allah said:

لَا تُصَدِّقُوا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ وَلَا تُكَذِّبُوهُمْ، وَقُولُوا: آمَنَّا بِاللهِ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ، وَإِلَهُنَا وَإِلَهُكُمْ وَاحِدٌ، وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُون

(Do not believe the People of the Book and do not deny them. Say: "We believe in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to you. Our God and your God is One, and to Him we have submitted.'')'' This Hadith was narrated only by Al-Bukhari. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said: "How can you ask the People of the Book about anything, when your Book that was revealed to the Messenger of Allah is more recent, you read it pure and uncontaminated, it tells you that the People of the Book altered and changed the Book, that they write the Book with their own hands and then say, `This is from Allah,' to purchace with it a small price Should not the knowledge that you have, prevent you from asking them No, by Allah, we have never seen any of them asking you about what was sent down to you.'' Al-Bukhari recorded that Humayd bin `Abdur-Rahman heard Mu`awiyah talking to a group of Quraysh in Al-Madinah. He mentioned Ka`b Al-Ahbar, and said: "He was one of the most truthful of those who narrated from the People of the Book, even though we found that some of what he said might be lies.'' I say, this means that some of what he said could be classified linguistically as lies, but he did not intend to lie, because he was narrating from manuscripts which he thought were good, but they contained fabricated material, because they did not have people who were so conscientious in memorizing the Scriptures by heart as the people of this great Ummah.

[وَكَذَلِكَ أَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَـبَ فَالَّذِينَ ءَاتَيْنَـهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَمِنْ هَـؤُلاءِ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ وَمَا يَجْحَدُ بِـايَـتِنَآ إِلاَّ الْكَـفِرونَ - وَمَا كُنتَ تَتْلُو مِن قَبْلِهِ مِن كِتَـبٍ وَلاَ تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ إِذاً لاَّرْتَـبَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ - بَلْ هُوَ ءَايَـتٌ بَيِّنَـتٌ فِى صُدُورِ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ وَمَا يَجْحَدُ بِـَايَـتِنَآ إِلاَّ الظَّـلِمُونَ ]

(47. And thus We have sent down the Book to you, and those whom We gave the Scripture believe therein as also do some of these and none but the disbelievers reject Our Ayat.) (48. Neither did you read any book before it nor did you write any book with your right hand. In that case, indeed, the followers of falsehood might have doubted.) (49. Nay, but it is clear Ayat, (preserved) in the breasts of those who have been given knowledge. And none but the wrongdoers deny Our Ayat.)

20. Evidence for the Fact that the Qur'an was revealed from Allah

Ibn Jarir said: "Allah says, `just as We revealed the Books to the Messengers who came before you, O Muhammad, so We have also revealed this Book to you.''' What he said is good and fits the context. Allah's saying:

[فَالَّذِينَ ءَاتَيْنَـهُمُ الْكِتَـبَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ]

(and those whom We gave the Scripture believe therein) means, those knowledgable rabbis and scholars among them who learned it and recited it properly, such as `Abdullah bin Salam, Salman Al-Farisi and others like them.

[وَمِنْ هَـؤُلاءِ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ]

(as also believe therein some of these) meaning, the Quraysh Arabs and others.

[وَمَا يَجْحَدُ بِـايَـتِنَآ إِلاَّ الْكَـفِرونَ]

(and none but the disbelievers reject Our Ayat.) No one disbelieves and rejects them except those who conceal the truth with falsehood, and those who try to hide the rays and light of the sun by their covering an eye. Then Allah says:

[وَمَا كُنتَ تَتْلُو مِن قَبْلِهِ مِن كِتَـبٍ وَلاَ تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ]

(Neither did you read any book before it (this Qur'an) nor did you write any book with your right hand. ) meaning, `you lived among your people for a long time before you brought this Qur'an. During this time you never read any book or wrote anything. Your people, as well as others all know that you are an unlettered man who does not read or write.' This is how he was also described in the previous Scriptures, as Allah says:

[الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِىَّ الأُمِّىَّ الَّذِى يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ فِى التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَـهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ]

(Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet, the unlettered about whom they find written with them in the Tawrah and the Injil, -- he commands them with good; and forbids them from evil.) (7:157) This is how the Messenger of Allah will remain until the Day of Resurrection, unable to write even one line or one letter. He used to have scribes who would write down the revelation for him, or would write letters from him to be sent to different places. Allah's saying:

[إِذاً لاَّرْتَـبَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ]

(In that case, indeed, the followers of falsehood might have doubted.) means, `if you had been literate, some ignorant people would have doubted you. They would have said that you learned this from Books inherited from the Prophets which came before.' Indeed, they did say that, even though they knew that he was unlettered and could not read or write.

[وَقَالُواْ أَسَـطِيرُ الاٌّوَّلِينَ اكْتَتَبَهَا فَهِىَ تُمْلَى عَلَيْهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلاً ]

(And they say: "Tales of the ancients, which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.'') (25:5) Allah says:

[قُلْ أَنزَلَهُ الَّذِى يَعْلَمُ السِّرَّ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]

(Say: "It has been sent down by Him Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth) (25:6). And Allah says here:

[بَلْ هُوَ ءَايَـتٌ بَيِّنَـتٌ فِى صُدُورِ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ]

(Nay, but it is (Quran), the clear Ayat, (preserved) in the breasts of those who have been given knowledge.) meaning, this Qur'an is clear Ayat which indicate the truth, commands, prohibitions and stories. It is memorized by the scholars for whom Allah makes it easy to memorize, recite and interpret. This is like the Ayah,

[وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْءَانَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ ]

(And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember; then is there any one who will remember) (54:17). The Messenger of Allah said:

مَا مِنْ نَبِيَ إِلَّا وَقَدْ أُعْطِيَ مَا آمَنَ عَلَى مِثْلِهِ الْبَشَرُ، وَإِنَّمَا كَانَ الَّذِي أُوتِيتُهُ وَحْيًا أَوْحَاهُ اللهُ إِلَيَّ، فَأَرْجُو أَنْ أَكُونَ أَكْثَرَهُمْ تَابِعًا

(There has never been any Prophet who was not given that which would make people believe in him. What I have been given is revelation which Allah reveals to me, and I hope that I will have the most followers among them.) According to the Hadith of `Iyad bin Himar, recorded in Sahih Muslim, Allah says:

إِنِّي مُبْتَلِيكَ وَمُبْتَلٍ بِكَ، وَمُنْزِلٌ عَلَيْكَ كِتَابًا لَا يَغْسِلُهُ الْمَاءُ، تَقْرَؤُهُ نَائِمًا وَيَقْظَانًا

("I am testing you and testing others through you, revealing to you a Book which cannot be washed away by water, which you recite while you are asleep and while you are awake.'') This means, if the manuscript where it is written were to be washed with water, there is no need for that manuscript. This is because it is preserved in the hearts and is easy on the tongue (i.e., is easy to recite), and is controlling people's hearts and minds. It is miraculous in its wording and in its meanings. In the previous Scriptures this Ummah was described as carrying their holy Books in their hearts.

[وَمَا يَجْحَدُ بِـَايَـتِنَآ إِلاَّ الظَّـلِمُونَ]

(And none but the wrongdoers deny Our Ayat) Nobody denies it or tries to undermine its status or rejects it except the wrongdoers, i.e., the arrogant transgressors who know the truth but turn away from it, as Allah says:

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ - وَلَوْ جَآءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ ءايَةٍ حَتَّى يَرَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ ]

(Truly, those, against whom the Word (wrath) of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them, until they see the painful torment.) (10:96-97)

[وَقَالُواْ لَوْلاَ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ ءايَـتٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ قُلْ إِنَّمَا الاٌّيَـتُ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَإِنَّمَآ أَنَاْ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ - أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِهِمْ أَنَّآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَـبَ يُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لَرَحْمَةً وَذِكْرَى لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ - قُلْ كَفَى بِاللَّهِ بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَكُمْ شَهِيداً يَعْلَمُ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَالَّذِينَ ءامَنُواْ بِالْبَـطِلِ وَكَفَرُواْ بِاللَّهِ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْخَـسِرُونَ ]

(50. And they say: "Why are not signs sent down to him from his Lord'' Say: "The signs are only with Allah, and I am only a plain warner.'') (51. Is it not sufficient for them that We have sent down to you the Book which is recited to them Verily, herein is mercy and a reminder for a people who believe.) (52. Say: "Sufficient is Allah for a witness between me and you. He knows what is in the heavens and on the earth.'' And those who believe in falsehood, and disbelieve in Allah, it is they who are the losers.)

21. The Idolators' demand for Signs, and the Response

Allah tells us how the idolators stubbornly demanded signs, meaning that they wanted signs to show them that Muhammad was indeed the Messenger of Allah, just as Salih was given the sign of the she-camel. Allah says:

[قُلْ]

(Say) -- `O Muhammad' --

[إِنَّمَا الاٌّيَـتُ عِندَ اللَّهِ]

(The signs are only with Allah) meaning, `the matter rests with Allah, and if He knew that you would be guided, He would respond to your request, because it is very easy for Him to do that. Yet He knows that you are merely being stubborn and putting me to the test, so He will not respond to you.' This is like the Ayah,

[وَمَا مَنَعَنَآ أَن نُّرْسِلَ بِالاٌّيَـتِ إِلاَّ أَن كَذَّبَ بِهَا الاٌّوَّلُونَ وَءَاتَيْنَا ثَمُودَ النَّاقَةَ مُبْصِرَةً فَظَلَمُواْ بِهَا]

(And nothing stops Us from sending the Ayat but that the people of old denied them. And We sent the she-camel to Thamud as a clear sign, but they did her wrong) (17:59).

[وَإِنَّمَآ أَنَاْ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ]

(and I am only a plain warner) means, `I have been sent to you only as a warner to bring a clear warning; all I have to do is convey the Message of Allah to you. '

[مَن يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِ وَمَن يُضْلِلْ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ وَلِيًّا مُّرْشِدًا]

(He whom Allah guides, he is the rightly-guided; but he whom He sends astray, for him you will find no guide to lead him.) (18:17)

[لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ]

(Not upon you is their guidance, but Allah guides whom He wills) (2:272). Then Allah shows us how ignorant and foolish they were when they demanded a sign to prove to them that what Muhammad had brought to them was true. He brought them a great Book which falsehood cannot reach, neither from before it or behind it, it was greater than all other miracles, for the most eloquent of men could not match it or produce ten Surahs, or even one Surah like it.

[أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِهِمْ أَنَّآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَـبَ يُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ]

(Is it not sufficient for them that We have sent down to you the Book which is recited to them) means, `is it not sufficient as a sign for them that We have sent down to you this great Book which tells them about what happened before their time, what will happen after they are gone, and passes judgement between them. Even though you are an unlettered man who can neither read nor write, and you have not mixed with any of the People of the Book. Yet you brought them news of what was said in the first Scriptures showing what is right in the matters that they dispute over, and bringing clear and obvious truth. ' As Allah says:

[أَوَلَمْيَكُن لَّهُمْ ءَايَةً أَن يَعْلَمَهُ عُلَمَاءُ بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ]

(Is it not a sign to them that the learned scholars of the Children of Israel knew it (to be true)) (26:197)

[وَقَالُواْ لَوْلاَ يَأْتِينَا بِـَايَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّهِ أَوَلَمْ تَأْتِهِمْ بَيِّنَةُ مَا فِى الصُّحُفِ الاٍّولَى ]

(They say: "Why does he not bring us a sign from his Lord'' Has there not come to them the proof of that which is in the former Scriptures) (20:133) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "The Messenger of Allah said:

مَا مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ مِنْ نَبِيَ إِلَّا قَدْ أُعْطِيَ مِنَ الْآيَاتِ مَا مِثْلُهُ آمَنَ عَلَيْهِ الْبَشَرُ، وَإِنَّمَا كَانَ الَّذِي أُوتِيتُهُ وَحْيًا أَوْحَاهُ اللهُ إِلَيَّ، فَأَرْجُو أَنْ أَكُونَ أَكْثَرَهُمْ تَابِعًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة

(There is no Prophet who was not given some miracles that would make the people believe in him. What I have been given is revelation which Allah reveals to me, and I hope that I will have the greatest number of followers on the Day of Resurrection.)'' It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Indeed Allah has said:

[إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لَرَحْمَةً وَذِكْرَى لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ]

(Verily, herein is mercy and a reminder for a people who believe.) In this Qur'an there is mercy, that is, explanation of the truth and removal of falsehood, and a reminder to the believers of the punishment that is to come to the disbelievers and sinners. Then Allah says:

[قُلْ كَفَى بِاللَّهِ بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَكُمْ شَهِيداً]

(Say: "Sufficient is Allah for a witness between me and you...'') `He knows best the words of denial that you utter, and he knows what I am telling you about Him and that He has sent me. If I were telling lies about Him, He would have executed His vengeance upon me,' as Allah says elsewhere:

[وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الاٌّقَاوِيلِ - لأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ - ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ - فَمَا مِنكُم مِّنْ أَحَدٍ عَنْهُ حَـجِزِينَ ]

g(And if he had forged a false saying concerning Us, We surely would have seized him by his right hand, and then We certainly would have cut off his aorta, and none of you could have withheld Us from (punishing) him.) (69:44-47). `But I am telling the truth in what I say to you about Him, so He has supported me with clear miracles and definitive evidence.'

[يَعْلَمُ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]

(He knows what is in the heavens and the earth.) means, nothing is hidden from Him at all.

[وَالَّذِينَ ءامَنُواْ بِالْبَـطِلِ وَكَفَرُواْ بِاللَّهِ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْخَـسِرُونَ]

(And those who believe in falsehood, and disbelieve in Allah, it is they who are the losers.) means, on the Day of Resurrection, they will be punished for what they did, and will get what they justly deserve for rejecting the truth and following falsehood, for disbelieving in the Messengers of Allah even when there was proof that they were telling the truth, and for worshipping false gods with no evidence. Allah will punish them for all that, for He is All-Wise and All-Knowing.

[وَيَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالْعَذَابِ وَلَوْلاَ أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى لَّجَآءَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَيَأْتِيَنَّهُمْ بَغْتَةً وَهُمْ لاَ يَشْعُرُونَ - يَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالْعَذَابِ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةٌ بِالْكَـفِرِينَ - يَوْمَ يَغْشَـهُمُ الْعَذَابُ مِن فَوْقِهِمْ وَمِن تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِهِمْ وَيِقُولُ ذُوقُواْ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ]

(53. And they ask you to hasten on the torment, and had it not been for a term appointed, the torment would certainly have come to them. And surely, it will come upon them suddenly while they perceive not!) (54. They ask you to hasten on the torment. And verily, Hell, of a surety, will encompass the disbelievers.) (55. On the Day when the torment shall cover them from above them and from beneath their feet, and it will be said: "Taste what you used to do.'')

22. How the Idolators asked for the Torment to be hastened on

Allah tells us of the ignorance of the idolators and how they asked for the punishment of Allah to be hastened so that it would befall them quickly. This is like the Ayah,

[وَإِذْ قَالُواْ اللَّهُمَّ إِن كَانَ هَـذَا هُوَ الْحَقَّ مِنْ عِندِكَ فَأَمْطِرْ عَلَيْنَا حِجَارَةً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ أَوِ ائْتِنَا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ ]

(And when they said: "O Allah! If this is indeed the truth from You, then rain down stones on us from the sky or bring on us a painful torment.'') (8:32). And Allah says here:

[وَيَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالْعَذَابِ وَلَوْلاَ أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى لَّجَآءَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ]

(And they ask you to hasten on the torment, and had it not been for a term appointed, the torment would certainly have come to them.) Were it not for the fact that Allah has decreed that the punishment should be delayed until the Day of Resurrection, the torment would have come upon them quickly as they demanded. Then Allah says:

[وَيَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالْعَذَابِ وَلَوْلاَ أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى لَّجَآءَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَيَأْتِيَنَّهُمْ بَغْتَةً وَهُمْ لاَ يَشْعُرُونَ - يَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالْعَذَابِ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةٌ بِالْكَـفِرِينَ ]

(And surely, it will come upon them suddenly while they perceive not! They ask you to hasten on the torment. And verily, Hell, of a surety, will encompass the disbelievers.) means, `they ask you to hasten on the punishment, but it will undoubtedly befall them.'

[يَوْمَ يَغْشَـهُمُ الْعَذَابُ مِن فَوْقِهِمْ وَمِن تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِهِمْ]

(On the Day when the torment (Hellfire) shall cover them from above them and from beneath their feet,) This is like the Ayah,

[لَهُم مِّن جَهَنَّمَ مِهَادٌ وَمِن فَوْقِهِمْ غَوَاشٍ]

(Theirs will be a bed of Hell, and over them coverings (of Hell-fire)) (7:41).

[لَهُمْ مِّن فَوْقِهِمْ ظُلَلٌ مِّنَ النَّارِ وَمِن تَحْتِهِمْ ظُلَلٌ]

(They shall have coverings of Fire, above them and coverings (of Fire) beneath them) (39:16).

[لَوْ يَعْلَمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ حِينَ لاَ يَكُفُّونَ عَن وُجُوهِهِمُ النَّارَ وَلاَ عَن ظُهُورِهِمْ]

(If only those who disbelieved knew (the time) when they will not be able to ward off the Fire from their faces, nor from their backs) (21:39). The Fire will cover them from all sides, which is more effective as a physical punishment.

[وَيِقُولُ ذُوقُواْ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ]

(and it will be said: "Taste what you used to do.'') This is a threat and a rebuke, which is a form of psychological punishment, as in the Ayah,

[يَوْمَ يُسْحَبُونَ فِى النَّارِ عَلَى وُجُوهِهِمْ ذُوقُواْ مَسَّ سَقَرَ - إِنَّا كُلَّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقْنَـهُ بِقَدَرٍ ]

(The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire (it will be said to them): "Taste you the touch of Hell!'' Verily, We have created all things with a measurement.) (54:48-49)

[يَوْمَ يُدَعُّونَ إِلَى نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ دَعًّا - هَـذِهِ النَّارُ الَّتِى كُنتُم بِهَا تُكَذِّبُونَ - أَفَسِحْرٌ هَـذَا أَمْ أَنتُمْ لاَ تُبْصِرُونَ - اصْلَوْهَا فَاصْبِرُواْ أَوْ لاَ تَصْبِرُواْ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنَّمَا تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ]

(The Day when they will be pushed down by force to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing. This is the Fire which you used to deny. Is this magic or do you not see Enter you therein (taste you therein its heat) and whether you are patient of it or impatient of it, it is all the same. You are only being requited for what you used to do.) (52:13-16)

[يَعِبَادِىَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِنَّ أَرْضِى وَاسِعَةٌ فَإِيَّاىَ فَاعْبُدُونِ - كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَآئِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ ثُمَّ إِلَيْنَا تُرْجَعُونَ - وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ لَنُبَوِّئَنَّهُمْ مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ غُرَفَاً تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا نِعْمَ أَجْرُ الْعَـمِلِينَ الَّذِينَ صَبَرُواْ وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ وَكَأَيِّن مِّن دَآبَّةٍ لاَّ تَحْمِلُ رِزْقَهَا اللَّهُ يَرْزُقُهَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ ]

(56. O My servants who believe! Certainly, spacious is My earth. Therefore worship Me.) (57. Everyone shall taste death. Then unto Us you shall be returned.) (58. And those who believe and do righteous good deeds, to them We shall surely give lofty dwellings in Paradise, beneath which rivers flow, to live therein forever. Excellent is the reward for the workers.) (59. Those who are patient, and put their trust in their Lord.) (60. And so many a moving creature carries not its own provision! Allah provides for it and for you. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.)

23. Advice to migrate and the Promise of Provision and a Goodly Reward

Allah commands His believing servants to migrate from a land in which they are not able to establish Islam, to the spacious earth of Allah where they can do so, by declaring Allah to be One and worshipping Him as He has commanded. Allah says:

[يَعِبَادِىَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِنَّ أَرْضِى وَاسِعَةٌ فَإِيَّاىَ فَاعْبُدُونِ ]

(O My servants who believe! Certainly, spacious is My earth. Therefore worship Me.) When things became too difficult for the believers in Makkah who were in a weak position and were oppressed, they left and migrated to Ethiopia, where they were able to practice their religion. The Muslims found Ethiopia the best place for guest; where Ashamah, the Negus or king, may Allah have mercy on him, gave them refuge, helped them, supported them, and honored them in his land. Later, the Messenger of Allah and his remaining Companions migrated to Al-Madinah, formerly known as Yathrib, may Allah protect it. Then Allah says:

[كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَآئِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ ثُمَّ إِلَيْنَا تُرْجَعُونَ ]

(Everyone shall taste death. Then unto Us you shall be returned.) meaning, `wherever you are, death with catch up with you, so always obey Allah and be where Allah commands you to be, for this is better for you. Death is inevitable and there is no escape from it, and then you will return to Allah, and whoever was obedient to Him will have the best reward.' Allah says:

[وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ لَنُبَوِّئَنَّهُمْ مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ غُرَفَاً تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ]

(And those who believe and do righteous good deeds, to them We shall surely give lofty dwellings in Paradise, underneath which rivers flow,) meaning, `We shall cause them to dwell in lofty homes in Paradise under which various kinds of rivers flow -- water, wine, honey and milk -- which they can direct and cause to flow wherever they wish.'

[خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَآ]

(to live therein forever.) means, they will remain there forever, never wanting to leave.

[نِعْمَ أَجْرُ الْعَـمِلِينَ]

(Excellent is the reward for the workers.) these rooms will be a blessed reward for the good deeds of the believers,

[الَّذِينَ صَبَرُواْ]

(Those who are patient,) in adhering to their religion, who migrated for the sake of Allah and fought the enemy, leaving behind their families and relatives to seek Allah's Face, and hoping for that which is with Him, believing His promise. Ibn Abi Hatim, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded from Abu Mu`aniq Al-Ash`ari that Abu Malik Al-Ash`ari told him that the Messenger of Allah told him:

إِنَّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ غُرَفًا يُرَى ظَاهِرُهَا مِنْ بَاطِنِهَا، وَبَاطِنُهَا مِنْ ظَاهِرِهَا، أَعَدَّهَا اللهُ تَعَالَى لِمَنْ أَطْعَمَ الطَّعَامَ، وَأَطَابَ الْكَلَامَ، وَتَابَعَ الصَّلَاةَ وَالصِّيَامَ، وَقَامَ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّاسُ نِيَام

(In Paradise there are rooms whose outside can be seen from the inside, and their inside can be seen from the outside; Allah has prepared them for those who feed others, who speak well, who pray and fast continually, and who stand in prayer at night while people are asleep.)

[وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ]

(and put their trust in their Lord.) in all their affairs, spiritual and worldly alike. Then Allah tells us that provision is not limited only to one place, but it is given to all His creatures no matter where they are. Indeed, when the Muhajirin migrated, their provision was greater and better than before, because after a short time they became rulers in the land, in all regions. Allah says:

[وَكَأَيِّن مِّن دَآبَّةٍ لاَّ تَحْمِلُ رِزْقَهَا]

(And so many a moving creature carries not its own provision!) meaning, it does not have the ability to gather its provision and save it for tomorrow.

[اللَّهُ يَرْزُقُهَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ]

(Allah provides for it and for you.) means, Allah allots its provision to it even though it is weak, and makes it easy for it. He sends provision to every creature in the appropriate manner, even the ants in the depths of the earth, the birds in the air and the fish in the sea. Allah says:

[وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ فِي الاٌّرْضِ إِلاَّ عَلَى اللَّهِ رِزْقُهَا وَيَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسْتَوْدَعَهَا كُلٌّ فِى كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ ]

(And no moving creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allah. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit. All is in a Clear Book.) (11:6)

[وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ]

(And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.) means, He hears all that His servants say and He knows their every movements.

[وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ فَأَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ - اللَّهُ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَقْدِرُ لَهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٍ - وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَّن نَّزَّلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الاٌّرْضَ مِن بَعْدِ مَوْتِهَا لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ ]

(61. And if you were to ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon'' They will surely reply: "Allah.'' How then are they deviating) (62. Allah expands the provision for whom He wills of His servants, and straitens it for whom (He wills). Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of everything.) (63. And if you were to ask them: "Who sends down water from the sky, and gives life therewith to the earth after its death'' They will surely reply: "Allah.'' Say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah!'' Nay, most of them have no sense.)

24. Evidences of Tawhid

Allah states that there is no God but He. The idolators who worshipped others besides Him recognized that He was the sole creator of the heavens and earth, the sun and the moon, alternating the night and day. They acknowledged that He was the Creator Who provided for His servants and decreed how long they should live. He made them and their provision different, so that some were rich and some were poor, and He knew best what was suitable for each of them, who deserved to be rich and who deserved to be poor. So, Allah stated that He has alone created everything, and that He alone is controlling them -- if this is how it is, then why worship anyone else Why put one's trust in anyone else Since dominion is His Alone, then let worship be for Him Alone. Allah often establishes His divinity by referring to their acknowledgement of His Unique Lordship, because the idolators used to acknowledge His Lordship, as they said in their Talbiyah (during Hajj and `Umrah: "At Your service, You have no partner, except the partner that You have, and You possess him and whatever he has.''

[وَمَا هَـذِهِ الْحَيَوةُ الدُّنْيَآ إِلاَّ لَهْوٌ وَلَعِبٌ وَإِنَّ الدَّارَ الاٌّخِرَةَ لَهِىَ الْحَيَوَانُ لَوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ - فَإِذَا رَكِبُواْ فِى الْفُلْكِ دَعَوُاْ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ إِذَا هُمْ يُشْرِكُونَ - لِيَكْفُرُواْ بِمَآ ءَاتَيْنَـهُمْ وَلِيَتَمَتَّعُواْ فَسَوْفَ يَعلَمُونَ ]

(64. And this life of the world is only an amusement and a play! Verily, the home of the Hereafter -- that is the life indeed, if they but knew.) (65. And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allah, making their faith pure for Him only, but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others.) (66. So that they become ingrate for that which We have given them, and that they take their enjoyment, but they will come to know.)

25. Allah tells us how insignificant and transient this world is, and how it will soon end. All that it is, is amusement and play:

[وَإِنَّ الدَّارَ الاٌّخِرَةَ لَهِىَ الْحَيَوَانُ]

(Verily, the home of the Hereafter -- that is the life indeed,) means, the true everlasting life that will never end, but will continue forever and ever.

[لَوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ]

(if they but knew.) means, they would prefer that which will last over that which will pass away. Then Allah says that at times of calamity, the idolators call upon Him alone, with no partner or associate, so why do they not do that all the time

[فَإِذَا رَكِبُواْ فِى الْفُلْكِ دَعَوُاْ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ]

(And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allah, making their faith pure for Him only,) This is like the Ayah,

[وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الْضُّرُّ فِى الْبَحْرِ ضَلَّ مَن تَدْعُونَ إِلاَ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا نَجَّـكُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ أَعْرَضْتُمْ]

(And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon vanish from you except Him (Allah Alone). But when He brings you safely to land, you turn away) (17:67). Allah says here:

[فَلَمَّا نَجَّاهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ إِذَا هُمْ يُشْرِكُونَ]

(but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others.) Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from `Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl that when the Messenger of Allah conquered Makkah, he (`Ikrimah) ran away, fleeing from him. When he was on the sea, headed for Ethiopia, the ship started to rock and the crew said: "O people, pray sincerely to your Lord alone, for no one can save us from this except Him.'' `Ikrimah said: "By Allah, if there is none who can save us on the sea except Him, then there is none who can save us on land except Him either, O Allah, I vow to You that if I come out of this, I will go and put my hand in the hand of Muhammad and I will find him kind and merciful.'' And this is what indeed did happen.

[لِيَكْفُرُواْ بِمَآ ءَاتَيْنَـهُمْ وَلِيَتَمَتَّعُواْ]

(So that they become ingrate for that which We have given them, and that they take their enjoyment,)

[أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا جَعَلْنَا حَرَماً ءامِناً وَيُتَخَطَّفُ النَّاسُ مِنْ حَوْلِهِمْ أَفَبِالْبَـطِلِ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَبِنِعْمَةِ اللَّهِ يَكْفُرُونَ - وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِباً أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِالْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَهُ أَلَيْسَ فِى جَهَنَّمَ مَثْوًى لِّلْكَـفِرِينَ - وَالَّذِينَ جَـهَدُواْ فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ ]

(67. Have they not seen that We have made a secure sanctuary, while men are being snatched away from all around them Then do they believe in falsehood, and deny the graces of Allah) (68. And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or denies the truth, when it comes to him Is there not a dwelling in Hell for the disbelievers) (69. As for those who strive hard for Us, We will surely guide them to Our paths. And verily, Allah is with the doers of good.)

26. The Blessing of the Sanctuary Here

Allah reminds Quraysh how He blessed them by granting them access to His sanctuary which He has made (open) to (all) men, the dweller in it and the visitor from the country are equal there, and whoever enters it is safe, because he is in a place of great security, although the Arabs of the desert round about used to ambush and raid one another and kill one another. As Allah says:

[لإِيلَـفِ قُرَيْشٍ - إِيلَـفِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَآءِ وَالصَّيْفِ - فَلْيَعْبُدُواْ رَبَّ هَـذَا الْبَيْتِ - الَّذِى أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنْ خوْفٍ ]

(For the protection of the Quraysh. The caravans to set forth safe in winter and in summer. So let them worship the Lord of this House. Who has fed them against hunger, and has made them safe from fear.) (106:1-4)

[أَفَبِالْبَـطِلِ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَبِنِعْمَةِ اللَّهِ يَكْفُرُونَ]

(Then do they believe in falsehood, and deny the graces of Allah) means, is the thanks that they give for this immense blessing to associate others with Him and worship others besides Him, idols and rivals

[بَدَّلُواْ نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ كُفْرًا وَأَحَلُّواْ قَوْمَهُمْ دَارَ الْبَوَارِ]

(Have you not seen those who have changed the blessings of Allah into disbelief, and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction) (14:28) They disbelieved in the Prophet, servant and Messenger of Allah , when what they should have done was to worship Allah Alone and not associate anything with Him, and to believe in, honor and respect the Messenger, but they rejected him and fought him, and expelled him from their midst. So, Allah took His blessing away from them, and killed those of them whom He killed at Badr, then His Messenger and the believers gained the upper hand, and Allah enabled His Messenger to conquer Makkah, and He disgraced them and humiliated them (the disbelievers). Then Allah says:

[وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِباً أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِالْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَهُ]

(And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or denies the truth, when it comes to him) There is no one who will be more severely punished than one who tells lies about Allah and says that Allah revealed something to him at the time when Allah did not reveal anything to him, or says, `I shall reveal something like that which Allah revealed.' And there is no one who will be more severely punished than one who denies the truth when it comes to him, for the former is a fabricator and the latter is a disbeliever. Allah says:

[أَلَيْسَ فِى جَهَنَّمَ مَثْوًى لِّلْكَـفِرِينَ]

(Is there not a dwelling in Hell for the disbelievers) Then Allah says:

[وَالَّذِينَ جَـهَدُواْ فِينَا]

(As for those who strive hard for Us,) meaning the Messenger and his Companions and those who follow him, until the Day of Resurrection,

[لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا]

(We will surely guide them to Our paths. ) means, `We will help them to follow Our path in this world and the Hereafter.' Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that `Abbas Al-Hamdani Abu Ahmad -- one of the people of `Akka (Palestine) -- said, concerning the Ayah:

[وَالَّذِينَ جَـهَدُواْ فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ ]

(As for those who strive hard for Us (in Our cause), We will surely guide them to Our paths. And verily, Allah is with the doers of good.) "Those who act upon what they know, Allah will guide them to that which they do not know.'' Ahmad bin Abu Al-Hawari said, "I told this to Abu Sulayman Ad-Darani, and he liked it and said: `No one who is inspired to do something good should do it until he hears a report concerning that; if he hears a report then he should go ahead and do it, and praise Allah because it was in accordance with what he himself felt.'''

[وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ]

(And verily, Allah is with the doers of good.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ash-Sha`bi said; "Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him, said: `Righteousness means doing good to those who ill-treat you, it does not mean doing good to those who do good to you.''' And Allah knows best. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-`Ankabut. All praise and thanks are due to Allah.


The Tafsir of Surah Ar-Rum (De Romeinen) (Chapter 30)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Makkah

1. Which was revealed in Makkah
2. Foretelling the Victory of the Romans
3. Another Hadith
4. Who were the Romans
5. How Caesar defeated Chosroes (Kisra)
6. The Command to pray Five Times Daily
7. Among the Signs of Allah
8. Repeating the Creation is easier for Allah
9. A Parable of Tawhid
10. The Command to adhere to Tawhid
11. Splitting into Sects and the Saved Sect
12. How man sways between Tawhid and Shirk, and between Joy and Despair, according to His Circumstances
13. The Command to uphold the Ties of Kinship and the Prohibition of Riba Allah commands giving:
14. Creation, Provision, Life and Death are all in the Hand of Allah Allah says:
15. The Effects of Sin in this World
16. The Command to follow the Straight Path before the Day of Resurrection
17. Among the Signs of Allah are the Winds
18. The Revival of the Earth is a Sign of the Resurrection
19. The Disbelievers are like the Dead, Deaf and Blind
20. The Different Stages of Man
21. The Ignorance of the Disbelievers in this World and in the Hereafter
22. Parables in the Qur'an and how the Disbelievers do not learn from them
23. Reports concerning the Virtues of this Surah and that it is recommended to recite it during Fajr


1. Which was revealed in Makkah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ - الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلوةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ - وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالأْخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ - أُوْلَـئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ - خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَـرِهِمْ غِشَـوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عظِيمٌ ]

(1. Alif Lam Mim.) (2. The Romans have been defeated.) (3. In the nearest land, and they, after their defeat, will be victorious.) (4. In Bid`i years. The decision of the matter, before and after is only with Allah. And on that day, the believers will rejoice) (5. With the help of Allah. He helps whom He wills, and He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.) (6. A promise from Allah, and Allah fails not in His promise, but most men know not.) (7. They know only the outer appearance of the life of the world, and they are heedless of the Hereafter.)

2. Foretelling the Victory of the Romans

These Ayat were revealed about the victory of Sabur, the king of Persia, over Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), the adjoining partisan states of the Arabian Peninsula, and the outlying regions of the land of the Romans. Heraclius, the emperor of the Romans, was forced to flee to Constantinople where he was besieged for a lengthy period. Then Heraclius regained the upper hand. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on this Ayah:

[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ فِى أَدْنَى الاٌّرْضِ]

(Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land,) He said, "They were defeated and then they were victorious.'' He said, "The idolators wanted the Persians to prevail over the Romans, because they were idol worshippers, and the Muslims wanted the Romans to prevail over the Persians, because they were People of the Book. This was mentioned to Abu Bakr, who mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah . The Messenger of Allah said:

أَمَا إِنَّهُمْ سَيَغْلِبُون

(They will certainly prevail.) Abu Bakr mentioned this to the idolators, and they said, "Set a time limit for that, and if we prevail, we will get such and such; and if you prevail, you will get such and such.'' So he set a limit of five years, and they (the Romans) did not prevail. Abu Bakr mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah and he said:

أَلَا جَعَلْتَهَا إِلَى دُونَ أُرَاهُ قَالَ: الْعَشْرِ

(Why do you not make it less than) [I (the narrator) think he meant less than ten]. Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "Bid` means less than ten.'' Then the Romans were victorious, and he said, "That is what Allah said:

[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ - الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلوةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ - وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالأْخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ - أُوْلَـئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ]

(Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land, and they, after their defeat, will be victorious. In Bid`i years. The decision of the matter, before and after is only with Allah. And on that day, the believers will rejoice -- with the help of Allah. He helps whom He wills, and He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said: "Hasan Gharib.''

3. Another Hadith

Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Niyar bin Mukram Al-Aslami said: "When the following Ayat were revealed:

[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ - الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلوةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ فِى بِضْعِ سِنِينَ]

(Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land, and they, after their defeat, will be victorious. In Bid` years.) on the day they were revealed, the Persians were prevailing over the Romans. The Muslims wanted the Romans to prevail over them (the Persians), because they were both people who followed a Book. Concerning this Allah said:

[فِى بِضْعِ سِنِينَ لِلَّهِ الاٌّمْرُ مِن قَبْلُ وَمِن بَعْدُ وَيَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ - بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ يَنصُرُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ ]

(And on that day, the believers will rejoice -- with the help of Allah. He helps whom He wills, and He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.) The Quraysh, on the other hand, wanted the Persians to prevail, because neither of them were people who followed a Book and neither of them believed in the Resurrection. When Allah revealed these Ayat, Abu Bakr went out proclaiming throughout Makkah:

[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ فِى أَدْنَى الاٌّرْضِ وَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْبِضْعَ سِنِينَ]

(Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land, and they, after their defeat, will be victorious. In Bid` years.) Some of the Quraysh said to Abu Bakr: `This is (a bet) between us and you. Your companion claims that the Romans will defeat the Persians within three to nine years, so why not have a bet on that between us and you' Abu Bakr said, `Yes.' This was before betting had been forbidden. So, Abu Bakr and the idolators made a bet, and they said to Abu Bakr: `What do you think, Bid` means something between three and nine years, so let us agree on the middle.' So they agreed on six years. Then six years passed without the Romans being victorious, so the idolators took what they had bet with Abu Bakr. When the seventh year came and the Romans were finally victorious over the Persians, the Muslims rebuked Abu Bakr for agreeing on six years. He said: `Because Allah said: "In Bid` years.''' At that time, many people became Muslim.'' This is how it was narrated by At-Tirmidhi, then he said, "This is a Hasan Hadith.''

4. Who were the Romans

[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ ]

(Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated.) We have already discussed the separate letters which appear at the beginning of some Surahs in the beginning of our Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah. With regard to the Romans (Ar-Rum), they are the descendents of Al-`Iys bin Ishaq bin Ibrahim. They are the cousins of the Children of Isra'il, and are also known as Bani Al-Asfar. They used to followed the religion of the Greeks, who were descendents of Yafith bin Nuh, the cousins of the Turks. They used to worship the seven planets, and they prayed facing the direction of the North Pole. It is they who founded Damascus and built its temple in which there is a prayer niche facing north. The Romans followed this religion until approximately three hundred years after the time of the Messiah. The king who ruled Greater Syria along with the Fertile Crescent (semicircle of fertile land from Syrian Desert to Persian Gulf) was called Caesar. The first of them to enter the Christian religion was Constantine the son of Costas, whose mother was Maryam Al-Hilaniyyah Ash-Shadqaniyyah, from the land of Harran. She had become Christian before him, and she invited him to her religion. Before that he had been a philosopher, then he followed her. It was said that this was merely an outward show of belief.

Then the Christians met with him. During his time they debated with `Abdullah bin Ariyus (Arius) and great differences arose which could not be reconciled. Then a gathering of three hundred and eighteen bishops reached an agreement, and presented their creed to Constantine. This is what they call the Great Trust, but in fact it is the Worst Betrayal. They presented to him their laws, i.e., books of rulings on what was lawful and prohibited, and other things that they needed. They changed the religion of the Messiah (peace be upon him), adding some things and taking some things away. They began praying towards the East, and changed the Sabbath (Saturday) rites to Sunday. They worshipped the cross, permitted eating of pigs, adopted innovated observances such as the festival of the cross, Mass, baptism, etc., Palm Sunday and other occasions. They appointed a pope, as their leader, and patriarchs, metropolitans, bishops, priests and deacons, and they invented monasticism. The king built churches and places of worship for them, and he founded the city which is named after him, Constantinople. It was said that during his time twelve thousand churches were built, three places of prayer in Bethlehem, and that his mother built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. These are the ones who followed the religion of the kings. Then after them came the Jacobites, followers of Ya`qub Al-Askaf, then the Nestorians, the followers of Nestorius. There are many groups and sects among them, as the Messenger of Allah said:

إِنَّهُمْ افْتَرَقُوا عَلَى اثْنَتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَة

(They split into seventy two sects.) The point here is that they continued to follow Christianity. Every time one Caesar died, another succeeded him, until the last of them, Heraclius, came to power. He was a wise man, one of the most astute and intelligent of kings, who had deep insight and well-formed opinions. His was a great and glorious reign. He was opposed by Chosroes, the king of Persia and of regions such as Iraq, Khurasan, Ar-Riy and all the lands of the Persians. His name was Sabur Dhul-Aktaf, and his kingdom was greater than the kingdom of Caesar. He was the leader of the Persians and was as stubborn as the Persians who were Zoroastrian fire worshippers.

5. How Caesar defeated Chosroes (Kisra)

It was previously reported that `Ikrimah said: "Chosroes sent his deputy and his army against Caesar, and they fought.'' It is well-known that Chosroes himself fought in the army that invaded his land, and he defeated Caesar and overwhelmed him until he had nothing left except the city of Constantinople, where Chosroes besieged him for a long time, until things became very difficult for him. He was highly venerated among the Christians, and Chosroes was not able to conquer the city because it was well fortified, and half of it faced the land while the other half faced the sea, from where supplies were able to reach them. After this had gone on for a long time, Caesar thought of a clever trick. He asked Chosroes to let him leave his city in return for money given as a peace-offering, on whatever terms he (Chosroes) wanted. Chosroes agreed to that and asked for a huge amount of wealth -- gold, jewels, fabric, servant-women, servants, and much more -- such that no king on earth could ever pay. Caesar went along with that and gave him the impression that he had all that he had asked for, although he thought he was crazy for asking for such a thing, because even if the two of them were to combine all of their wealth, it would not amount to even one-tenth of that. He asked Chosroes to let him go out of the city to Ash-Sham and the other regions of his kingdom, so that he could gather that from his storehouses and places where his wealth was buried. Chosroes let him go, and when Caesar was about to leave Constantinople, he gathered his people together and told them: "I am going out on a mission I have decided to do so with some soldiers I have selected from my army; if I come back to you before one year passes, I will still be your king but if I do not come back after that, you will have the choice. Then, if you wish, you may remain loyal to me, or if you wish you may appoint someone instead of me. Signs of Tawhid Allah tells us that pondering His creation will show that He exists and that He is Unique in creating it, and that there is no god nor lord besides Him. So He says:

[أَوَلَمْ يَتَفَكَّرُواْ فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ]

(Do they not reflect upon themselves) Thinking and pondering how Allah created various things in the upper and lower realms and in the space between, realizing that this was not created in jest or in vain, but in truth, and that it will continue until an appointed time, the Day of Resurrection, as Allah says:

[وَإِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنَ النَّاسِ بِلِقَآءِ رَبِّهِمْ لَكَـفِرُونَ]

(And indeed many of mankind deny meeting with their Lord.) Then Allah tells us of the truth of the Message brought by the Messengers and how He supported them with miracles and clear signs, such as when He destroyed those who disbelieved in them and saved those who believed in them.

[أَوَلَمْ يَسيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ]

(Do they not travel in the land) means, `do they not understand and think and see and hear about the people of the past' Allah says:

[فَيَنظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ كَانُواْ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً]

(and see what was the end of those before them They were superior to them in strength, ) meaning, `the nations of the past who came before you were stronger than you to whom Muhammad has been sent; they had more wealth and more sons. You have not been given one-tenth of what they were given. They stayed longer in this world than you will stay. They were more civilized than you and were more prosperous in the land than you.' Yet despite all that, when their Messengers came to them with clear signs, while they were enjoying their life of luxury, Allah punished them for their sins and they had no one who could protect them from Allah. Their wealth and sons could not protect them from the wrath of Allah in the slightest, and Allah was not at all unjust towards them when He sent His punishment upon them.

[وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ]

(but they used to wrong themselves.) They brought destruction upon themselves, when they rejected and mocked the signs of Allah. All of this only happened because of their previous sins and their rejection (of the Messengers). Allah says:

[ثُمَّ كَانَ عَـقِبَةَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُواْ السُّوءَى أَن كَذَّبُواْ بِـَايَـتِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُواْ بِهَا يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ ]

(Then evil was the end of those who did evil, because they denied the Ayat of Allah and made a mockery of them.) This is like the Ayat:

[وَنُقَلِّبُ أَفْئِدَتَهُمْ وَأَبْصَـرَهُمْ كَمَا لَمْ يُؤْمِنُواْ بِهِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَنَذَرُهُمْ فِى طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ ]

(And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away, as they refused to believe therein for the first time, and We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly.) (6:110),

[فَلَمَّا زَاغُواْ أَزَاغَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ]

(So when they turned away, Allah turned their hearts away.) (61:5),

[فَإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ]

(And if they turn away, then know that Allah's will is to punish them for some sins of theirs) (5:49). It was said that the meaning of the phrase

[ثُمَّ كَانَ عَـقِبَةَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُواْ السُّوءَى]

(Then evil was the end of those who did evil,) is that evil was their inevitable end, because they rejected the signs of Allah and made fun of them. This is the view of Ibn Jarir, which he recorded from Ibn `Abbas and Qatadah. Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded it from them and from Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim. This is the apparent meaning -- and Allah knows best -- of the phrase:

[وَكَانُواْ بِهَا يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ]

(and made a mockery of them.)

[اللَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ - وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يُبْلِسُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ - وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُمْ مِّن شُرَكَآئِهِمْ شُفَعَاءُ وَكَانُواْ بِشُرَكَآئِهِمْ كَـفِرِينَ - وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَفَرَّقُونَ - فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ فَهُمْ فِى رَوْضَةٍ يُحْبَرُونَ - وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَا وَلِقَآءِ الاَّخِرَةِ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ فِى الْعَذَابِ مُحْضَرُونَ ]

(11. Allah originates the creation, then He will repeat it, then to Him you will be returned.) (12. And on the Day when the Hour will be established, the criminals will be plunged into destruction with despair.) (13. No intercessors will they have from those whom they made equal with Allah, and they will reject and deny their partners.) (14. And on the Day when the Hour will be established -- that Day shall they be separated.) (15. Then as for those who believed and did righteous good deeds, such shall be honored and made to enjoy a luxurious life in a Garden of Delight.) d(16. And as for those who disbelieved and denied Our Ayat, and the meeting of the Hereafter, such shall be brought forth to the torment.) Allah said:

[اللَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ]

(Allah originates the creation, then He will repeat it,) Just as He was able to create it in the first place, so He is also able to repeat it.

[ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ]

(then to Him you will be returned.) on the Day of Resurrection, when each will be requited according to his deeds. Then Allah says:

[وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يُبْلِسُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ ]

(And on the Day when the Hour will be established, the criminals will be plunged into destruction with despair.) Ibn `Abbas said, "The sinners will be filled with despair.'' Mujahid said, "The sinners will be exposed;'' according to another report he said, "The sinners will grieve.''

[وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُمْ مِّن شُرَكَآئِهِمْ شُفَعَاءُ]

(No intercessors will they have from those whom they made equal with Allah,) means, the gods whom they used to worship instead of Allah will not intercede for them; they will reject them and betray them despite their desperate need of them. Then Allah says:

[وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَفَرَّقُونَ ]

(And on the Day when the Hour will be established -- that Day shall (all men) be separated.) Qatadah said: "By Allah, this refers to the separation after which there will be no reunion.'' In other words, if one person is taken up to the highest heights and another is sent down to the lowest depths of Hell, that is the last they will ever see of one another. Allah says:

[فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ فَهُمْ فِى رَوْضَةٍ يُحْبَرُونَ ]

(Then as for those who believed and did righteous good deeds, such shall be honored and made to enjoy a luxurious life in a Garden of Delight.) Mujahid and Qatadah said, "This means, they will enjoy a life of luxury.''

[فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ - وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَعَشِيّاً وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ - يُخْرِجُ الْحَىَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَىِّ وَيُحْىِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَكَذَلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ ]

(17. So glorify Allah, when you enter the evening, and when you enter the morning.) (18. And His is all the praise in the heavens and the earth; and in `Ashiyya and when Tuzhirun.) (19. He brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living. And He revives the earth after its death. And thus shall you be brought out.)

6. The Command to pray Five Times Daily

Here Allah glorifies Himself and commands His servants to glorify and praise Him at these times which come one after the other and are indicative of His might and power in the heavens. This is when the night comes with its darkness, then in the morning the day comes with its light. This glorification is followed by befitting praise, as Allah says:

[وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]

(And His is all the praise in the heavens and the earth;) meaning, He is the One who is to be praised for what He has created in the heavens and on earth. Then Allah says:

[وَعَشِيّاً وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ]

(and in `Ashiyya and when Tuzhirun.) -- the `Ashiyy is the time when the darkness is most intense, and Izhar is the brightest point of the day. Glory be to the One Who created both of them, the Cleaver of the daybreak and the One Who makes night a time of rest. Allah says:

[وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّـهَا - وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَـهَا ]

(By the day as it shows up its brightness. By the night as it conceals it.) (91:3-4)

[وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى - وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّى ]

(By the night as it envelops. By the day as it appears in brightness. ) (92:1-2)

[وَالضُّحَى - وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَى ]

(By the forenoon (after sunrise). By the night when it darkens.) (93:1-2) And there are many similar Ayat.

[يُخْرِجُ الْحَىَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَىِّ]

(He brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living.) This is what we see of His power to create things and their opposites. These Ayat which come one after the other are all of the same; in each of them Allah mentions the creation of things and their opposites, to indicate to His creation the perfection of His power. Thus He creates the plant from the seed and the seed from the plant; He creates the egg from the chicken and the chicken from the egg; He creates man from sperm and sperm from man; He creates the believer from the disbelievers and the disbeliever from the believers.

[وَيُحْىِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا]

(And He revives the earth after its death.) This is like the Ayat:

[وَءَايَةٌ لَّهُمُ الاٌّرْضُ الْمَيْتَةُ أَحْيَيْنَـهَا وَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهَا حَبّاً فَمِنْهُ يَأْكُلُونَ ]

(And a sign for them is the dead land. We give it life, and We bring forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof.) until:

[وَفَجَّرْنَا فِيهَا مِنَ الْعُيُونِ]

(and We have caused springs of water to gush forth therein. ) (36:33-34)

[وَتَرَى الاٌّرْضَ هَامِدَةً فَإِذَآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَآءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنبَتَتْ مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ]

(And you see the earth barren, but when We send down water on it, it is stirred, and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind.) until:

[وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَن فِى الْقُبُورِ]

(and certainly, Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves.) (22:5-7)

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرىً بَيْنَ يَدَىْ رَحْمَتِهِ حَتَّى إِذَآ أَقَلَّتْ سَحَابًا ثِقَالاً]

(And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy. Till when they have carried a heavy-laden cloud) until:

[لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ]

(so that you may remember or take heed.) (7:57) Allah says here:

[وَكَذَلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ]

(And thus shall you be brought out.)

[وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَكُمْ مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ إِذَآ أَنتُمْ بَشَرٌ تَنتَشِرُونَ - وَمِنْ ءايَـتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَجاً لِّتَسْكُنُواْ إِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُم مَّوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لأَيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ]

(20. And among His signs is this that He created you from dust, and then -- behold you are human beings scattered!) (21. And among His signs is this that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect.)

7. Among the Signs of Allah

Allah says:

[وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ]

(And among His signs) -- which speak of His might and power, is the fact that He created your father Adam out of dust.

[ثُمَّ إِذَآ أَنتُمْ بَشَرٌ تَنتَشِرُونَ]

(and then -- behold you are human beings scattered!) So man's origins lie in dust, then in a despised liquid, then he is formed and becomes a clot, then a lump of flesh, then bones in the form of a human being. Then Allah clothes the bones with flesh. Then the soul is breathed into him and he can hear and see. Then he comes forth from his mother's womb, small and weak, but the longer he lives, the stronger he becomes, until he reaches the age where he can build cities and strongholds, and he travels to different lands and across the seas, earning a living and amassing wealth, and he is smart and intelligent and crafty, with ideas and opinions of his own, and each one is able to achieve great things in this world and in the Hereafter according to his individual means. Glory be to the One Who has enabled them and made it easy for them to learn all kinds of skills for earning a living, and has caused them to vary in their levels of knowledge and intellectual ability, and in how handsome or ugly, rich or poor they are, and in whether they are blessed and doomed. Allah says:

[وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَكُمْ مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ إِذَآ أَنتُمْ بَشَرٌ تَنتَشِرُونَ ]

(And among His signs is this that He created you from dust, and then -- behold you are human beings scattered!) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Musa said, "The Messenger of Allah said:

إِنَّ اللهَ خَلَقَ آدَمَ مِنْ قَبْضَةٍ قَبَضَهَا مِنْ جَمِيع الْأَرْضِ، فَجَاءَ بَنُو آدَمَ عَلَى قَدْرِ الْأَرْضِ، جَاءَ مِنْهُمُ الْأَبْيَضُ وَالْأَحْمَرُ وَالْأَسْوَدُ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِكَ، وَالْخَبِيثُ وَالطَّيِّبُ، وَالسَّهْلُ وَالْحَزْنُ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِك

(Allah created Adam from a handful taken from throughout the earth. Hence the sons of Adam vary as the earth varies, so they are white and red and black and [colors] in between, evil and good, easy-going or difficult -- or something in between.)'' This was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said, "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.'' Allah said:

[وَمِنْ ءايَـتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَجاً]

(And among His signs is this that He created for you wives from among yourselves,) meaning, `He created females of your own kind, to be wives for you.'

[لِّتَسْكُنُواْ إِلَيْهَا]

(that you may find repose in them,) This is like the Ayah,

[هُوَ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَحِدَةٍ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا لِيَسْكُنَ إِلَيْهَا]

(It is He Who has created you from a single person, and He has created from him his wife, in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her) (7:189). This refers to Hawwa'. Allah created her from Adam, from the short rib on his left. If Allah had made all of Adam's progeny male, and created the females from another kind, such as from Jinn or animals, there would never have been harmony between them and their spouses. There would have been revulsion if the spouses had been from a different kind. Out of Allah's perfect mercy He made their wives from their own kind, and created love and kindness between them. For a man stays with a woman because he loves her, or because he feels compassion towards her if they have a child together, or because she needs him to take care of her, etc.

[إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ]

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect.)

[وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَاخْتِلَـفُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَنِكُمْ إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لأَيَـتٍ لِّلْعَـلَمِينَ - وَمِنْ ءايَـتِهِ مَنَامُكُم بِالَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَابْتِغَآؤُكُمْ مِّن فَضْلِهِ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَسْمَعُونَ ]

(22. And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colors. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge.) (23. And among His signs is your sleep by night and by day, and your seeking His bounty. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who listen.) Allah said:

[وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ]

(And among His signs) indicating His magnificent power.

[خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالأَرْضَ]

(is the creation of the heavens and the earth,) The heavens with their vast height and brightness and beauty of the stars and planets, and the earth with its density and its mountains, valleys, seas, plains, animals and trees.

[وَاخْتِلَـفُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ]

(and the difference of your languages) So, we see that some speak Arabic, and the Tatars have their own language, as do the Georgians, Romans, Franks, Berbers, Tou Couleurs (of Sudan), Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Slavs, Khazars, Armenians, Kurds and others. Only Allah knows the variety of languages spoken among the sons of Adam. And the difference of their colors mentioned here refers to their appearance, for all the people of this world, from the time that Allah created Adam, and until the Hour begins, each of them has two eyes, two eyebrows, a nose, a forehead, a mouth and two cheeks, but none of them looks like another; there is bound to be some difference in posture, appearance and speech, whether it is apparent or is hidden and can only be noticed with careful observation. Each face has its own characteristics and does not look like another; even if there was a group of people who looked alike, having a beautiful or ugly characteristic in common, there would still be a difference between one person and the next.

[إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لأَيَـتٍ لِّلْعَـلَمِينَ]

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge.)

[وَمِنْ ءايَـتِهِ مَنَامُكُم بِالَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَابْتِغَآؤُكُمْ مِّن فَضْلِهِ]

(And among His signs is your sleep by night and by day, and your seeking of His bounty.) Among His signs is the cycle of sleep that He has created during the night and the day, when people are able to cease moving and rest, so that their tiredness and exhaustion will go away. And He has enabled you to seek to earn a living and to travel about during the day, this is the opposite of sleep.

[إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَسْمَعُونَ]

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who listen.) meaning, understand.

[وَمِنْ ءايَـتِهِ يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفاً وَطَمَعاً وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَيُحْىِ بِهِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ - وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ أَن تَقُومَ السَّمَآءُ وَالاٌّرْضُ بِأَمْرِهِ ثُمَّ إِذَا دَعَاكُمْ دَعْوَةً مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ إِذَآ أَنتُمْ تَخْرُجُونَ ]

(24. And among His signs is that He shows you the lightning, for fear and for hope, and He sends down water from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who understand.) (25. And among His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command. Then afterwards when He will call you by a single call, behold, you will come out from the earth.) Allah says,

[وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ]

(And among His signs) which speak of His greatness,

[يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفاً وَطَمَعاً]

(He shows you the lightning, for fear and for hope,) Sometimes you fear the heavy rain and destructive thunderbolts that follow it, and sometimes you feel hope, when you see a flash of lightning, that much-needed rain will come. Allah says:

[وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَيُحْىِ بِهِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا]

(and He sends down water from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death.) After it was barren, with nothing growing there, then the water comes to it and

[اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنبَتَتْ مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ]

(it is stirred, and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth).) (22:5). In this is a clear sign and proof of the resurrection and the coming of the Hour. Allah says:

[إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ]

i(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who understand.) Then Allah says:

[وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ أَن تَقُومَ السَّمَآءُ وَالاٌّرْضُ بِأَمْرِهِ]

(And among His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command.) This is like the Ayat:

[وَيُمْسِكُ السَّمَآءَ أَن تَقَعَ عَلَى الاٌّرْضِ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ]

(He withholds the heaven from falling on the earth except by His leave) (22: 65).

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُمْسِكُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ أَن تَزُولاَ]

(Verily, Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places) (35:41). Whenever `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, swore an emphatic oath, he would say, "No, by the One by Whose command the heaven and the earth stand,'' i.e., they stand firm by His command to them and His subjugation of them. Then, when the Day of Resurrection comes, the Day when the earth will be exchanged with another earth and the dead will come forth from their graves, brought back to life by His command and His call to them,

[ثُمَّ إِذَا دَعَاكُمْ دَعْوَةً مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ إِذَآ أَنتُمْ تَخْرُجُونَ]

(Then afterwards when He will call you by a single call, behold, you will come out from the earth.) This is like the Ayat:

[يَوْمَ يَدْعُوكُمْ فَتَسْتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمْدِهِ وَتَظُنُّونَ إِن لَّبِثْتُمْ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً ]

(On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed but a little while!) (17:52)

[فَإِنَّمَا هِىَ زَجْرَةٌ وَحِدَةٌ - فَإِذَا هُم بِالسَّاهِرَةِ ]

(But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they find themselves on the surface of the earth alive after their death. ) (79:13-14), and

[إِن كَانَتْ إِلاَّ صَيْحَةً وَحِدَةً فَإِذَا هُمْ جَمِيعٌ لَّدَيْنَا مُحْضَرُونَ ]

(It will be but a single Sayhah, so behold they will all be brought up before Us!) (36:53).

[وَلَهُ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَـنِتُونَ - وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَهُ الْمَثَلُ الأَعْلَى فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ]

(26. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. All are obedient to Him.) (27. And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him. His is the highest description in the heavens and in the earth. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.) Allah says:

[وَلَهُ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]

(To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.) means, He owns it and it is enslaved to Him.

[كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَـنِتُونَ]

(All are obedient to Him.) they are humble before Him and submit to Him, whether willingly or unwillingly.

8. Repeating the Creation is easier for Allah

Allah's saying:

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ]

(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him.) Ibn Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means it is easier for Him.'' Mujahid said: "Repeating it is easier for Him than originating it, and originating it is easy for Him.'' This was also the view of `Ikrimah and others. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet said:

قَالَ اللهُ: كَذَّبَنِي ابْنُ آدَمَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذَلِكَ، وَشَتَمَنِي وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذَلِكَ، فَأَمَّا تَكْذِيبُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوْلُهُ: لَنْ يُعِيدَنِي كَمَا بَدَأَنِي وَلَيْسَ أَوَّلُ الْخَلْقِ بِأَهْوَنَ عَلَيَّ مِنْ إِعَادَتِهِ، وَأَمَّا شَتْمُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوْلُهُ: اتَّخَذَ اللهُ وَلَدًا، وَأَنَا الْأَحَدُ الصَّمَدُ الَّذِي لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَد

(Allah says; "The son of Adam denied Me, and he had no right to do so. And he reviled Me, and he had no right to do so. As for his denying Me, it is his saying: `He will not remake me as He originated me' -- while originating the creation is not easier for Me than re-creating him. As for his reviling Me, it is his saying: `Allah has taken to Himself a son,' while I am the One, the Self-Sufficient Master; I beget not, nor was I begotten, and there is none comparable to Me.'') This was recorded only by Al-Bukhari.

[وَلَهُ الْمَثَلُ الأَعْلَى فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]

(His is the highest description in the heavens and in the earth. ) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported Ibn `Abbas said, "This is like the Ayah:

[لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَىْءٌ]

(There is nothing like Him) (42:11).'' Qatadah said: "His description is La ilaha illallah, and there is no Lord but He.''

[ضَرَبَ لَكُمْ مَّثَلاً مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ هَلْ لَّكُمْ مِّن مَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ مِّن شُرَكَآءَ فِى مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ فَأَنتُمْ فِيهِ سَوَآءٌ تَخَافُونَهُمْ كَخِيفَتِكُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ كَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الاٌّيَـتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ - بَلِ اتَّبَعَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ فَمَن يَهْدِى مَنْ أَضَلَّ اللَّهُ وَمَا لَهُمْ مِّن نَّـصِرِينَ ]

(28. He sets forth for you a parable from yourselves: Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you, whom you fear as you fear each other Thus do We explain the signs in detail to a people who have sense.) (29. Nay, but those who do wrong follow their own lusts without knowledge. Then who will guide him whom Allah has sent astray And for such there will be no helpers.)

9. A Parable of Tawhid

This is the parable Allah makes of the idolators, those who worship others besides Him and attribute partners to Him, while at the same time admitting that these so-called partners -- idols and false gods -- are enslaved to and belong to Him. In their Talbiyah (during Hajj and `Umrah they used to say, "At Your service, You have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he owns.''

[ضَرَبَ لَكُمْ مَّثَلاً مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ]

(He sets forth for you a parable from yourselves) `something which you yourselves can see witness, and understand.'

[هَلْ لَّكُمْ مِّن مَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ مِّن شُرَكَآءَ فِى مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ فَأَنتُمْ فِيهِ سَوَآءٌ]

(Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you...) `None of you would like to have his servant as a partner in his wealth, each of them having an equal share.'

[تَخَافُونَهُمْ كَخِيفَتِكُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ]

(whom you fear as you fear each other.) `You fear that they will have a share in your wealth with you.' Abu Mijlaz said, "You do not fear that your servant will have a share in your wealth, because he has no such right; similarly, Allah has no partner.'' The point is, that since any one of you would abhor such a thing, how can you attribute rivals to Allah from among His creation At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The people of Shirk used to say in their Talbiyah, `At Your service, You have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he owns.' Then Allah revealed the words:

[هَلْ لَّكُمْ مِّن مَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ مِّن شُرَكَآءَ فِى مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ فَأَنتُمْ فِيهِ سَوَآءٌ تَخَافُونَهُمْ كَخِيفَتِكُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ]

(Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you, whom you fear as you fear each other)'' If humans have this characteristic, this parable shows that it is even less befitting for Allah to have a partner.

[كَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الاٌّيَـتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ]

(Thus do We explain the signs in detail to a people who have sense.) Then Allah points out that when the idolators worship others instead of Him, doing so out of their own folly and ignorance:

[بَلِ اتَّبَعَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ]

(Nay, but those who do wrong follow...), meaning, the idolators,

[أَهْوَاءَهُمْ]

(...their own lusts) means, in their worship of false gods without knowledge.

[فَمَن يَهْدِى مَنْ أَضَلَّ اللَّهُ]

(Then who will guide him whom Allah has sent astray) means, no one can guide them if Allah has decreed that they will be misguided.

[وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّـصِرِينَ]

(And for such there will be no helpers.) means, there is no one who can save them from the power of Allah or grant them a way out, for what He wills, happens and what He does not will, does not happen.

[فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفاً فِطْرَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِى فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لاَ تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ - مُنِيبِينَ إِلَيْهِ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلوةَ وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ - مِنَ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعاً كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ ]

(30. So, set you your face towards the religion as a Hanif. Allah's Fitrah with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Allah's Khalq, that is the straight religion, but most men know not.) (31. (And remain always) turning in repentance to Him and have Taqwa of Him; and perform the Salah and be not of idolators.) (32. Of those who split up their religion, and became sects, each sect rejoicing in that which is with it.)

10. The Command to adhere to Tawhid

Allah says: `so set your face and persevere in the religion which Allah has prescribed for you, the worship of Allah Alone, the religion of Ibrahim, to which Allah has guided you and which He has perfected for you with the utmost perfection. In this manner, you will also adhere to the sound Fitrah with which He created His creation.' Allah created His creation to recognize Him and know His Tawhid, and that there is no God except Him, as we have already seen when discussing the Ayah,

[وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتَ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُواْ بَلَى]

(and made them testify as to themselves (saying): "Am I not your Lord'' They said: "Yes!...'') (7:172). And according to a Hadith, Allah said,

إِنِّي خَلَقْتُ عِبَادِي حُنَفَاءَ، فَاجْتَالَتْهُمُ الشَّيَاطِينُ عَنْ دِينِهِم

("I created my servants Hunafa (i.e., monotheists), then the Shayatin misled them from their religion.'') We will see in the Hadiths that Allah created His creation with the Fitrah of Islam, then among some of them there emerged corrupt religions such as Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.

[لاَ تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ]

(No change let there be in Allah's Khalq,) Some of them said that this means, `do not change the creation of Allah, for if you do, you will divert the people away from the Fitrah with which He created them.' So it is instructive; just as His saying:

[وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ ءَامِناً]

(And whoever enters it, he is safe) This is a good and correct interpretation. Others said that this means, Allah made all of His creation equal, all of them have the same sound Fitrah and are by nature upright; they are all born with this nature and there is no disparity among people in this regard. Ibn `Abbas, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd said that the Ayah:

[لاَ تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ]

(No change let there be in Allah's Khalq) means, the religion of Allah. Al-Bukhari said:

[لاَ تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ]

(No change let there be in Allah's Khalq,) "It means, the religion of Allah, and the religion, and the Fitrah is Islam.'' Then he reported that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah said:

مَا مِنْ مَوْلُودٍ يُولَدُ إِلَّا عَلَى الْفِطْرَةِ فَأَبَوَاهُ يُهَوِّدَانِهِ أَوْ يُنَصِّرَانِهِ أَوْ يُمَجِّسَانِهِ،كَمَا تُنْتَجُ الْبَهِيمَةُ بَهِيمَةً جَمْعَاءَ، هَلْ تُحِسُّونَ فِيهَا مِنْ جَدْعَاءَ؟

(No child is born except in a state of Fitrah, then his parents make him a Jew or a Christian or a Zoroastrian, just as each animal produces a perfect animal like itself -- do you see any among them that are born mutilated) then the narrator (Abu Hurayrah) said (recite this Ayah),

[فِطْرَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِى فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لاَ تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ]

(Allah's Fitrah with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Allah's Khalq, that is the straight religion.)'' This was also recorded by Muslim.

[ذلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ]

(that is the straight religion,) means, adherence to the Shari`ah and the sound Fitrah is the true, straight religion.

[وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ]

(but most men know not.) means, most people do not know this and they deviate far astray from it, as Allah says:

[وَمَآ أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتَ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ ]

(And most of mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly.) (12:103)

[وَإِن تُطِعْ أَكْثَرَ مَن فِى الاٌّرْضِ يُضِلُّوكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ]

(And if you obey most of those on the earth, they will mislead you far away from Allah's path) (6:116).

[مُّنِيبِينَ إِلَيْهِ]

(turning in repentance to Him) Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jurayj said, "This means, returning to Him.''

[وَاتَّقُوهُ]

(and have Taqwa of Him;) means, fear Him and remember that He is always watching.

[وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلَوةَ]

(and perform the Salah), which is the greatest act of worship.)

[وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ]

(and be not of the idolators.) Be of those who single out Allah, devoting their worship sincerely for Him alone, not anyone or anything other than Him. Ibn Jarir recorded that Yazid bin Abi Maryam said: "`Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, passed by Mu`adh bin Jabal and asked, `What is the foundation of this Ummah' Mu`adh said, `Three things, and they are the things that will bring salvation: Al-Ikhlas (doing a deed for Allah alone), which is the Fitrah with which Allah created mankind; Salah, which is the thing that tells a believer apart from a disbeliever; and obedience, which is protection.' `Umar said: `You have spoken the truth.

11. Splitting into Sects and the Saved Sect

His saying:

[مِنَ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعاً كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ ]

(Of those who Farraqu Dinahum (split up their religion), and became sects, each sect rejoicing in that which is with it.) means, do not be of the idolators who split up their religion, i.e., changed it by believing in parts of it and rejecting other parts. Some scholars read this as Faraqu Dinahum, meaning "neglected their religion and left it behind them.'' These are like the Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, idol worshippers and all the followers of false religions, besides the followers of Islam, as Allah says:

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعًا لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ إِنَّمَآ أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ]

(Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no concern in them in the least. Their affair is only with Allah) (6:159). The followers of the religions before us had differences of opinions and split into false sects, each group claiming to be following the truth. This Ummah too has split into sects, all of which are misguided apart from one, which is Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jama`ah, those who adhere to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah and what was followed by the first generations, the Companions, their followers, and the Imams of the Muslims of earlier and later times. In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded that the Messenger of Allah was asked which of the sects was the saved sect and he said:

مَا أَنَا عَلَيْهِ وَأَصْحَابِي

(What I and my Companions are upon.)

[وَإِذَا مَسَّ النَّاسَ ضُرٌّ دَعَوْاْ رَبَّهُمْ مُّنِيبِينَ إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ إِذَآ أَذَاقَهُمْ مِّنْهُ رَحْمَةً إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ بِرَبِّهِمْ يُشْرِكُونَ لِيَكْفُرُواْ بِمَآ ءاتَيْنَـهُمْ فَتَمَتَّعُواْ فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ أَمْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَـناً فَهُوَ يَتَكَلَّمُ بِمَا كَانُواْ بِهِ يُشْرِكُونَ وَإِذَآ أَذَقْنَا النَّاسَ رَحْمَةً فَرِحُواْ بِهَا وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ إِذَا هُمْ يَقْنَطُونَ أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَقْدِرُ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لأَيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ ]

(33. And when harm touches men, they cry sincerely only to their Lord, turning to Him in repentance; but when He gives them a taste of His mercy, behold, a party of them associates partners in worship with their Lord.) (34. So as to be ungrateful for the graces which We have bestowed on them. Then enjoy; but you will come to know.) (35. Or have We revealed to them an authority, which speaks of that which they have been associating with Him) (36. And when We cause mankind to taste of mercy, they rejoice therein; but when some evil afflicts them because of what their hands have sent forth, behold, they are in despair!) (37. Do they not see that Allah expands the provision for whom He wills and straitens (it for whom He wills). Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who believe.)

12. How man sways between Tawhid and Shirk, and between Joy and Despair, according to His Circumstances

Allah tells us that when man is in dire straits, he calls upon Allah alone with no partner or associate, then when times of ease come and they have the choice, some people associate others with Allah and worship others alongside Him.

[لِيَكْفُرُواْ بِمَآ ءاتَيْنَـهُمْ]

(So as to be ungrateful for the graces which We have bestowed on them.) Then Allah warns them by saying:

[فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ]

(but you will come to know.) One of them said: By Allah, if a law enforcment officer were to say this to me, I would be afraid, so how about when the One Who is issuing the warning is the One Who merely says to a thing "Be!'' and it is Then Allah denounces the idolators for fabricating lies and worshipping others instead of Him with no evidence or proof:

[أَمْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَـناً]

(Or have We revealed to them an authority,) means, proof.

[فَهُوَ يَتَكَلَّمُ]

(which speaks) means, tells

[بِمَا كَانُواْ بِهِ يُشْرِكُونَ]

(of that which they have been associating with Him) This is a rhetorical question intended to denounce them, for they have no such thing.

[وَإِذَآ أَذَقْنَا النَّاسَ رَحْمَةً فَرِحُواْ بِهَا وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ إِذَا هُمْ يَقْنَطُونَ ]

(And when We cause mankind to taste of mercy, they rejoice therein; but when some evil afflicts them because of what their hands have sent forth, behold, they are in despair!) This is a denunciation of man for the way he is, except for those whom Allah protects and helps, for when man is given blessings, he is proud, and says:

[ذَهَبَ السَّيِّئَاتُ عَنِّي إِنَّهُ لَفَرِحٌ فَخُورٌ]

("Ills have departed from me.'' Surely, he is exultant, and boastful.) (11:10) He rejoices over himself and boasts to others, but when difficulties befall him, He despairs of ever having anything good again. Allah says:

[إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ صَبَرُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَاتِ]

(Except those who show patience and do righteous good deeds). They are patient during times of difficulty and do good deeds at times of ease. It was reported in the Sahih:

عَجَبًا لِلْمُؤْمِنِ لَا يَقْضِي اللهُ لَهُ قَضَاءً إِلَّا كَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُ، إِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ سَرَّاءُ شَكَرَ فَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُ، وَإِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ ضَرَّاءُ صَبَرَ فَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَه

(How wonderful is the affair of the believer. Allah does not decree anything for him but it is good for him. If good things happen to him, he gives thanks, and that is good for him; and if bad things happen to him, he bears that with patience, and that is good for him.)

[أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَقْدِرُ]

(Do they not see that Allah expands the provision for whom He wills and straitens (it for whom He wills).) He is the One Who is controlling and doing that, by His wisdom and justice, so He expands the provision for some people and restricts it for some.

[إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ]

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who believe.)

[فَـَاتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ - وَمَآ ءَاتَيْتُمْ مِّن رِّباً لِّيَرْبُوَاْ فِى أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلاَ يَرْبُواْ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَمَآ ءاتَيْتُمْ مِّن زَكَوةٍ تُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُونَ - اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَزَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ هَلْ مِن شُرَكَآئِكُمْ مَّن يَفْعَلُ مِن ذَلِكُمْ مِّن شَىْءٍ سُبْحَـنَهُ وَتَعَـلَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ]

(38. So, give to the kindred his due, and to Al-Miskin and to the wayfarer. That is best for those who seek Allah's Face; and it is they who will be successful.) (39. And that which you give in Riba in order that it may increase from other people's property, has no increase with Allah; but that which you give in Zakah seeking Allah's Face, then those they shall have manifold increase. ) (40. Allah is He Who created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then He will give you life. Is there any of your partners that do anything of that Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that they associate.)

13. The Command to uphold the Ties of Kinship and the Prohibition of Riba Allah commands giving:

[ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ]

(to the kindred his due) his due of respect and upholding the ties of kinship.

[وَالْمَسَـكِينُ]

(and to Al-Miskin) the one who has nothing to spend on his needs, or he has something but it is not enough.

[وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ]

(and to the wayfarer.) the traveler who is in need of money and other things during his journey.

[ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ]

(That is best for those who seek Allah's Face;) meaning; to look upon Him on the Day of Resurrection, which is the ultimate aim.

[وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ]

(and it is they who will be successful.) means, in this world and the Hereafter. Then Allah says:

[وَمَآ ءَاتَيْتُمْ مِّن رِّباً لِّيَرْبُوَاْ فِى أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلاَ يَرْبُواْ عِندَ اللَّهِ]

(And that which you give in Riba, in order that it may increase from other people's property, has no increase with Allah;) This means, that which is given as a gift to others in the hope that they will give back more than they were given. There is no reward for this with Allah. This is how this Ayah was interpreted by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, `Ikrimah, Muhammad bin Ka`b and Ash-Sha`bi. Allah says:

[وَمَآ ءاتَيْتُمْ مِّن زَكَوةٍ تُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُونَ]

(but that which you give in Zakah seeking Allah's Face, then those they shall have manifold increase.) Those are the ones for whom Allah will multiply the reward. It was reported in the Sahih:

وَمَا تَصَدَّقَ أَحَدٌ بِعَدْلِ تَمْرَةٍ مِنْ كَسْبٍ طَيِّبٍ إِلَّا أَخَذَهَا الرَّحْمَنُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَيُرَبِّيهَا لِصَاحِبِهَا، كَمَا يُرَبِّي أَحَدُكُمْ فَلُوَّهُ أَوْ فَصِيلَهُ حَتَّى تَصِيرَ التَّمْرَةُ أَعْظَمَ مِنْ أُحُد

(No person gives in charity the equivalent of a date which was earned in a lawful manner, but the Most Merciful takes it in His Right Hand and takes care of it for its owner, just as any one of you takes care of his foal or young camel, until the date becomes the size of Mount Uhud.)

14. Creation, Provision, Life and Death are all in the Hand of Allah Allah says:

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَزَقَكُمْ]

(Allah is He Who created you, then provided food for you,) means, He is the Creator and Provider. He brings man forth from his mother's womb naked and knowing nothing, not able to see or hear, and having no strength. Then He provides him with all these things, giving him household effects, clothing, wealth, possessions and earnings.

[ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ]

(then will cause you to die,) means, after this life.

[ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ]

(then (again) He will give you life.) means, on the Day of Resurrection.

[هَلْ مِن شُرَكَآئِكُمْ]

(Is there any of your partners) means, those whom you worship instead of Allah,

[مَّن يَفْعَلُ مِن ذَلِكُمْ مِّن شَىْءٍ]

(that do anything of that) meaning, none of them are able to do any of that. But Allah is the One Who is Independent in His powers of creation, provision, and giving life and death. Then He will resurrect His creation on the Day of Resurrection. This is why, after all this He says:

[سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ]

(Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that they associate. ) meaning, exalted and sanctified and glorified be He far above having any partner, peer, equal, son or father, for He is the One, the Unique, the Self-Sufficient Master, Who begets not nor was He begotten, and there is none comparable unto Him.

[ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِى الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِى النَّاسِ لِيُذِيقَهُمْ بَعْضَ الَّذِى عَمِلُواْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ - قُلْ سِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَانْظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلُ كَانَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ مُّشْرِكِينَ ]

(41. Evil has appeared in Al-Barr and Al-Bahr because of what the hands of men have earned, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return.) (42. Say: "Travel in the land and see what was the end of those before (you)! Most of them were idolators.'')

15. The Effects of Sin in this World

Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and others said: "What is meant by Al-Barr here is the empty land or wilderness, and by Al-Bahr is towns and cities.'' According to a report narrated from Ibn `Abbas and `Ikrimah, Al-Bahr refers to towns and cities which are on the banks of rivers. Others said that what was meant was the usual meaning of the words, i.e., land and sea. Zayd bin Rafi` said:

[ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ]

(Evil has appeared) "The rain is withheld from the land and this is followed by famine, and it is withheld from the sea, adversely affecting the animals which live in it.'' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim, who said: "Muhammad bin `Abdullah bin Yazid Al-Muqri' told us, from Sufyan from Humayd bin Qays Al-A`raj from Mujahid:

[ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِى الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ]

(Evil has appeared on land and sea) "Evil on land means the killing of the son of Adam, and evil on the sea means piracy.'' According to the first opinion, the phrase,

[ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِى الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِى النَّاسِ]

(Evil has appeared on land and sea because of what the hands of men have earned, ) means the shortfall in the crops and fruits is because of sins. Abu Al-`Aliyah said: "Whoever disobeys Allah in the earth has corrupted it, because the good condition of the earth and the heavens depends on obedience to Allah.'' Hence it says in the Hadith which was recorded by Abu Dawud:

لَحَدٌّ يُقَامُ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَحَبُّ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا مِنْ أَنْ يُمْطَرُوا أَرْبَعِينَ صَبَاحًا

(Any prescribed punishment which is carried out in the land is better for its people than if it were to rain for forty days.) The reason for that is that if the prescribed punishments are carried out, this will deter the people -- most or many of them -- from violating the prohibitions of Allah. If they give up sin, this will be a cause of blessings in the skies and on the earth. So, when `Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him, comes down at the end of time, he will judge according to this Shari`ah at that time, and will kill the pigs and break the cross and abolish the Jizyah. He will accept nothing except Islam or the sword. When Allah destroys the Dajjal and his followers, and Ya'juj and Ma'juj during his time, it will be said to the earth, bring forth your blessing. Then groups of people will eat from one pomegranate, and will seek shade beneath its skin, and the milk of one pregnant camel will be sufficient for a group of people. This will only be because of the blessings that will result from application of the Shari`ah of Muhammad . The more justice is established, the more the blessings and good things will increase. It was reported in the Sahih: h

إِنَّ الْفَاجِرَ إِذَا مَاتَ تَسْتَرِيحُ مِنْهُ الْعِبَادُ وَالْبِلَادُ وَالشَّجَرُ وَالدَّوَاب

(When the evildoer dies, it is a relief for the people, the land, the trees and the animals.) Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Abu Qahdham said: "At the time of Ziyad or Ibn Ziyad, a man found a cloth in which were wrapped grains of wheat which were as big as date stones; on it was written: `This grew at a time when justice prevailed.'''

[لِيُذِيقَهُمْ بَعْضَ الَّذِى عَمِلُواْ]

(that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done,) means, He tries them with the loss of wealth, souls and fruits as a test and as a punishment for what they have done.

[لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ]

(in order that they may return.) means, from disobedience. This is like the Ayah,

[وَبَلَوْنَـهُمْ بِالْحَسَنَـتِ وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ]

(And We tried them with good and evil in order that they might turn.) (7:168). Then Allah says:

[قُلْ سِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَانْظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلُ]

(Say: "Travel in the land and see what was the end of those before (you)!'') meaning, those who came before you.

[كَانَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ مُّشْرِكِينَ]

(Most of them were idolators. ) means, so see what happened to them when they rejected the Messengers and were ungrateful for the blessings.

[فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينَ الْقِيِّمِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِىَ يَوْمٌ لاَّ مَرَدَّ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصَّدَّعُونَ - مَن كَفَرَ فَعَلَيْهِ كُفْرُهُ وَمَنْ عَمِلَ صَـلِحاً فَلاًّنفُسِهِمْ يَمْهَدُونَ - لِيَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ مِن فَضْلِهِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْكَـفِرِينَ ]

(43. So, set you your face to the straight and right religion, before there comes from Allah a Day which none can avert. On that Day men shall be divided.) (44. Whosoever disbelieves will suffer from his disbelief, and whosoever does righteous good deeds, then such will prepare a good place for themselves.) (45. That He may reward those who believe and do righteous good deeds, out of His bounty. Verily, He likes not the disbelievers.)

16. The Command to follow the Straight Path before the Day of Resurrection

Here Allah commands His servants to hasten to obedience to Him and to hasten to do good deeds.

[فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينَ الْقِيِّمِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِىَ يَوْمٌ لاَّ مَرَدَّ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ]

(So, set you your face to the straight and right religion, before there comes from Allah a Day which none can avert.) The Day of Resurrection, for when Allah wants it to happen, no one will be able to avert it.

[يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصَّدَّعُونَ]

(On that Day men shall be divided.) means, they will be separated, with one group in Paradise and another in Hell. Allah says:

[مَن كَفَرَ فَعَلَيْهِ كُفْرُهُ وَمَنْ عَمِلَ صَـلِحاً فَلاًّنفُسِهِمْ يَمْهَدُونَ لِيَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ مِن فَضْلِهِ]

(Whosoever disbelieves will suffer from his disbelief, and whosoever does righteous good deeds, then such will prepare a good place for themselves. That He may reward those who believe. and do righteous good deeds, out of His bounty.) meaning that He may reward them from His bounty, in return for one good deed, he will get the reward for ten, up to seven hundred like it, as much as Allah wills.

[إِنَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْكَـفِرِينَ]

(Verily, He likes not the disbelievers.) yet He is still just with them and does not oppress them.

[وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ أَن يُرْسِلَ الرِّيَـحَ مُبَشِّرَتٍ وَلِيُذِيقَكُمْ مِّن رَّحْمَتِهِ وَلِتَجْرِىَ الْفُلْكُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ - وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ رُسُلاً إِلَى قَوْمِهِمْ فَجَآءُوهُم بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَانتَقَمْنَا مِنَ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُواْ وَكَانَ حَقّاً عَلَيْنَا نَصْرُ الْمُؤْمِنينَ ]

(46. And among His signs is this that He sends the winds as glad tidings, giving you a taste of His mercy, and that the ships may sail at His command, and that you may seek of His bounty, in order that you may be thankful.) (47. And indeed We did send Messengers before you to their own peoples. They came to them with clear proofs, then, We took vengeance on those who committed crimes; and it was incumbent upon Us to help the believers.)

17. Among the Signs of Allah are the Winds

Here Allah mentions the favor He does for His creatures by sending winds to them, as harbingers of His mercy, meaning that they will be followed by rain. Allah says:

[وَلِيُذِيقَكُمْ مِّن رَّحْمَتِهِ]

(giving you a taste of His mercy,) that is, the rain which will come down and revive people and the land.

[وَلِتَجْرِىَ الْفُلْكُ بِأَمْرِهِ]

(and that the ships may sail at His command,) means, on the sea, for they are driven by the wind.

[وَلِتَبْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِهِ]

(and that you may seek of His bounty,) means, by trading, earning a living and traveling from one country to another, one region to another.

[وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ]

(in order that you may be thankful.) means, that you may give thanks to Allah for the innumerable favors He has done for you, both visible and hidden. Then Allah says:

[وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ رُسُلاً إِلَى قَوْمِهِمْ فَجَآءُوهُم بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَانتَقَمْنَا مِنَ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُواْ]

(And indeed We did send Messengers before you to their own peoples. They came to them with clear proofs, then, We took vengeance on those who committed crimes;) These are words of consolation from Allah to His servant and Messenger Muhammad . They tell him that if many of his people and of mankind disbelieve in him, the previous Messengers were also rejected, despite the clear signs that they brought, but Allah punished those who rejected and opposed them, and saved those who believed in them.

[وَكَانَ حَقّاً عَلَيْنَا نَصْرُ الْمُؤْمِنينَ]

(and it was incumbent upon Us to help the believers.) This is a duty which Allah took upon Himself as a blessing and a favor to them. This is like the Ayah,

[كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ]

(your Lord has prescribed mercy for Himself) (6:54). Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Ad-Darda', may Allah be pleased with him, said: "I heard Allah's Messenger saying:

مَا مِنِ امْرِىءٍ مُسْلِمٍ يَرُدُّ عَنْ عِرْضِ أَخِيهِ إِلَّا كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَى اللهِ أَنْ يَرُدَّ عَنْهُ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة

(No Muslim man defends the honor of his brother except that there would be a right upon Allah to defend him from the fire of Hell on the Day of Resurrection.) Then he recited this Ayah:

[وَكَانَ حَقّاً عَلَيْنَا نَصْرُ الْمُؤْمِنينَ]

(and it was incumbent upon Us to help the believers.)''

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَـحَ فَتُثِيرُ سَحَاباً فَيَبْسُطُهُ فِى السَّمَآءِ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ وَيَجْعَلُهُ كِسَفاً فَتَرَى الْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلاَلِهِ فَإِذَآ أَصَابَ بِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ - وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَمُبْلِسِينَ - فَانظُرْ إِلَى ءَاثَـرِ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ كَيْفَ يُحْىِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَآ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَمُحْىِ الْمَوْتَى وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ - وَلَئِنْ أَرْسَلْنَا رِيحًا فَرَأَوْهُ مُصْفَرّاً لَّظَلُّواْ مِن بَعْدِهِ يَكْفُرُونَ ]

(48. Allah is He Who sends the winds, so that they raise clouds and spread them along the sky as He wills, and then break them into fragments until you see rain drops come forth from their midst! Then when He has made them fall on whom of His servants as He wills, lo, they rejoice!) (49. And verily, before that -- just before it was sent down upon them -- they were in despair!) (50. Look then at the effects of Allah's mercy, how He revives the earth after its death. Verily, that shall indeed raise the dead, and He is able to do all things.) (51. And if We send a wind, and they see it turn yellow -- behold, they then would become unthankful (disbelievers).)

18. The Revival of the Earth is a Sign of the Resurrection

Here Allah explains how He creates the clouds that rain the water.

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَـحَ فَتُثِيرُ سَحَاباً]

(Allah is He Who sends the winds, so that they raise clouds) either from the sea, as was mentioned by more than one (of the scholars), or from whatever Allah wills.

[فَيَبْسُطُهُ فِى السَّمَآءِ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ]

(and spread them along the sky as He wills,) means, He spreads them and causes them to increase and grow. From a little He makes a lot, and creates the clouds that look like shields. Then He spreads them out until they fill the horizon. Sometimes the clouds come from the sea, heavy and full, as Allah says:

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرىً بَيْنَ يَدَىْ رَحْمَتِهِ حَتَّى إِذَآ أَقَلَّتْ سَحَابًا ثِقَالاً سُقْنَـهُ لِبَلَدٍ مَّيِّتٍ]

(And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy. Till when they have carried a heavy-laden cloud, We drive it to a land that is dead) until:

[كَذَلِكَ نُخْرِجُ الْموْتَى لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ]

(Similarly, We shall raise up the dead, so that you may remember or take heed.) (7:57) Allah says here:

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَـحَ فَتُثِيرُ سَحَاباً فَيَبْسُطُهُ فِى السَّمَآءِ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ وَيَجْعَلُهُ كِسَفاً]

(Allah is He Who sends the winds, so that they raise clouds and spread them along the sky as He wills, and then break them into fragments) Mujahid, Abu `Amr bin Al-`Ala', Matar Al-Warraq and Qatadah said, "This means pieces.'' Others said that it means `piled up,' as Ad-Dahhak said. Others said that it means black, because they contained so much water, and sometimes they are heavy and close to the earth. His saying:

[فَتَرَى الْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلاَلِهِ]

(until you see rain drops come forth from their midst!) means, `so you see the drops, i.e., the rain, which come from the midst of those clouds.'

[فَإِذَآ أَصَابَ بِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ]

(Then when He has made them fall on whom of His servants as He wills, lo, they rejoice!) They rejoice at the rain when it comes to them because of their need for it.

[وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَمُبْلِسِينَ ]

(And verily, before that -- just before it was sent down upon them -- they were in despair!) The people to whom this rain came were in despair, thinking that it rain would never fall, just before it came to them. When it came to them, it came at the time of greatest need, so it was a tremendous event for them What this means is that they were in need of it before it fell, and there had been no rainfall for a long time, so they were waiting for it at the time when it was due, but it did not come to them at that time. The rain was late, and a long time passed. Then the rain came to them suddenly, after they began to despair, and after their land became dry and barren, it was stirred to life, and it swelled and produced every lovely kind of growth. Allah says:

[فَانظُرْ إِلَى ءَاثَـرِ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ]

(Look then at the effects of Allah's mercy,) meaning, the rain.

[كَيْفَ يُحْىِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَآ]

(how He revives the earth after its death.) Thus Allah draws attention to the revival of people's bodies after they have died and disintegrated into nothing.

[إِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَمُحْىِ الْمَوْتَى]

(Verily, that (Allah) shall indeed raise the dead.) means, the One Who does that is able to raise the dead.

[إِنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ]

(and He is able to do all things.)

[وَلَئِنْ أَرْسَلْنَا رِيحًا فَرَأَوْهُ مُصْفَرّاً لَّظَلُّواْ مِن بَعْدِهِ يَكْفُرُونَ ]

(And if We send a wind, and they see it turn yellow -- behold, they then would become unthankful (disbelievers).)

[وَلَئِنْ أَرْسَلْنَا رِيحًا]

(And if We send a wind,) means, a wind which dries up the crops which they have tended and cultivated and which have matured, and they see them turn yellow, and start to rot, if this were to happen, they would become ungrateful, i.e., they would deny the previous blessings that they were given. This is like the Ayah,

[أَفَرَءَيْتُم مَّا تَحْرُثُونَ ]

(Then tell Me about the seed that you sow in the ground.) until:

[بَلْ نَحْنُ مَحْرُومُونَ ]

(Nay, but we are deprived!) (56:63-67)

[فَإِنَّكَ لاَ تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتَى وَلاَ تُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ الدُّعَآءَ إِذَا وَلَّوْاْ مُدْبِرِينَ - وَمَآ أَنتَ بِهَادِ الْعُمْىِ عَن ضَلَـلَتِهِمْ إِن تُسْمِعُ إِلاَّ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِـَايَـتِنَا فَهُمْ مُّسْلِمُونَ ]

(52. So verily, you cannot make the dead to hear, nor can you make the deaf to hear the call, when they show their backs and turn away.) (53. And you cannot guide the blind from their straying; you can make to hear only those who believe in Our Ayat, and have submitted (to Allah in Islam).)

19. The Disbelievers are like the Dead, Deaf and Blind

Allah says, `just as you are not able to make the dead hear in their graves, or to make your words reach the deaf who cannot hear and who still turn away from you, so too you cannot guide the blind to the truth and bring them back from their misguidance.' That is a matter which rests with Allah, for by His power He can make the dead hear the voices of the living if He wills. He guides whom He wills and sends astray whom He wills, and no one but He has the power to do this. Allah says:

[إِن تُسْمِعُ إِلاَّ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِـَايَـتِنَا فَهُم مُّسْلِمُونَ]

(you can make to hear only those who believe in Our Ayat, and have submitted (to Allah in Islam).) means, those who are humble and who respond and obey. These are the ones who will listen to the truth and follow it; this is the state of the believers; the former (being deaf and blind) is the state of the disbelievers, as Allah says:

[إِنَّمَا يَسْتَجِيبُ الَّذِينَ يَسْمَعُونَ وَالْمَوْتَى يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ ]

(It is only those who listen will respond, but as for the dead, Allah will raise them up, then to Him they will be returned.) (6:36) `A'ishah, the Mother of the faithful, may Allah be pleased with her, used this Ayah --

[إِنَّكَ لاَ تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتَى]

(So verily, you cannot make the dead to hear) as evidence against `Abdullah bin `Umar when he reported that the Prophet had addressed the slain disbelievers who had been thrown into a dry well three days after the battle of Badr, rebuking and reprimanding them, until `Umar said, "O Messenger of Allah, are you addressing people who are dead bodies'' He said:

وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ مَا أَنْتُمْ بِأَسْمَعَ لِمَا أَقُولُ مِنْهُمْ، وَلَكِنْ لَا يُجِيبُون

(By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, you do not hear what I say any better than they do, but they cannot respond.) s`A'ishah interpreted this event to mean that the Prophet was making the point that now they would know that what he had been telling them was true. Qatadah said: "Allah brought them back to life for him so that they could hear what he said by way of rebuke and vengeance.''

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ مِّن ضَعْفٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِن بَعْدِ ضَعْفٍ قُوَّةٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِن بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ ضَعْفاً وَشَيْبَةً يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَآءُ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيمُ الْقَدِيرُ ]

(54. Allah is He Who created you in weakness, then gave you strength after weakness, then after strength gave (you) weakness and grey hair. He creates what He wills. And He is the All-Knowing, the All-Powerful.)

20. The Different Stages of Man

Here Allah points out how man passes through different stages of creation, one phase after another. He is originally created from dust, then from a Nutfah, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh. Then he becomes bones, then the bones are clothed with flesh, then the soul is breathed into him. Then he emerges from his mother's womb, weak and thin and powerless. Then he grows up little by little, until he becomes a child, then he reaches the stage of puberty, then he becomes a young man, which is strength after weakness. Then he starts to get older, reaching middle age, then old age and senility, weakness after strength, so he loses his resolve, power of movement and ability to fight, his hair turns grey and his characteristics, both inward and outward, begin to change. Allah says:

[ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِن بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ ضَعْفاً وَشَيْبَةً يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَآءُ]

(then after strength gave (you) weakness and grey hair. He creates what He wills.) He does whatsoever He wills and controls His servants in whatever way He wants.

[وَهُوَ الْعَلِيمُ الْقَدِيرُ]

(And He is the All-Knowing, the All-Powerful.)

[وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يُقْسِمُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ مَا لَبِثُواْ غَيْرَ سَاعَةٍ كَذَلِكَ كَانُواْ يُؤْفَكُونَ - وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ وَالإِيمَـنَ لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِى كِتَـبِ اللَّهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ فَهَـذَا يَوْمُ الْبَعْثِ وَلَـكِنَّكُمْ كُنتمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ - فَيَوْمَئِذٍ لاَّ ينفَعُ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يُسْتَعْتَبُونَ ]

(55. And on the Day that the Hour will be established, the criminals will swear that they stayed not but an hour -- thus were they ever deluded.) (56. And those who have been bestowed with knowledge and Faith will say: "Indeed you have stayed according to the decree of Allah, until the Day of Resurrection; so this is the Day of Resurrection, but you knew not.'') (57. So, on that Day no excuse of theirs will avail those who did wrong, nor will they be allowed to return to seek (Allah's) pleasure.)

21. The Ignorance of the Disbelievers in this World and in the Hereafter

Here Allah tells us of the ignorance of the disbelievers in this world and in the Hereafter. In this world they worship idols, and in the Hereafter they will also display great ignorance. They will swear by Allah that they did not even stay for one hour in this world. They will mean that there was not enough time given to establish proof against them which would leave them with no excuse. Allah says:

[كَذَلِكَ كَانُواْ يُؤْفَكُونَوَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ وَالإِيمَـنَ لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِى كِتَـبِ اللَّهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ]

(thus were they ever deluded. And those who have been bestowed with knowledge and Faith will say: "Indeed you have stayed according to the decree of Allah, until the Day of Resurrection...'') The believers who have knowledge of the Hereafter will respond to them, just as they established the proof of Allah against them in this world. When they swear that they did not stay even one hour in this world, they will say to them:

[لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِى كِتَـبِ اللَّهِ]

(Indeed you have stayed according to the decree of Allah,) meaning, the Book of deeds,

[إِلَى يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ]

(until the Day of Resurrection;) means, `from the day when you were created until the day you were resurrected. '

[وَلَـكِنَّكُمْ كُنتمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ]

(but you knew not.) Allah says:

[فَيَوْمَئِذٍ]

(So, on that Day) meaning, the Day of Resurrection,

[لاَّ ينفَعُ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ]

(no excuse of theirs will avail those who did wrong,) means, their excuses for what they did.

[وَلاَ هُمْ يُسْتَعْتَبُونَ]

(nor will they be allowed (then) to return to seek (Allah's) pleasure.) means, they will not be allowed to return to this world. This is like the Ayah,

[وَإِن يَسْتَعْتِبُواْ فَمَا هُم مِّنَ الْمُعْتَبِينَ]

(and if they seek to please (Allah), yet they are not of those who will ever be allowed to please (Allah)) (41:24).

[وَلَقَدْ ضَرَبْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِى هَـذَا الْقُرْءَانِ مِن كُلِّ مَثَلٍ وَلَئِن جِئْتَهُمْ بِـَايَةٍ لَّيَقُولَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلاَّ مُبْطِلُونَ - كَذَلِكَ يَطْبَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ - فَاصْبِرْ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَلاَ يَسْتَخِفَّنَّكَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُوقِنُونَ ]

(58. And indeed We have set forth for mankind, in this Qur'an every kind of parable. But if you bring to them any sign or proof, the disbelievers are sure to say (to the believers): "You follow nothing but falsehood and magic.'') (59. Thus does Allah seal up the hearts of those who know not.) (60. So be patient. Verily, the promise of Allah is true; and let not those who have no certainty of faith discourage you (from conveying Allah's Message).)

22. Parables in the Qur'an and how the Disbelievers do not learn from them

[وَلَقَدْ ضَرَبْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِى هَـذَا الْقُرْءَانِ مِن كُلِّ مَثَلٍ]

(And indeed We have set forth for mankind, in this Qur'an every kind of parable.) means, `We have explained the truth to them and have made it clear to them, and have set forth for them parables so that they may understand the truth and follow it.'

[وَلَئِن جِئْتَهُمْ بِـَايَةٍ لَّيَقُولَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلاَّ مُبْطِلُونَ]

(But if you bring to them any sign or proof, the disbelievers are sure to say (to the believers): "You follow nothing but falsehood and magic.'') If they were to see any kind of sign, whether it was at their own direction or otherwise, they would not believe in it and they would think that it was magic and falsehood, as they said when the moon was cleft asunder, etc., as Allah says:

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ - وَلَوْ جَآءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ ءايَةٍ حَتَّى يَرَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ ]

(Truly, those, against whom the Word of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them, until they see the painful torment.) (10:96-97). Allah says here:

[كَذَلِكَ يَطْبَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ فَاصْبِرْ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ]

(Thus does Allah seal up the hearts of those who know not. So be patient. Verily, the promise of Allah is true;) meaning, `bear their stubborn opposition with patience, for Allah will fulfill His promise to grant you victory over them and cause you and those who follow you to prevail in this world and in the Hereafter.'

[وَلاَ يَسْتَخِفَّنَّكَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُوقِنُونَ]

(and let not those who have no certainty of faith discourage you (from conveying Allah's Message).) `Remain steadfast in the mission with which Allah has sent you, for it is truth in which there is no doubt. Do not turn away from it, for nowhere else is there truth which is to be followed; the truth rests exclusively in the Message with which you have been sent.'

23. Reports concerning the Virtues of this Surah and that it is recommended to recite it during Fajr

Imam Ahmad recorded from a man among the Companions of the Prophet that the Messenger of Allah led them in Fajr prayer and recited Ar-Rum in the prayer, but he became confused in his recitation. He said:

إِنَّهُ يَلْبِسُ عَلَيْنَا الْقُرْآنَ، فَإِنَّ أَقْوَامًا مِنْكُمْ يُصَلُّونَ مَعَنَا لَا يُحْسِنُونَ الْوُضُوءَ، فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الصَّلَاةَ مَعَنَا فَلْيُحْسِنِ الْوُضُوء

(We have become confused in our recitation of Qur'an, because some people among you are praying with us but they have not performed Wudu' properly. Whoever attends the prayer with us, let him perform Wudu' properly.) This has a Hasan chain of narration, the text itself is Hasan. It contains amazing information, that the Prophet was affected by the faulty Wudu' of some of those whom he was leading in prayer. This indicates that the prayer of the person who is praying in the congregation is connected to the prayer of the Imam. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Ar-Rum. Allah's is the praise and thanks.


The Tafsir of Surah Luqman (Chapter 31)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Makkah

1. Which was revealed in Makkah
2. The Doomed are preoccupied with Idle Talk and They turn away from the Ayat of Allah
3. The Good Destiny of the Believers
4. Proofs of Tawhid
5. Luqman
6. Luqman's Advice to His Son
7. This is useful advice which Allah tells us Luqman gave, so that people may follow it and take it as a good example
8. The Command to be Moderate in Walking
9. The Advice of Luqman
10. Reminder of Blessings Here
11. The Idolators admitted that Allah is the Creator
12. The Words of Allah cannot be counted or exhausted
13. The Might and Power of Allah Allah tells us that He
14. Allah tells us that He is the One Who has subjugated the sea so that ships may sail on it by His command, i.e., by His grace and power
15. The Command to fear Allah and remember the Day of Resurrection
16. The Hadith of Ibn `Umar
17. The Hadith of Abu Hurayrah


1. Which was revealed in Makkah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ - الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلوةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَوةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوةَ وَهُم بِالاٌّخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ أُوْلَـئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ]

(1. Alif Lam Mim.) (2. These are Ayat of the Wise Book.) (3. A guide and a mercy for the Muhsinin.) (4. Those who perform the Salah and give Zakah and they have faith in the Hereafter with certainty.) (5. Such are on guidance from their Lord, and such are the successful.) At the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah we discussed the letters such as those that appear at the beginning of this Surah. Allah has made the Qur'an a guidance and healing and a mercy for the Muhsinin, who are those who do good deeds in accordance with the Shari`ah. They establish the obligatory prayers in the proper manner and at the correct times, and follow that with regular, optional and supererogatory prayers; they pay the Zakah to those who deserve it; they uphold the ties of kinship with their relatives; they have certain faith that there will be rewards and punishments in the Hereafter, and they seek the reward with Allah; they do not show off or seek a reward or thanks from other people. Whoever does this is one of those of whom Allah says:

[أُوْلَـئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ]

(Such are on guidance from their Lord,) meaning, they follow His guidance with clear understanding.

[وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ]

(and such are the successful.) in this world and in the Hereafter.

[وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْتَرِى لَهْوَ الْحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّخِذَهَا هُزُواً أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ - وَإِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِ ءَايَـتُنَا وَلَّى مُسْتَكْبِراً كَأَن لَّمْ يَسْمَعْهَا كَأَنَّ فِى أُذُنَيْهِ وَقْراً فَبَشِّرْهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ ]

(6. And of mankind is he who purchases idle talk (Lahw Al-Hadith) to mislead from the path of Allah without knowledge, and takes it by way of mockery. For such there will be a humiliating torment.) (7. And when Our Ayat are recited to such a one, he turns away in pride, as if he heard them not -- as if there were deafness in his ear. So announce to him a painful torment.)

2. The Doomed are preoccupied with Idle Talk and They turn away from the Ayat of Allah

When Allah mentions the blessed -- who are those who are guided by the Book of Allah and benefit from hearing it, as He says:

[اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَـباً مُّتَشَـبِهاً مَّثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ]

(Allah has sent down the Best Statement, a Book, its parts resembling each other (and) oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it. Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah) (39:23). He connect that with mention of the doomed, those who turn away from the Qur'an and do not benefit from hearing the Words of Allah. Instead, they turn to listening to flutes and singing accompanied by musical instruments. As Ibn Mas`ud commented about the Ayah:

[وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْتَرِى لَهْوَ الْحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ]

(And of mankind is he who purchases Lahu Al-Hadith to mislead (men) from the path of Allah), he said, "This -- by Allah -- refers to singing.''

[وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْتَرِى لَهْوَ الْحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ]

(And of mankind is he who purchases Lahw Al-Hadith to mislead (men) from the path of Allah without knowledge, ) Qatadah said: "By Allah, he may not spend money on it, but his purchasing it means he likes it, and the more misguided he is, the more he likes it and the more he prefers falsehood to the truth and harmful things over beneficial things.'' It was said that what is meant by the words

[يَشْتَرِى لَهْوَ الْحَدِيثِ]

(purchases idle talks) is buying singing servant girls. Ibn Jarir said that it means all speech that hinders people from seeing the signs of Allah and following His path. His saying:

[لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ]

(to mislead (men) from the path of Allah) means, he does this to oppose Islam and its followers.

[وَيَتَّخِذَهَا هُزُواً]

(and takes it by way of mockery.) Mujahid said, "This means mocking the path of Allah and making fun of it.''

[أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ]

(For such there will be a humiliating torment.) Just as they showed no respect to the signs and path of Allah, so they will be shown no respect on the Day of Resurrection, and they will be subjected to a painful, ongoing torment. Then Allah says:

[وَإِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِ ءَايَـتُنَا وَلَّى مُسْتَكْبِراً كَأَن لَّمْ يَسْمَعْهَا كَأَنَّ فِى أُذُنَيْهِ وَقْراً]

(And when Our Ayat are recited to such a one, he turns away in pride, as if he heard them not -- as if there were deafness in his ear.) means, when these Qur'anic verses are recited to one who is fond of idleness and play, he turns away from them and does not want to hear them. He turns a deaf ear to them as if he can hear nothing, because it annoys him to hear them since he gains no benefit from them and has no interest in them.

[فَبَشِّرْهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ]

(So announce to him a painful torment.) i.e., on the Day of Resurrection, which will hurt him just as much as listening to the Book of Allah and its verses hurt him.

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ لَهُمْ جَنَّـتُ النَّعِيمِ - خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقّاً وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ]

(8. Verily, those who believe and do righteous good deeds, for them are Gardens of Delight.) (9. To abide therein. It is a promise of Allah in truth. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.)

3. The Good Destiny of the Believers

Here Allah mentions the destiny of the righteous in the Hereafter, those who believe in Allah and His Messenger and do righteous deeds in accordance with the Laws of Allah.

[لَهُمْ جَنَّـتُ النَّعِيمِ]

(for them are Gardens of Delight.) means, there they will enjoy all kinds of delights and pleasures, food, drink, clothing, dwelling-places, means of transportation, women, a light of beauty and delightful sounds, which have never crossed the mind of any human being. They will stay there forever, never leaving and never desiring change.

[وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا]

(It is a promise of Allah in truth.) meaning, this will undoubtedly come to pass, for it is a promise from Allah, and Allah never breaks His promise, because He is the Most Generous Bestower Who does what He wills and is able to do all things.

[وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ]

(And He is the All-Mighty,) Who has subjugated all things and to Whom all things submit,

[الْحَكِيمُ]

(the All-Wise.) in what He says and what He does, Who has made this Qur'an a guidance to the believers.

[قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ هُدًى وَشِفَآءٌ وَالَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ فِى ءَاذَانِهِمْ وَقْرٌ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَمًى]

(Say: "It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness (deafness) in their ears, and it is blindness for them) (41:44).

[وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْءَانِ مَا هُوَ شِفَآءٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلاَ يَزِيدُ الظَّـلِمِينَ إَلاَّ خَسَارًا ]

(And We send down of the Qur'an that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe, and it increases the wrongdoers nothing but loss.) (17:82)

[خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا وَأَلْقَى فِى الاٌّرْضِ رَوَاسِىَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَنْبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ كَرِيمٍ - هَـذَا خَلْقُ اللَّهِ فَأَرُونِى مَاذَا خَلَقَ الَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِ بَلِ الظَّـلِمُونَ فِى ضَلَـلٍ مُّبِينٍ ]

(10. He has created the heavens without any pillars that you see, and has set on the earth firm mountains lest it should shake with you. And He has scattered therein moving creatures of all kinds. And We send down water from the sky, and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein in pairs,) (11. This is the creation of Allah. So, show Me that which those besides Him have created. Nay, the wrongdoers are in plain error.)

4. Proofs of Tawhid

Thus Allah explains His mighty power in creating the heavens and the earth, and everything that is within them and between them. He says:

[خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ]

(He has created the heavens without any pillars) Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, "It does not have any pillars, visible or invisible.''

[وَأَلْقَى فِى الاٌّرْضِ رَوَاسِىَ]

(and has set on the earth firm mountains) means, the mountains which stabilize and lend weight to the earth, lest it should shake with its water. Allah says:

[أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ]

(lest it should shake with you.)

[وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ]

(And He has scattered therein moving creatures of all kinds) means, He has placed throughout it all kinds of animals, the total number of whose kinds and colors is known to no one except the One Who created them. When Allah tells us that He is the Creator, He also reminds us that He is the Provider, as He says:

[وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَنْبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ كَرِيمٍ]

(And We send down water from the sky, and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein in pairs,) meaning, every kind of good produce in pairs, i.e., they are beautiful to look at. Ash-Sha`bi said: "People are also produce of the earth, so whoever enters Paradise is goodly and whoever enters Hell is vile.''

[هَـذَا خَلْقُ اللَّهِ]

(This is the creation of Allah.) means, all that Allah has mentioned here of the creation of the heavens and earth and everything in between stems from His power of creation and control alone, and He has no partner or associate in that, Allah says:

[فَأَرُونِى مَاذَا خَلَقَ الَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِ]

(So, show Me that which those besides Him have created.) those idols and rivals whom you worship and call upon.

[بَلِ الظَّـلِمُونَ]

(Nay, the wrongdoers) means the idolators who associate others in worship with Allah

[فِى ضَلَـلٍ]

(in error) means, they are ignorant and blind.

[مُّبِينٌ]

(plain) means, it is clear and obvious, and not at all hidden.

[وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا لُقْمَانَ الْحِكْمَةَ أَنِ اشْكُرْ للَّهِ وَمَن يَشْكُرْ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِىٌّ حَمِيدٌ ]

(12. And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman Al-Hikmah saying: "Give thanks to Allah.'' And whoever gives thanks, he gives thanks for (the good of) himself. And whoever is unthankful, then verily, Allah is All-Rich, Worthy of all praise.)

5. Luqman

The Salaf differed over the identity of Luqman; there are two opinions: was he a Prophet or just a righteous servant of Allah without the prophethood The majority favored the latter view, that he was a righteous servant of Allah without being a Prophet. Sufyan Ath-Thawri said, narrating from Al-Ash`ath, from `Ikrimah, from Ibn `Abbas, "Luqman was an Ethiopian slave who was a carpenter. `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said, "I said to Jabir bin `Abdullah: `What did you hear about Luqman' He said: `He was short with a flat nose, and came from Nubia.''' Yahya bin Sa`id Al-Ansari narrated from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib that "Luqman was from the black peoples of (southern) Egypt, and had thick lips. Allah gave him wisdom but withheld prophethood from him.'' Al-`Awza`i said, "`Abdur-Rahman bin Harmalah told me; `A black man came to Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib to ask him a question, and Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said to him: "Do not be upset because you are black, for among the best of people were three who were black: Bilal, Mahja` the freed slave of `Umar bin Al-Khattab, and Luqman the Wise, who was a black Nubian with thick lips.'' Ibn Jarir recorded that Khalid Ar-Raba`i said: "Luqman was an Ethiopian slave who was a carpenter. His master said to him, `Slaughter this sheep for us,' so he slaughtered it. [His master] said: `Bring the best two pieces from it,' so he brought out the tongue and the heart. Then time passed, as much as Allah willed, and [his master] said: `Slaughter this sheep for us,' so he slaughtered it. [His master] said, `Bring the worst two morsels from it,' so he brought out the tongue and the heart. His master said to him, `I told you to bring out the best two pieces, and you brought these, then I told you to bring out the worst two pieces, and you brought these!' Luqman said, `There is nothing better than these if they are good, and there is nothing worse than these if they are bad.''' Shu`bah narrated from Al-Hakam, from Mujahid, "Luqman was a righteous servant, but he was not a Prophet.'' Allah's saying:

[وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا لُقْمَانَ الْحِكْمَةَ]

(And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman Al-Hikmah) means, understanding, knowledge and eloquence.

[أَنِ اشْكُرْ للَّهِ]

(saying: "Give thanks to Allah.'') means, `We commanded him to give thanks to Allah for the blessings and favors that Allah had given to him alone among his people and contemporaries.' Then Allah says:

[وَمَن يَشْكُرْ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ]

(And whoever gives thanks, he gives thanks for (the good of) himself.) meaning, the benefit of that will come back to him, and Allah's reward is for those who give thanks, as He says:

[وَمَنْ عَمِلَ صَـلِحاً فَلاًّنفُسِهِمْ يَمْهَدُونَ]

(and whosoever does righteous good deeds, then such will prepare a good place for themselves. ) (30:44)

[وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِىٌّ حَمِيدٌ]

(And whoever is unthankful, then verily, Allah is Rich, Worthy of all praise.) He has no need of His servants and He will not be harmed by that, even if all the people of the earth were to disbelieve, for He has no need of anything or anyone besides Himself. There is no God but He, and we worship none but Him.

[وَإِذْ قَالَ لُقْمَانُ لابْنِهِ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُ يَبُنَىَّ لاَ تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ - وَوَصَّيْنَا الإِنْسَـنَ بِوَلِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْناً عَلَى وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِى عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَيْكَ إِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ - وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ عَلَى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَا وَصَـحِبْهُمَا فِى الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفاً وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَىَّ ثُمَّ إِلَىَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ]

(13. And when Luqman said to his son when he was advising him: "O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed.'') (14. And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good) to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon weakness and hardship, and his weaning is in two years -- give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.) (15. But if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not; but behave with them in the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do.)

6. Luqman's Advice to His Son

Allah tells us how Luqman advised his son. His full name was Luqman bin `Anqa' bin Sadun, and his son's name was Tharan, according to a saying quoted by As-Suhayli. Allah describes him in the best terms, and states that he granted him wisdom. Luqman advised his son, the closest and most beloved of all people to him, who deserved to be given the best of his knowledge. So, Luqman started by advising him to worship Allah Alone, and not to associate anything with Him. Then he warned him:

[إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ]

(Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed.) meaning, it is the greatest wrong. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah said: "When the Ayah

[الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُواْ إِيمَـنَهُمْ بِظُلْمٍ]

(It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with Zulm)(6:82) was revealed, the Companions of the Messenger of Allah were distressed by this, and said, `Who among us does not confuse his belief with Zulm' The Messenger of Allah said:

إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِذَاكَ، أَلَا تَسْمَعُ إِلَى قَوْلِ لُقْمَانَ:

[يَبُنَىَّ لاَ تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ]

(That is not what it means. Have you not heard what Luqman said: (O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed))'' It was recorded by Muslim. When Luqman advised his son to worship Allah Alone, he also told him to honor his parents. This is like the Ayah,

[وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّـهُ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـناً]

(And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents) (17:23). These two things are often mentioned together in the Qur'an. Allah says here:

[وَوَصَّيْنَا الإِنْسَـنَ بِوَلِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْناً عَلَى وَهْنٍ]

(And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good) to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon weakness and hardship,) Mujahid said: "The hardship of bearing the child.'' Qatadah said: "Exhaustion upon exhaustion.'' `Ata' Al-Khurasani said: "Weakness upon weakness.''

[وَفِصَالُهُ فِى عَامَيْنِ]

(and his weaning is in two years) means, after he is born, he is breastfed and weaned within two years. This is like the Ayah,

[وَالْوَلِدَتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَـدَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ]

(The mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years, for those who desire to complete the term of suckling)(2:233). On this basis, Ibn `Abbas and other Imams understood that the shortest possible period of pregnancy was six months, because Allah says elsewhere:

[وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَـلُهُ ثَلاَثُونَ شَهْراً]

(and the bearing of him, and the weaning of him is thirty months) (46:15). Allah mentions how the mother brings the child up, and how she gets tired and suffers stress from staying up with the child night and day, to remind the son of her previous kind treatment of him. This is like the Ayah,

[وَقُل رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِى صَغِيرًا]

(and say: "My Lord! Bestow on them Your mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.'') (17:24). Allah says here:

[أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَيْكَ إِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ]

(give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.) means, `I will reward you most generously for that.'

[وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ عَلَى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَا]

(But if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not;) means, if they try hard to make you follow them in their religion, then do not accept that from them, but do not let that stop you from behaving with them in the world kindly, i.e. treating them with respect.

[وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَىَّ]

(and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience.) means, the believers.

[ثُمَّ إِلَىَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ]

(Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do.) At-Tabarani recorded in Al-`Ishrah that Sa`d bin Malik said, "This Ayah,

[وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ عَلَى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَا]

(But if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not;) was revealed concerning me. I was a man who honored his mother, but when I became Muslim, she said: `O Sa`d! What is this new thing I see you doing Leave this religion of yours, or I will not eat or drink until I die, and people will say: Shame on you, for what you have done to me, and they will say that you have killed your mother.' I said, `Do not do that, O mother, for I will not give up this religion of mine for anything.' She stayed without eating for one day and one night, and she became exhausted; then she stayed for another day and night without eating, and she became utterly exhausted. When I saw that, I said: `O my mother, by Allah, even if you had one hundred souls and they were to depart one by one, I would not give up this religion of mine for anything, so if you want to, eat, and if you want to, do not eat.' So she ate.''

[يبُنَىَّ إِنَّهَآ إِن تَكُ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ فَتَكُنْ فِى صَخْرَةٍ أَوْ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ أَوْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ يَأْتِ بِهَا اللَّهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٌ - يبُنَىَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَوةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَآ أَصَابَكَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الاٍّمُورِ - وَلاَ تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلاَ تَمْشِ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَرَحاً إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ - وَاقْصِدْ فِى مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِن صَوْتِكَ إِنَّ أَنكَرَ الاٌّصْوَتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ ]

(16. "O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or on the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Subtle, Well-Aware.'') (17. "O my son! Perform the Salah, enjoin the good, and forbid the evil, and bear with patience whatever befalls you. Verily, these are some of the important commandments.'') (18. "And turn not your face away from men with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster.'') (19. "And be moderate in your walking, and lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is the braying of the asses.'')

7. This is useful advice which Allah tells us Luqman gave, so that people may follow it and take it as a good example.

He said:

[يبُنَىَّ إِنَّهَآ إِن تَكُ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ]

(O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, ) means, if a wrong action or a sin be equal to the size of a grain of mustard seed.

[يَأْتِ بِهَا اللَّهُ]

(Allah will bring it forth.) means, He will bring it forth on the Day of Resurrection, when it is placed in the Scales of justice and everyone is rewarded or punished for his actions -- if they are good, he will be rewarded and if they are bad he will be punished. This is like the Ayat:

[وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَزِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ فَلاَ تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئاً]

(And We shall set up Balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything) (21:47).

[فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْراً يَرَهُ - وَمَن يَعْـمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرّاً يَرَهُ ]

(So, whosoever does good equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it.) (99:7-8) Even if this tiny thing were to be hidden inside a solid rock or anywhere in the heavens and the earth, Allah will bring it forth, because nothing is hidden from Him, not even the weight of a speck of dust in the heavens or on the earth. Allah says:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٌ]

(Verily, Allah is Subtle, Well-Aware.) meaning, His knowledge is subtle, for nothing is hidden from Him, no matter how small, subtle and minute.

[خَبِيرٌ]

(Well-Aware.) even of the footsteps of an ant in the darkest night. Then he (Luqman) said:

[يبُنَىَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَوةَ]

(O my son! Perform the Salah,) meaning, offer the prayer properly at the appointed times.

[وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ]

(enjoin the good, and forbid the evil,) meaning, to the best of your ability and strength.

[وَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَآ أَصَابَكَ]

(and bear with patience whatever befalls you.) Luqman knew that whoever enjoins what is good and forbids what is evil, will inevitably encounter harm and annoyance from people, so he told him to be patient.

[إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الاٍّمُورِ]

(Verily, these are some of the important commandments.) means, being patient when people cause harm or annoyance is one of the most important commandments.

[وَلاَ تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ]

(And turn not your face away from men with pride) means, `do not turn your face away from people when you speak to them or they speak to you, looking down on them in an arrogant fashion. Rather be gentle towards them and greet them with a cheerful face,' as it says in the Hadith:

وَلَوْ أَنْ تَلْقَى أَخَاكَ وَوَجْهُكَ إِلَيْهِ مُنْبَسِطٌ، وَإِيَّاكَ وَإِسْبَالَ الْإِزَارِ فَإِنَّهَا مِنَ الْمَخِيلَةِ، وَالْمَخِيلَةُ لَا يُحِبُّهَا الله

(... even if it is only by greeting your brother with a cheerful countenance. And beware of letting your lower garment trail below your ankles, for this is a kind of boasting, and Allah does not like boasting.)

[وَلاَ تَمْشِ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَرَحًا]

(nor walk in insolence through the earth.) means, `do not be boastful, arrogant, proud and stubborn. Do not do that, for Allah will hate you.' So he said:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ]

(Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster.) meaning, one who shows off and admires himself, feeling that he is better than others. And Allah says:

[وَلاَ تَمْشِ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَرَحًا إِنَّكَ لَن تَخْرِقَ الاٌّرْضَ وَلَن تَبْلُغَ الْجِبَالَ طُولاً ]

(And walk not on the earth with conceit and arrogance. Verily, you can neither rend nor penetrate the earth nor can you attain a stature like the mountains in height.) (17:37). We have already discussed this is detail in the appropriate place.

8. This is useful advice which Allah tells us Luqman gave, so that people may follow it and take it as a good example.

He said:

[يبُنَىَّ إِنَّهَآ إِن تَكُ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ]

(O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, ) means, if a wrong action or a sin be equal to the size of a grain of mustard seed.

[يَأْتِ بِهَا اللَّهُ]

(Allah will bring it forth.) means, He will bring it forth on the Day of Resurrection, when it is placed in the Scales of justice and everyone is rewarded or punished for his actions -- if they are good, he will be rewarded and if they are bad he will be punished. This is like the Ayat:

[وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَزِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ فَلاَ تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئاً]

(And We shall set up Balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything) (21:47).

[فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْراً يَرَهُ - وَمَن يَعْـمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرّاً يَرَهُ ]

(So, whosoever does good equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it.) (99:7-8) Even if this tiny thing were to be hidden inside a solid rock or anywhere in the heavens and the earth, Allah will bring it forth, because nothing is hidden from Him, not even the weight of a speck of dust in the heavens or on the earth. Allah says:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٌ]

(Verily, Allah is Subtle, Well-Aware.) meaning, His knowledge is subtle, for nothing is hidden from Him, no matter how small, subtle and minute.

[خَبِيرٌ]

(Well-Aware.) even of the footsteps of an ant in the darkest night. Then he (Luqman) said:

[يبُنَىَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَوةَ]

(O my son! Perform the Salah,) meaning, offer the prayer properly at the appointed times.

[وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ]

(enjoin the good, and forbid the evil,) meaning, to the best of your ability and strength.

[وَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَآ أَصَابَكَ]

(and bear with patience whatever befalls you.) Luqman knew that whoever enjoins what is good and forbids what is evil, will inevitably encounter harm and annoyance from people, so he told him to be patient.

[إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الاٍّمُورِ]

(Verily, these are some of the important commandments.) means, being patient when people cause harm or annoyance is one of the most important commandments.

[وَلاَ تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ]

(And turn not your face away from men with pride) means, `do not turn your face away from people when you speak to them or they speak to you, looking down on them in an arrogant fashion. Rather be gentle towards them and greet them with a cheerful face,' as it says in the Hadith:

وَلَوْ أَنْ تَلْقَى أَخَاكَ وَوَجْهُكَ إِلَيْهِ مُنْبَسِطٌ، وَإِيَّاكَ وَإِسْبَالَ الْإِزَارِ فَإِنَّهَا مِنَ الْمَخِيلَةِ، وَالْمَخِيلَةُ لَا يُحِبُّهَا الله

(... even if it is only by greeting your brother with a cheerful countenance. And beware of letting your lower garment trail below your ankles, for this is a kind of boasting, and Allah does not like boasting.)

[وَلاَ تَمْشِ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَرَحًا]

(nor walk in insolence through the earth.) means, `do not be boastful, arrogant, proud and stubborn. Do not do that, for Allah will hate you.' So he said:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ]

(Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster.) meaning, one who shows off and admires himself, feeling that he is better than others. And Allah says:

[وَلاَ تَمْشِ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَرَحًا إِنَّكَ لَن تَخْرِقَ الاٌّرْضَ وَلَن تَبْلُغَ الْجِبَالَ طُولاً ]

(And walk not on the earth with conceit and arrogance. Verily, you can neither rend nor penetrate the earth nor can you attain a stature like the mountains in height.) (17:37). We have already discussed this is detail in the appropriate place.

9. The Advice of Luqman

This is very useful advice, which the Qur'an tells us about Luqman. Many other proverbs and words of advice were also narrated from him, some examples of which we will quote below, as basic principles: Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah said:

إِنَّ لُقْمَانَ الْحَكِيمَ كَانَ يَقُولُ: إِنَّ اللهَ إِذَا اسْتَوْدَعَ شَيْئًا حَفِظَه

(Luqman the Wise used to say: when something is entrusted to the care of Allah, He protects it.) It was narrated that As-Sari bin Yahya said: "Luqman said to his son: `Wisdom puts the poor in the company of kings.''' It was also narrated that `Awn bin `Abdullah said: "Luqman said to his son: `O my son! When you come to a gathering of people, greet them with Salam, then sit at the edge of the group, and do not speak until you see that they have finished speaking. Then if they remember Allah, join them, but if they speak of anything else, then leave them and go to another group'.''

[أَلَمْ تَرَوْاْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَخَّرَ لَكُمْ مَّا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَأَسْبَغَ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعَمَهُ ظَـهِرَةً وَبَاطِنَةً وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَـدِلُ فِى اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلاَ هُدًى وَلاَ كِتَـبٍ مُّنِيرٍ - وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُواْ مَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُواْ بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهِ ءَابَآءَنَا أَوَلَوْ كَانَ الشَّيْطَـنُ يَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى عَذَابِ السَّعِيرِ ]

(20. See you not that Allah has subjected for you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth, and has completed and perfected His graces upon you, apparent and hidden Yet of mankind is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge or guidance or a Book giving light!) (21. And when it is said to them: "Follow that which Allah has sent down,'' they say: "Nay, we shall follow that which we found our fathers (following).'' Even if Shaytan invites them to the torment of the Fire)

10. Reminder of Blessings Here

Allah reminds His creation of the blessings He bestows upon them in this world and the Hereafter. In the heavens He has subjugated for them the stars which give them light during the night and during the day, and He has created clouds, rain, snow and hail, and made the heavens a canopy which covers and protects them. On earth He has created for them stability and rivers, trees, crops and fruits; He has completed and perfected His graces upon them, apparent and hidden, by sending Messengers, revealing Books and removing doubts and excuses. Yet despite all this, not all the people believe, and indeed there are those who dispute concerning Allah, that is, His Tawhid, and His sending the Messengers. Their dispute is without knowledge and they have no sound evidence or valid inherited Book. Allah says:

[ومِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَـدِلُ فِى اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلاَ هُدًى وَلاَ كِتَـبٍ مُّنِيرٍ ]

(And among men is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge or guidance, or a Book giving light (from Allah).) (22:8) meaning clear and unambiguous.

[وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ]

(And when it is said to them) means, to these people who dispute about the Oneness of Allah.

[اتَّبِعُواْ مَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ]

("Follow that which Allah has sent down,'') means, the pure Divine Laws that He has sent down to His Messengers,

[قَالُواْ بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهِ ءَابَآءَنَا]

(they say: "Nay, we shall follow that which we found our fathers (following).'') means, they have no other proof except the fact that they are following their forefathers. Allah says:

[أَوَلَوْ كَانَ ءَابَاؤُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلاَ يَهْتَدُونَ]

(Even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided) (2:170) meaning, `what do you think, you who take the forefathers' deeds as proof, that they were misguided and you are following in their footsteps' Allah says:

[أَوَلَوْ كَانَ الشَّيْطَـنُ يَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى عَذَابِ السَّعِيرِ]

(Even if Shaytan invites them to the torment of the Fire)

[وَمَن يُسْلِمْ وَجْهَهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَى وَإِلَى اللَّهِ عَـقِبَةُ الاٌّمُورِ - وَمَن كَفَرَ فَلاَ يَحْزُنكَ كُفْرُهُ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ فَنُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُواْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ - نُمَتِّعُهُمْ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ نَضْطَرُّهُمْ إِلَى عَذَابٍ غَلِيظٍ ]

(22. And whosoever submits his face (himself) to Allah, while he is a Muhsin, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold. And to Allah return all matters for decision.) (23. And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you. To Us is their return, and We shall inform them what they have done. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of what is in the breasts.) (24. We let them enjoy for a little while, then in the end We shall oblige them to (enter) a great torment.) Allah tells us that whoever submits his face to Allah, i.e., does deeds sincerely for His sake, submits to His commandments and follows His Laws,

[وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ]

(while he is a Muhsin) i.e., doing what his Lord has commanded and abstaining from what He has forbidden,

[فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَى]

(then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold.) means, he has received a firm promise from Allah that He will not punish him.

[وَإِلَى اللَّهِ عَـقِبَةُ الاٌّمُورِوَمَن كَفَرَ فَلاَ يَحْزُنكَ كُفْرُهُ]

(And to Allah return all matters for decision. And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you.) means, `do not grieve over them, O Muhammad, because they disbelieve in Allah and in the Message you have brought, for their return will be to Allah and He will tell them what they used to do,' i.e., He will punish them for it.

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ]

(Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of what is in the breasts.) and nothing whatsoever is hidden from Him. Then Allah says:

[نُمَتِّعُهُمْ قَلِيلاً]

(We let them enjoy for a little while,) means, in this world,

[ثُمَّ نَضْطَرُّهُمْ]

(then in the end We shall oblige them) means, `We shall cause them,'

[إِلَى عَذَابٍ غَلِيظٍ]

(to (enter) a great torment.) means, a torment that is terrifying and difficult to bear. This is like the Ayah,

[قُلْ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ لاَ يُفْلِحُونَ - مَتَـعٌ فِى الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ ثُمَّ نُذِيقُهُمُ الْعَذَابَ الشَّدِيدَ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكْفُرُونَ ]

("Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah, will never be successful.'' Enjoyment in this world! and then unto Us will be their return, then We shall make them taste the severest torment because they used to disbelieve.) (10:69-70)

[وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ - لِلَّهِ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِىُّ الْحَمِيدُ ]

(25. And if you ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth,'' they will certainly say: "Allah.'' Say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah!'' But most of them know not.) (26. To Allah belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth. Verily, Allah, He is Al-Ghani, Worthy of all praise.)

11. The Idolators admitted that Allah is the Creator

Allah tells us that these idolators who associated others with Him admitted that Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, is the Creator of heaven and earth yet they still worshipped others besides Him who they recognized were created by Him and subjugated to Him. Allah says:

[وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ]

(And if you ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth,'' they will certainly say: "Allah.'' Say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah!'') By their admitting that, proof is established against them,

[بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ]

(But most of them know not.) Then Allah says:

[للَّهِ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]

(To Allah belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth.) meaning, He created it and has dominion over it.

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِىُّ الْحَمِيدُ]

(Verily, Allah, He is Al-Ghani, Worthy of all praise.) means, He has no need of anyone or anything besides Himself, and everything else is in need of Him. He is Worthy of praise for all that He has created, so praise be to Him in the heavens and on earth for all that He has created and decreed, and He is worthy of praise in all affairs.

[وَلَوْ أَنَّمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ مِن شَجَرَةٍ أَقْلاَمٌ وَالْبَحْرُ يَمُدُّهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ سَبْعَةُ أَبْحُرٍ مَّا نَفِدَتْ كَلِمَـتُ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ - مَّا خَلْقُكُمْ وَلاَ بَعْثُكُمْ إِلاَّ كَنَفْسٍ وَحِدَةٍ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ ]

(27. And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea, with seven seas behind it to add to it, yet the Words of Allah would not be exhausted. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.) (28. The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single person. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.)

12. The Words of Allah cannot be counted or exhausted

Allah tells us of His might, pride, majesty, beautiful Names and sublime attributes, and His perfect Words which no one can encompass. No human being knows their essence or nature, or how many they are. As the Leader of Mankind and Seal of the Messengers said:

لَا أُحْصِي ثَنَاءً عَلَيْكَ أَنْتَ كَمَا أَثْنَيْتَ عَلَى نَفْسِك

(I cannot praise You enough; You are as You have praised yourself.) Allah says:

[وَلَوْ أَنَّمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ مِن شَجَرَةٍ أَقْلاَمٌ وَالْبَحْرُ يَمُدُّهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ سَبْعَةُ أَبْحُرٍ مَّا نَفِدَتْ كَلِمَـتُ اللَّهِ]

(And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea, with seven seas behind it to add to its, yet the Words of Allah would not be exhausted.) meaning, even if all the trees on earth were made into pens and the sea was made into ink, and topped up with seven more like it, and they were used to write the Words of Allah showing His might, attributes and majesty, the pens would break and the ink would run dry, even if more were brought. The number seven is used to indicate a large amount, it is not to be taken literally or to be understood as referring to the seven oceans of the world, as was suggested by those who took this idea from Israelite stories, which we neither believe nor reject. As Allah says elsewhere:

[قُل لَّوْ كَانَ الْبَحْرُ مِدَاداً لِّكَلِمَـتِ رَبِّى لَنَفِدَ الْبَحْرُ قَبْلَ أَن تَنفَدَ كَلِمَـتُ رَبِّى وَلَوْ جِئْنَا بِمِثْلِهِ مَدَداً ]

(Say: "If the sea were ink for the Words of my Lord, surely, the sea would be exhausted before the Words of my Lord would be finished, even if We brought like it for its aid.'') (18:109). The words

[بِمِثْلِهِ]

(like it) do not mean merely another one, but another like it and another and another and another, etc., because there is no limit to the signs and Words of Allah.

[أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ]

(Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.) means, He is All-Mighty and has subjugated all things to His will, so nothing can prevent what He wills, and none can oppose or put back His decision. He is All-Wise in His creation, commands, Words, actions, Laws and all His affairs.

[مَّا خَلْقُكُمْ وَلاَ بَعْثُكُمْ إِلاَّ كَنَفْسٍ وَحِدَةٍ]

(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single person.) means, His creation and resurrection of all of mankind on the Day of Resurrection is, in relation to His power, like the creation and resurrection of a single soul; all of this is easy for Him.

[إِنَّمَآ أَمْرُهُ إِذَآ أَرَادَ شَيْئاً أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ ]

(Verily, His command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, "Be!'' -- and it is!) (36:82)

[وَمَآ أَمْرُنَآ إِلاَّ وَحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ ]

(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye. ) (54:50). This means He only has to command a thing once, and it will happen. There is no need for Him to repeat it or confirm it.

[فَإِنَّمَا هِىَ زَجْرَةٌ وَحِدَةٌ - فَإِذَا هُم بِالسَّاهِرَةِ ]

(But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they find themselves on the surface of the earth alive after their death.)(79:13)

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ]

(Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.) means, just as He hears all that they say, so He also sees all that they do, as if He is hearing and seeing a single soul. His power over all of them is like His power over a single soul, Allah says:

[مَّا خَلْقُكُمْ وَلاَ بَعْثُكُمْ إِلاَّ كَنَفْسٍ وَحِدَةٍ]

(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single person.)

[أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُولِجُ الَّيْلَ فِى النَّهَارِ وَيُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِى الَّيْلِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِى إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ - ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ الْبَـطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِىُّ الْكَبِيرُ ]

(29. See you not that Allah merges the night into the day, and merges the day into the night, and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running its course for a term appointed; and that Allah is All-Aware of what you do. ) (30. That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and that which they invoke besides Him is falsehood; and that Allah, He is the Most High, the Most Great.)

13. The Might and Power of Allah Allah tells us that He

[يُولِجُ الَّيْلَ فِى النَّهَارِ]

(merges the night into the day,) meaning, He takes from the night and adds to the day, so that the day becomes longer and the night shorter, which is what happens in summer when the days are longest; then the day starts to become shorter and the night longer, which is what happens in winter.

[وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِى إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى]

(and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running its course for a term appointed;) It was said that this means, each runs within its set limits, or it means until the Day of Resurrection; both meanings are correct. The first view is supported by the Hadith of Abu Dharr, may Allah be pleased with him, in the Two Sahihs, according to which the Messenger of Allah said:

يَا أَبَا ذَرَ أَتَدْرِي أَيْنَ تَذْهَبُ هَذِهِ الشَّمْسُ؟

(O Abu Dharr! Do you know where this sun goes) I (Abu Dharr) said: "Allah and His Messenger know best.'' He said:

فَإِنَّهَا تَذْهَبُ فَتَسْجُدُ تَحْتَ الْعَرْشِ، ثُمَّ تَسْتَأْذِنُ رَبَّهَا فَيُوشِكُ أَنْ يُقَالَ لَهَا: ارْجِعِي مِنْ حَيْثُ جِئْت

(It goes and prostrates beneath the Throne, then it seeks permission from its Lord, and soon it will be said: "Go back from whence you came.'') Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The sun is like flowing water, running in its course in the sky during the day. When it sets, it travels in its course beneath the earth until it rises in the east.'' He said, "The same is true in the case of the moon.'' Its chain of narration is Sahih.

[وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ]

(and that Allah is All-Aware of what you do.) This is like the Ayah,

[أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِى السَّمَآءِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]

(Know you not that Allah knows all that is in the heaven and the earth) (22:70). The meaning is that Allah is the Creator Who knows all things, as He says:

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَـوَتٍ وَمِنَ الاٌّرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ]

(It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof) (65:12).

[ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ الْبَـطِلُ]

(That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and that which they invoke besides Him is falsehood;) means, He shows you His Signs so that you may know from them that He is the Truth, i.e., He truly exists and is truly divine, and that all else besides Him is falsehood. He has no need of anything else, but everything else is dependent on Him, because everything in heaven and on earth is created by Him and is enslaved by Him; none of them could move even an atom's weight except with His permission. If all the people of heaven and earth were to come together to create a fly, they would not be able to do so. Allah says:

[ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ الْبَـطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِىُّ الْكَبِيرُ ]

(That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and that which they invoke besides Him is falsehood; and that Allah, He is the Most High, the Most Great.) meaning, He is the Most High and there is none higher than Him, and He is the Most Great Who is greater than everything. Everything is subjugated and insignificant in comparison to Him.

[أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ الْفُلْكَ تَجْرِى فِى الْبَحْرِ بِنِعْمَتِ اللَّهِ لِيُرِيَكُمْ مِّنْ ءَايَـتِهِ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَـتٍ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٍ شَكُورٍ - وَإِذَا غَشِيَهُمْ مَّوْجٌ كَالظُّلَلِ دَعَوُاْ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ فَلَمَّا نَجَّـهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ فَمِنْهُمْ مُّقْتَصِدٌ وَمَا يَجْحَدُ بِـَايَـتِنَآ إِلاَّ كُلُّ خَتَّارٍ كَفُورٍ ]

(31. See you not that the ships sail through the sea by Allah's grace that He may show you of His signs Verily, in this are signs for every patient, grateful (person).) (32. And when waves cover them like shades, they invoke Allah, making their invocations for Him only. But when He brings them safe to land, there are among them those that stop in between. And Our Ayat are not denied except by every Khattar Kafur.)

14. Allah tells us that He is the One Who has subjugated the sea so that ships may sail on it by His command, i.e., by His grace and power.

For if He did not give the water the strength to carry the ships, they would not sail. So he says:

[لِيُرِيَكُمْ مِّنْ ءَايَـتِهِ]

(that He may show you of His signs) meaning, by His power.

[إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٍ شَكُورٍ]

(Verily, in this are signs for every patient, grateful.) means, every person who bears difficulty with patience and who gives thanks at times of ease. Then Allah says:

[وَإِذَا غَشِيَهُمْ مَّوْجٌ كَالظُّلَلِ]

(And when waves cover them like shades,) meaning, like mountains or clouds,

[دَعَوُاْ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ]

(they invoke Allah, making their invocations for Him only.) This is like the Ayah,

[وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الْضُّرُّ فِى الْبَحْرِ ضَلَّ مَن تَدْعُونَ إِلاَ إِيَّاهُ]

(And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon vanish from you except Him) (17:67).

[فَإِذَا رَكِبُواْ فِى الْفُلْكِ]

(And when they embark on a ship...) (29:65) Then Allah says:

[فَلَمَّا نَجَّـهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ فَمِنْهُمْ مُّقْتَصِدٌ]

(But when He brings them safe to land, there are among them those that stop in between.) Mujahid said, "This refers to the disbelievers -- as if he interpreted the word Muqtasid to mean denier as in the Ayah,

[فَلَمَّا نَجَّاهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ إِذَا هُمْ يُشْرِكُونَ]

(but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others) (29:65).

[وَمَا يَجْحَدُ بِـَايَـتِنَآ إِلاَّ كُلُّ خَتَّارٍ كَفُورٍ]

(And Our Ayat are not denied except by every Khattar Kafur.) Khattar means one who betrays or stabs in the back. This was the view of Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Malik, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam. This word describes a person who, whenever he makes a promise, breaks his promise, and it refers to the worst form of treachery.

[كَفُورٌ]

(Kafur) means, one who denies blessings and does not give thanks for them, rather he forgets them and does not remember them.

[يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمْ وَاخْشَوْاْ يَوْماً لاَّ يَجْزِى وَالِدٌ عَن وَلَدِهِ وَلاَ مَوْلُودٌ هُوَ جَازٍ عَن وَالِدِهِ شَيْئاً إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ فَلاَ تَغُرَّنَّكُمُ الْحَيَوةُ الدُّنْيَا وَلاَ يَغُرَّنَّكُم بِاللَّهِ الْغَرُورُ ]

(33. O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, and fear a Day when no father can avail aught for his son, nor a son avail aught for his father. Verily, the promise of Allah is true, let not then this present life deceive you, nor let the chief deceiver deceive you about Allah.)

15. The Command to fear Allah and remember the Day of Resurrection

Here Allah warns people about the Day of Resurrection, and commands them to fear Him and remember the Day of Resurrection when

[لاَّ يَجْزِى وَالِدٌ عَن وَلَدِهِ]

(no father can avail aught for his son,) which means, even if he wanted to offer himself as a sacrifice for his son, it would not be accepted from him. The same will apply in the case of a son who wants to sacrifice himself for his father -- it will not be accepted from him. Then Allah reminds them once again with the words:

[فَلاَ تَغُرَّنَّكُمُ الْحَيَوةُ الدُّنْيَا]

(let not then this present life deceive you,) meaning, do not let your feelings of contentment with this life make you forget about the Hereafter.

[وَلاَ يَغُرَّنَّكُم بِاللَّهِ الْغَرُورُ]

(nor let the chief deceiver deceive you about Allah.) refers to the Shaytan. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah. The Shaytan makes promises to them and arouses in them false desires, but there is no substance to them, as Allah says:

[يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمْ الشَّيْطَـنُ إِلاَّ غُرُوراً ]

(He makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan's promises are nothing but deceptions.) (4:120). Wahb bin Munabbih said: `Uzayr, peace be upon him, said: "When I saw the misfortune of my people, I felt very sad and distressed, and I could not sleep, so I prayed to my Lord and fasted, and I called upon Him weeping. There came to me an angel and I said to him: `Tell me, will the souls of the righteous intercede for the wrongdoers, or the fathers for their sons' He said: `On the Day of Resurrection all matters will be settled, and Allah's dominion will be made manifest and no exceptions will be made. No one will speak on that Day except with the permission of the Most Merciful. No father will answer for his son, or any son for his father, or any man for his brother, or any servant for his master. No one will care about anybody except himself, or feel grief or compassion for anyone except himself. Everyone will be worried only about himself. No one will be asked about anybody else. Each person will be concerned only about himself, weeping for himself and carrying his own burden. No one will carry the burden of another.''' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim.

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الاٌّرْحَامِ وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ مَّاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَداً وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ بِأَىِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَيمٌ خَبِيرٌ ]

(34. Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware.) The Knower of the Unseen is Allah These are the keys of the Unseen, whose knowledge Allah alone has kept for Himself, and no one else knows them unless Allah tells him about them. The knowledge of `when the Hour will occur' is not known to any Prophet who was sent or any angel who is close to Allah.

[لاَ يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَآ إِلاَّ هُوَ]

(None can reveal its time but He) (7:187). Similarly, no one but Allah knows when rain will fall, but when He issues the commands, the angels who are entrusted with the task of bringing rain know about it, as do those among His creation whom He wills should know. No one but He knows what is in the wombs of what He wants to create, but when He decrees whether it is to be male or female, and whether it is to be blessed or doomed, the angels who are entrusted with that know about it, as do those among His creation whom He wills should know. No one knows what he will earn tomorrow with regard to this world or the Hereafter.

[وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ بِأَىِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ]

(and no person knows in what land he will die.) in his own land or elsewhere, in some other land. No one knows this. This Ayah is like the Ayah,

[وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لاَ يَعْلَمُهَآ إِلاَّ هُوَ]

(And with Him are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He.) (6:59) It was reported in the Sunnah that the above five things are called the Keys of the Unseen. Imam Ahmad recorded that Buraydah said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:

خَمْسٌ لَا يَعْلَمُهُنَّ إِلَّا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الاٌّرْحَامِ وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ مَّاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَداً وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ بِأَىِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَيمٌ خَبِيرٌ ]

(There are five things which no one knows except Allah: (Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware.)) The chain of narrators for this Hadith is Sahih, although they did not recorded it.

16. The Hadith of Ibn `Umar

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah said:

مَفَاتِيحُ الْغَيْبِ خَمْسٌ لَا يَعْلَمُهُنَّ إِلَّا اللهُ:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الاٌّرْحَامِ وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ مَّاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَداً وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ بِأَىِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَيمٌ خَبِيرٌ ]

(The Keys of the Unseen are five, which no one knows except Allah: (Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware.)) This was recorded only by Al-Bukhari, which he narrated in the Book of the Rain Prayer in his Sahih. He also recorded it in his Tafsir with a different chain of narrators, stating that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "The Prophet said:

مَفَاتِيحُ الْغَيْبِ خَمْس

(The Keys of the Unseen are five.)'' Then he recited:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الاٌّرْحَامِ]

(Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs.) This too was recorded only by Al-Bukhari.

17. The Hadith of Abu Hurayrah

In his Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah was standing before the people one day when a man came to him and said, `O Messenger of Allah, what is Iman' He said:

الْإِيمَانُ أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ، وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلِقَائِهِ، وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْبَعْثِ الْآخِر

(Iman is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers and in the meeting with Him, and to believe in the Resurrection in the Hereafter.) He said: `O Messenger of Allah, what is Islam' He said:

الْإِسْلَامُ أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا، وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةَ، وَتُؤْتِيَ الزَّكَاةَ الْمَفْرُوضَةَ، وَتَصُومَ رَمَضَان

(Islam is to worship Allah Alone and not associate anything in worship with Him, to establish regular prayer, to pay the obligatory Zakah, and to fast in Ramadan.) He said, `O Messenger of Allah, what is Ihsan' He said:

الْإِحْسَانُ أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاك

(Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you do not see Him, then He sees you.) He said, `O Messenger of Allah, when will the Hour come' He said:

مَا الْمَسْؤُولُ عَنْهَا بِأَعْلَمَ مِنَ السَّائِلِ، وَلكِنْ سَأُحَدِّثُكَ عَنْ أَشْرَاطِهَا: إِذَا وَلَدَتِ الْأَمَةُ رَبَّتَهَا فَذَاكَ مِنْ أَشْرَاطِهَا، وَإِذَا كَانَ الْحُفَاةُ الْعُرَاةُ رُؤُوسَ النَّاسِ فَذَاكَ مِنْ أَشْرَاطِهَا فِي خَمْسٍ لَا يَعْلَمُهُنَّ إِلَّا اللهُ:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الاٌّرْحَامِ]

(The one who is asked about it does not know more than the one who is asking, but I will tell you of some of its signs: when the servant woman gives birth to her mistress, that is one of its signs; when the barefoot and naked become leaders of the people, that is one of its signs. The timing of the Hour is one of the five things which no one knows except Allah: (Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs....)) Then the man went away, and the Prophet said,

رُدُّوهُ عَلَي

(Bring him back to me.) They went to bring him back, but they could not find him. He said:

هَذَا جِبْرِيلُ جَاءَ لِيُعَلِّمَ النَّاسَ دِينَهُم

(That was Jibril who came to teach the people their religion.) It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari in the Book of Faith, and by Muslim with several chains of narration. We have discussed this at the beginning of our commentary on Al-Bukhari, where we mentioned at length some Hadiths narrated by the Commander of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab. These were recorded only by Muslim.

[وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ بِأَىِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ]

(and no person knows in what land he will die.) Qatadah said, "There are some things which Allah has kept to Himself, and they are not known to any angel who is close to Him or any Prophet who was sent by Him.

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ]

(Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, ) no one among mankind knows when the Hour will come, in which year or month, or whether it will come at night or during the day.

[وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ]

(He sends down the rain,) and no one knows when rain will come, night or day.

[وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى الاٌّرْحَامِ]

(and knows that which is in the wombs.) No one knows what is in the wombs, male or female, red or black, or what it is.

[وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ مَّاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَداً]

(No person knows what he will earn tomorrow,) whether it will be good or bad. You do not know, O son of Adam, when you will die. You might die tomorrow, you might be stricken by calamity tomorrow.

[وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌ بِأَىِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ]

(and no person knows in what land he will die.) means, no person knows where his resting place will be, on the land or in the sea, on a plain or in the mountains. It says in the Hadith:

إِذَا أَرَادَ اللهُ قَبْضَ عَبْدٍ بِأَرْضٍ جَعَلَ لَهُ إِلَيْهَا حَاجَة

(If Allah wants to take a person's soul in a particular land, He will give him a reason to go there.) In Al-Mu`jam Al-Kabir, Al-Hafiz Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani recorded that Usamah bin Zayd said, "The Messenger of Allah said:

مَا جَعَلَ اللهُ مِيتَةَ عَبْدٍ بِأَرْضٍ إِلَّا جَعَلَ لَهُ فِيهَا حَاجَة

(Allah does not will that a person should die in a certain land but He gives him a reason to go there.)'' This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Luqman. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. Sufficient for us is Allah and He is the Best Disposer of affairs.


The Tafsir of Surah As-Sajdah (De Neerknieling) (Chapter 32)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Makkah

1. The Virtues of Surah Alif Lam Mim As-Sajdah
2. The Qur'an is the Book of Allah in which there is no Doubt
3. Allah is the Creator and Controller of the Universe
4. The Creation of Man in Stages
5. Refutation of Those Who think the Resurrection is unlikely to happen
6. The Bad State in which the Idolators will be on the Day of Resurrection
7. The State of the People of Faith and Their Reward Allah states:
8. The Believer and the Rebellious are not equal
9. The Book of Musa and the Leadership of the Children of Israel
10. Learning the Lessons of the Past
11. The Revival of the Earth with Water is Proof of the Resurrection to come
12. How the Disbelievers sought to hasten on the Punishment, and what happened to Them


1. The Virtues of Surah Alif Lam Mim As-Sajdah

In the Book of the Friday prayer, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Prophet used to recite in Fajr on Fridays:

[الم تَنزِيلَ]

(Alif Lam Mim. The revelation of...), As-Sajdah, and

[هَلْ أَتَى عَلَى الإِنسَـنِ]

(Has there not been over man...)Al-Insan (76).'' This was also recorded by Muslim. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said, "The Prophet would never sleep until he recited:

[الم تَنزِيلَ]

(Alif Lam Mim. The revelation of...), As-Sajdah, and

[تَبَارَكَ الَّذِى بِيَدِهِ الْمُلْكُ]

(Blessed be He in Whose Hand is the dominion) Al-Mulk (67).''

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[الـم- تَنزِيلُ الْكِتَـبِ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِن رَّبِ الْعَـلَمِينَ- أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَاهُ بَلْ هُوَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبّكَ لِتُنذِرَ قَوْماً مَّآ أَتَـهُم مّن نَّذِيرٍ مّن قَبْلِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ-]

(1. Alif Lam Mim.) (2. The revelation of the Book in which there is no doubt, is from the Lord of all that exists.) (3. Or say they: "He has fabricated it'' Nay, it is the truth from your Lord, so that you may warn a people to whom no warner has come before you, in order that they may be guided.)

2. The Qur'an is the Book of Allah in which there is no Doubt

We discussed the individual letters at the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah, and there is no need to repeat it here.

[تَنزِيلُ الْكِتَـبِ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ]

(The revelation of the Book in which there is no doubt,) means, there is no doubt whatsoever that it has been revealed

[مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ]

(from the Lord of all that exists.) Then Allah tells us about the idolators:

[أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَاهُ]

(Or say they: "He has fabricated it''): they say, he has fabricated it, i.e., he has made it up by himself.

[بَلْ هُوَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ لِتُنذِرَ قَوْماً مَّآ أَتَـهُم مِّن نَّذِيرٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ]

(Nay, it is the truth from your Lord, so that you may warn a people to whom no warner has come before you, in order that they may be guided.) means, in order that they may follow the truth.

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ مَا لَكُمْ مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلاَ شَفِيعٍ أَفَلاَ تَتَذَكَّرُونَ - يُدَبِّرُ الاٌّمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ إِلَى الاٌّرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ فِى يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِّمَّا تَعُدُّونَ - ذَلِكَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَـدَةِ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ ]

(4. Allah it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Istawa over the Throne. You have none, besides Him, as a protector or an intercessor. Will you not then remember) (5. He directs the command from the heavens to the earth; then it will go up to Him, in one Day, the space whereof is a thousand years of your reckoning.) (6. That is He, the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.)

3. Allah is the Creator and Controller of the Universe

Allah tells us that He is the Creator of all things. He created the heavens and earth and all that is between them in six days, then He rose over the Throne we have already discussed this matter elsewhere.

[مَا لَكُمْ مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلاَ شَفِيعٍ]

(You have none, besides Him, as a protector or an intercessor) means, only He is the Sovereign Who is in control of all affairs, the Creator of all things, the Controller of all things, the One Who is able to do all things. There is no Creator besides Him, no intercessor except the one to whom He gives permission.

[أَفَلاَ تَتَذَكَّرُونَ]

(Will you not then remember) -- this is addressed to those who worship others apart from Him and put their trust in others besides Him -- exalted and sanctified and glorified be He above having any equal, partner, supporter, rival or peer, there is no God or Lord except Him.

[يُدَبِّرُ الاٌّمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ إِلَى الاٌّرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ]

(He directs the command from the heavens to the earth; then it will go up to Him,) means, His command comes down from above the heavens to the furthest boundary of the seventh earth. This is like the Ayah,

[اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَـوَتٍ وَمِنَ الاٌّرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الاٌّمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ]

(It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof. The command descends between them, ) (65:12) Deeds are raised up to the place of recording above the lowest heaven. The distance between heaven and earth is the distance of five hundred years traveling, and the thickness of the heaven is the distance of five hundred years. Mujahid, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said, "The distance covered by the angel when he descends or ascends is the distance of five hundred years, but he covers it in the blink of an eye.'' Allah says:

[فِى يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِّمَّا تَعُدُّونَذَلِكَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَـدَةِ]

(in one Day, the measurement of which is a thousand years of your reckoning. That is He, the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen,) meaning, He is controlling all these affairs. He sees all that His servants do, and all their deeds, major and minor, significant and insignificant, ascend to Him. He is the Almighty Who has subjugated all things to His control, and to Whom everybody submits, and He is Most Merciful to His believing servants. He is Almighty in His mercy and Most Merciful in His might. This is perfection: might combined with mercy and mercy combined with might, for He is Merciful without any hint of weakness.

[الَّذِى أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الإِنْسَـنِ مِن طِينٍ - ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلاَلَةٍ مِّن مَّآءٍ مَّهِينٍ - ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالاٌّبْصَـرَ وَالاٌّفْئِدَةَ قَلِيلاً مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ ]

(7. Who made everything He has created good and He began the creation of man from clay.) (8. Then He made his offspring from semen of despised water.) (9. Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him the soul; and He gave you hearing, sight and the sense of deduction. Little is the thanks you give!)

4. The Creation of Man in Stages

Allah tells us that He has created everything well and formed everything in a goodly fashion. Malik said, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam:

[الَّذِى أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقَهُ]

(Who made everything He has created good) means, "He created everything well and in a goodly fashion.'' When Allah mentions the creation of the heavens and the earth, He follows that by mentioning the creation of man. Allah says:

[وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الإِنْسَـنِ مِن طِينٍ]

(and He began the creation of man from clay.) meaning, He created the father of mankind, Adam, from clay.

[ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلاَلَةٍ مِّن مَّآءٍ مَّهِينٍ ]

(Then He made his offspring from semen of despised water.) means, they reproduce in this fashion, from a Nutfah which comes from the loins of men and from between the ribs of women.

[ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ]

(Then He fashioned him in due proportion,) means, when He created Adam from clay, He created him and gave him shape and made him upright.

[وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالاٌّبْصَـرَ وَالاٌّفْئِدَةَ]

(and breathed into him the soul; and He gave you hearing, sight and the sense of deduction.) means, reason.

[قَلِيلاً مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ]

(Little is the thanks you give!) means, for these strengths with which Allah has provided you; the one who is truly blessed is the one who uses them to worship and obey his Lord, may He be exalted and glorified.

[وَقَالُواْ أَءِذَا ضَلَلْنَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ أَءِنَّا لَفِى خَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ بَلْ هُم بِلَقَآءِ رَبِّهِمْ كَـفِرُونَ - قُلْ يَتَوَفَّـكُم مَّلَكُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِى وُكِّلَ بِكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ ]

(10. And they say: "When we are lost in the earth, shall we indeed be created anew'' Nay, but they deny the meeting with their Lord!) (11. Say: "The angel of death, who is set over you, will take your souls. Then you shall be brought to your Lord.'')

5. Refutation of Those Who think the Resurrection is unlikely to happen

Allah tells us how the idolators thought it unlikely that the resurrection would ever come to pass, and how they said:

[أَءِذَا ضَلَلْنَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ]

(When we are lost in the earth,) meaning, `when our bodies have been scattered and have disintegrated and dispersed in the earth,'

[أَءِنَّا لَفِى خَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ]

(shall we indeed be created anew) means, `after that, will we come back again' They thought it unlikely that this would happen, and in terms of their own feeble abilities it is indeed unlikely, but this is not the case with regard to the power of the One Who created them from nothing, Who when He wills a thing merely says to it, "Be!'' and it is. Allah says:

[بَلْ هُم بِلَقَآءِ رَبِّهِمْ كَـفِرُونَ]

(Nay, but they deny the meeting with their Lord!) Then Allah says:

[قُلْ يَتَوَفَّـكُم مَّلَكُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِى وُكِّلَ بِكُمْ]

(Say: "The angel of death, who is set over you, will take your souls...'') The apparent meaning of this Ayah is that the angel of death is a specific personality among the angels, as is also apparent from the Hadith of Al-Bara' which we quoted in (our Tafsir of) Surah Ibrahim. In some reports he (the angel of death) is called `Izra'il, which is well known. This is the view of Qatadah and others. The angel of death has helpers. It was reported in the Hadith that his helpers draw out the soul from the rest of the body until it reaches the throat, then the angel of death takes it. Mujahid said, "The earth is brought together for him and it is like a platter from which he takes whenever he wants.''

[ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ]

(Then you shall be brought to your Lord.) means, on the Day when you are resurrected and brought forth from your graves to receive your reward or punishment.

[وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الْمُجْرِمُونَ نَاكِسُواْ رُءُوسِهِمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ رَبَّنَآ أَبْصَرْنَا وَسَمِعْنَا فَارْجِعْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَـلِحاً إِنَّا مُوقِنُونَ - وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لاّتَيْنَا كُلَّ نَفْسٍ هُدَاهَا وَلَـكِنْ حَقَّ الْقَوْلُ مِنْى لاّمْلأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ - فَذُوقُواْ بِمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَآءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَـذَآ إِنَّا نَسِينَـكُمْ وَذُوقُـواْ عَذَابَ الْخُلْدِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ]

(12. And if you only could see when the criminals shall hang their heads before their Lord (saying): "Our Lord! We have now seen and heard, so send us back that we will do righteous good deeds. Verily, we now believe with certainty.'') (13. And if We had willed, surely We would have given every person his guidance, but the Word from Me took effect, that I will fill Hell with Jinn and mankind together.) (14. Then taste because of your forgetting the meeting of this Day of yours. Surely, We too will forget you, so taste you the abiding torment for what you used to do.)

6. The Bad State in which the Idolators will be on the Day of Resurrection

Allah tells us the state of the idolators on the Day of Resurrection and what they will say when they see the Resurrection and are standing before Allah -- may He be glorified -- humiliated and brought low, with their heads bowed, i.e., in shame. They will say:

[رَبَّنَآ أَبْصَرْنَا وَسَمِعْنَا]

(Our Lord! We have now seen and heard,) meaning, `now we hear what You say and we will obey You.' This is like the Ayah,

[أَسْمِعْ بِهِمْ وَأَبْصِرْ يَوْمَ يَأْتُونَنَا]

(How clearly will they see and hear, the Day when they will appear before Us!) (19:38). And they will blame themselves when they enter the Fire, and will say:

[لَوْ كُنَّا نَسْمَعُ أَوْ نَعْقِلُ مَا كُنَّا فِى أَصْحَـبِ السَّعِيرِ]

("Had we but listened or used our intelligence, we would not have been among the dwellers of the blazing Fire!'') [67:10] Similarly, here they are described as saying:

[رَبَّنَآ أَبْصَرْنَا وَسَمِعْنَا فَارْجِعْنَا]

(Our Lord! We have now seen and heard, so send us back) to the world,

[نَعْمَلْ صَـلِحاً إِنَّا مُوقِنُونَ]

(that we will do righteous good deeds. Verily, we now believe with certainty.) means, `now we are sure and we believe that Your promise is true and that the meeting with You is true.' But the Lord, may He be exalted, knows that if He were to send them back to this world, they would behave as they did previously, and they would reject and disbelieve in the signs of Allah and would go against His Messengers, as He says:

[وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ وُقِفُواْ عَلَى النَّارِ فَقَالُواْ يلَيْتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلاَ نُكَذِّبَ بِـَايَـتِ رَبِّنَا]

(If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: "Would that we were but sent back! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord,'') (6: 27) And Allah says here:

[وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لاّتَيْنَا كُلَّ نَفْسٍ هُدَاهَا]

(And if We had willed, surely We would have given every person his guidance,) This is like the Ayah,

[وَلَوْ شَآءَ رَبُّكَ لآمَنَ مَن فِى الاٌّرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعًا]

(And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together) (10:99).

[وَلَـكِنْ حَقَّ الْقَوْلُ مِنْى لاّمْلأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ]

(but the Word from Me took effect, that I will fill Hell with Jinn and mankind together.) i.e., from both classes, so their abode will be Hell and they will have no escape from it and no way out. We seek refuge with Allah and in His perfect Words from that.

[فَذُوقُواْ بِمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَآءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَـذَآ]

(Then taste because of your forgetting the meeting of this Day of yours.) means, it will be said to the people of Hell by way of rebuke: `taste this punishment because you denied it and believed that it would never happen; you tried to forget about it and acted as if you had forgotten it.'

[إِنَّا نَسِينَـكُمْ]

(Surely, We too will forget you,) means, `We will deal with you as if We have forgotten you,' but nothing escapes Allah's attention, and He makes the punishment fit the crime, as He says:

[الْيَوْمَ نَنسَاكُمْ كَمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَآءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَـذَا]

(This Day We will forget you as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours) (45:34).

[وَذُوقُـواْ عَذَابَ الْخُلْدِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ]

(so taste you the abiding torment for what you used to do.) i.e., because of your disbelief and rejection, as Allah says in another Ayah:

[لاَّ يَذُوقُونَ فِيهَا بَرْداً وَلاَ شَرَاباً - إِلاَّ حَمِيماً وَغَسَّاقاً ]

(Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink. Except Hamim, and Ghassaq) until:

[فَلَن نَّزِيدَكُمْ إِلاَّ عَذَاباً]

(No increase shall We give you, except in torment) (78:24-30).

[إِنَّمَا يُؤْمِنُ بِـَايَـتِنَا الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهَا خَرُّواْ سُجَّداً وَسَبَّحُواْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَهُمْ لاَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ - تَتَجَافَى جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفاً وَطَمَعاً وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ - فَلاَ تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّآ أُخْفِىَ لَهُم مِّن قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ جَزَآءً بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ]

(15. Only those believe in Our Ayat, who, when they are reminded of them, fall down prostrate, and glorify the praises of their Lord, and they are not proud.) (16. Their sides forsake their beds, to invoke their Lord in fear and hope, and they spend out of what We have bestowed on them.) (17. No person knows what is kept hidden for them of delights of eyes as a reward for what they used to do.)

7. The State of the People of Faith and Their Reward Allah states:

[إِنَّمَا يُؤْمِنُ بِـَايَـتِنَا]

(Only those believe in Our Ayat,) means, who accept them as true,

[الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهَا خَرُّواْ سُجَّداً]

(who, when they are reminded of them, fall down prostrate,) means, they listen to them and obey them in word and deed.

[وَسَبَّحُواْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَهُمْ لاَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ]

(and glorify the praises of their Lord, and they are not proud.) means, they are not too proud to follow them and submit to them, unlike the ignorant among the rebellious disbelievers. Allah says:

[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِى سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَخِرِينَ]

(Verily, those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!) (40:60). Then Allah says:

[تَتَجَافَى جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ]

(Their sides forsake their beds,) meaning, they pray the voluntary night prayer and forego sleep and resting on a comfortable bed. Mujahid and Al-Hasan said that the Ayah

[تَتَجَافَى جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ]

(Their sides forsake their beds, ) refers to voluntary night prayer. Ad-Dahhak said, "It refers to Salat Al-`Isha' in congregation and Salat Al-Fajr in congregation.

[يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفاً وَطَمَعاً]

(to invoke their Lord in fear and hope,) means, in fear of His punishment and in hope of His reward.

[وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ]

(and they spend out of what We have bestowed on them.) means, they do both obligatory and supererogatory acts of worship. Their leader in this world and the Hereafter is the Messenger of Allah . Imam Ahmad recorded that Mu`adh bin Jabal said, "I was with the Messenger of Allah on a journey one morning, walking near him. I said, `O Prophet of Allah, tell me of a deed that will grant me admittance to Paradise and keep me away from Hell.' He said:

لَقَدْ سَأَلْتَ عَنْ عَظِيمٍ وَإِنَّهَ لَيَسِيرٌ عَلَى مَنْ يَسَّرَهُ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ، تَعْبُدُ اللهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئًا، وَتُقِيمُ الصَّلَاةَ وَتُؤْتِي الزَّكَاةَ، وَتَصُومُ رَمَضَانَ، وَتَحُجُّ الْبَيْت

(You have asked about something great, and it is easy for the one for whom Allah makes it easy. Worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him, establish regular prayer, pay Zakah, fast Ramadan and perform pilgrimage to the House.) Then he said:

أَلَا أَدُلُّكَ عَلَى أَبْوَابِ الْخَيْرِ؟ الصَّومُ جُنَّةٌ، وَالصَّدَقَةُ تُطْفِىءُ الْخَطِيئَةَ، وَصَلَاةُ الرَّجُلِ فِي جَوْفِ اللَّيْل

(Shall I not tell you of the gates of goodness Fasting is a shield, charity wipes out sin, and the prayer of a man in the depths of the night.) Then he recited:

[تَتَجَافَى جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ]

(Their sides forsake their beds,) until he reached

[جَزَآءً بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ]

(as a reward for what they used to do.) Then he said:

أَلَا أُخْبِرُكَ بِرَأْسِ الْأَمْرِ وَعَمُودِهِ وَذِرْوَةِ سَنَامِهِ؟

(Shall I not tell you of the greatest of all things and its pillars and pinnacle) I said, `Of course, O Messenger of Allah.' He said:

رَأْسُ الْأَمْرِ الْإسْلَامُ، وَعَمُودُهُ الصَّلَاةُ، وَذِرْوَةُ سَنَامِهِ الْجِهَادُ فِي سَبِيلِ الله

(The greatest of all things is Islam, its pillars are the prayers and its pinnacle is Jihad for the sake of Allah.) Then he said:

أَلَا أُخْبِرُكَ بِمَلَاكِ ذلِكَ كُلِّهِ؟

(Shall I not tell you the factor on which all of that depends) I said, `Of course, O Messenger of Allah.' He took hold of his tongue and said,

كُفَّ عَلَيْكَ هذَا

(Restrain this.) I said, `O Messenger of Allah, will we be accountable for what we say' He said,

ثَكِلَتْكَ أُمُّكُ يَا مُعَاذُ، وَهَلْ يَكُبُّ النَّاسَ فِي النَّارِ عَلى وُجُوهِهِمْ أَوْ قَالَ: عَلى مَنَاخِرِهِمْ إِلَّا حَصَائِدُ أَلْسِنَتهِم

(May your mother be bereft of you, O Mu`adh! Will the people be thrown into Hell -- (or he said) on their faces -- except because of what their tongues say) It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah in their Sunans. At-Tirmidhi said, "It is Hasan Sahih.''

[فَلاَ تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّآ أُخْفِىَ لَهُم مِّن قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ]

(No person knows what is kept hidden for them of delights of eyes) means, no one knows the vastness of what Allah has concealed for them of everlasting joy in Paradise and delights such as no one has ever seen. Because they conceal their good deeds, Allah conceals the reward for them, a fitting reward which will suit their deeds. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "If people conceal their good deeds, Allah will conceal for them what no eye has seen and what has never crossed the mind of man. It was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. Al-Bukhari quoted the Ayah: d

[فَلاَ تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّآ أُخْفِىَ لَهُم مِّن قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ]

(No person knows what is kept hidden for them of delights of eyes) Then he recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالى: أَعْدَدْتُ لِعِبَادِي الصَّالِحِينَ مَا لَا عَيْنٌ رَأَتْ، وَلَا أُذُنٌ سَمِعَتْ، وَلَا خَطَرَ عَلى قَلْبِ بَشَر

(Allah says: "I have prepared for My righteous servants what no eye has seen, no ear has heard, and it has never crossed the mind of man.'') Abu Hurayrah said: "Recite, if you wish:

[فَلاَ تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّآ أُخْفِىَ لَهُم مِّن قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ]

(No person knows what is kept hidden for them of delights of eyes.) It was also recorded by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi. At-Tirmidhi said, "It is Hasan Sahih.'' In another version of Al-Bukhari:

وَلَا خَطَرَ عَلَى قَلْبِ بَشَرٍ، ذُخْرًا مِنْ بَلْهِ مَا أُطْلِعْتُمْ عَلَيْه

("and no body has ever even imagined of. All that is reserved, besides which, all that you have seen is nothing.'') It was also reported from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet said:

مَنْ يَدْخُلِ الْجَنَّةَ يَنْعَمْ لَا يَبْأَسْ، لَا تَبْلَى ثِيَابُهُ، وَلَا يَفْنَى شَبَابُهُ، فِي الْجَنَّةِ مَا لَا عَيْنٌ رَأَتْ، وَلَا أُذُنٌ سَمِعَتْ، وَلَا خَطَرَ عَلى قَلْبِ بَشَر

(Whoever enters Paradise, will enjoy a life of luxury and never feel deprivation, his clothes will never wear out, his youth will never fade. In Paradise there is what no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard, and has never crossed the mind of man.) This was recorded by Muslim.

[أَفَمَن كَانَ مُؤْمِناً كَمَن كَانَ فَاسِقاً لاَّ يَسْتَوُونَ - أَمَّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ فَلَهُمْ جَنَّـتُ الْمَأْوَى نُزُلاً بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ - وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فَسَقُواْ فَمَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ كُلَّمَآ أَرَادُواْ أَن يَخْرُجُواُ مِنْهَآ أُعِيدُواْ فِيهَا وَقِيلَ لَهُمْ ذُوقُواْ عَذَابَ النَّارِ الَّذِي كُنتُمْ بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ - وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُمْ مِّنَ الْعَذَابِ الاٌّدْنَى دُونَ الْعَذَابِ الاٌّكْبَرِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ - وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن ذُكِّرَ بِـَايَـتِ رَبِّهِ ثُمَّ أَعْرَضَ عَنْهَآ إِنَّا مِنَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُنتَقِمُونَ ]

(18. Is then he who is a believer like him who is rebellious Not equal are they.) (19. As for those who believe and do righteous good deeds, for them are Gardens of Abode as an entertainment for what they used to do.) (20. And as for those who rebel, their abode will be the Fire, every time they wish to get away therefrom, they will be put back thereto, and it will be said to them: "Taste you the torment of the Fire which you used to deny.'') (21. And verily, We will make them taste of the near lighter torment prior to the greater torment, in order that they may return.) (22. And who does more wrong than he who is reminded of the Ayat of his Lord, then turns aside therefrom Verily, We shall exact retribution from the criminals.)

8. The Believer and the Rebellious are not equal

Allah tells us that in His justice and generosity, on the Day of Judgement He will not judge those who believed in His signs and followed His Messengers, in the same way as He will judge those who rebelled, disobeyed Him and rejected the Messengers sent by Allah to them. This is like the Ayat:

[أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ اجْتَرَحُواْ السَّيِّئَـتِ أَن نَّجْعَلَهُمْ كَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ سَوَآءً مَّحْيَـهُمْ وَمَمَـتُهُمْ سَآءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ ]

(Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds, in their present life and after their death Worst is the judgement that they make.) (45:21),

[أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ ]

(Shall We treat those who believe and do righteous good deeds as corruptors on earth Or shall We treat those who have Taqwa as the wicked) (38:28)

[لاَ يَسْتَوِى أَصْحَـبُ النَّارِ وَأَصْحَـبُ الْجَنَّةِ]

(Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise...) (59:20). Allah says:

[أَفَمَن كَانَ مُؤْمِناً كَمَن كَانَ فَاسِقاً لاَّ يَسْتَوُونَ ]

(Is then he who is a believer like him who is a rebellious Not equal are they. ) i.e., before Allah on the Day of Resurrection. `Ata' bin Yasar, As-Suddi and others mentioned that this was revealed concerning `Ali bin Abi Talib and `Uqbah bin Abi Mu`it. Hence Allah has judged between them when He said:

[أَمَّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ]

(As for those who believe and do righteous good deeds,) meaning, their hearts believed in the signs of Allah, and they did as the signs of Allah dictate, i.e. righteous good deeds.

[فَلَهُمْ جَنَّـتُ الْمَأْوَى]

(for them are Gardens of Abode) i.e., in which there are dwellings and houses and lofty apartments.

[نُزُلاً]

(as an entertainment) means, something to welcome and honor a guest,

[بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَوَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فَسَقُواْ]

(for what they used to do. And as for those who rebel,) means, those who disobeyed Allah, their dwelling place will be the Fire, and every time they want to escape from it, they will be thrown back in, as Allah says:

[كُلَّمَآ أَرَادُواْ أَن يَخْرُجُواْ مِنْهَا مِنْ غَمٍّ أُعِيدُواْ فِيهَا]

(Every time they seek to get away therefrom, from anguish, they will be driven back therein) (22:22). Al-Fudayl bin `Iyad said: "By Allah, their hands will be tied, their feet will be chained, the flames will lift them up and the angels will strike them.

[وَقِيلَ لَهُمْ ذُوقُواْ عَذَابَ النَّارِ الَّذِي كُنتُمْ بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ]

(and it will be said to them: "Taste you the torment of the Fire which you used to deny.'')'' means, this will be said to them by way of rebuke and chastisement.

[وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُمْ مِّنَ الْعَذَابِ الاٌّدْنَى دُونَ الْعَذَابِ الاٌّكْبَرِ]

(And verily, We will make them taste of the near lighter torment prior to the greater torment,) Ibn `Abbas said, "The near torment means diseases and problems in this world, and the things that happen to its people as a test from Allah to His servants so that they will repent to Him.'' Something similar was also narrated from Ubayy bin Ka`b, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Al-Hasan, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Ad-Dahhak, `Alqamah, `Atiyah, Mujahid, Qatadah, `Abd Al-Karim Al-Jazari and Khusayf.

[وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن ذُكِّرَ بِـَايَـتِ رَبِّهِ ثُمَّ أَعْرَضَ عَنْهَآ]

(And who does more wrong than he who is reminded of the Ayat of his Lord, then turns aside therefrom) means, there is no one who does more wrong than the one whom Allah reminds of His signs and explains them to him clearly, then after that he neglects and ignores them, and turns away from them, forgetting them as if he does not know them. Qatadah said: "Beware of turning away from the remembrance of Allah, for whoever turns away from remembering Him will be the most misguided and the most in need, and the most guilty of sin.'' Allah says, warning the one who does that:

[إِنَّا مِنَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُنتَقِمُونَ]

(Verily, We shall exact retribution from the criminals.) meaning, `We shall avenge Ourselves on those who do that in the strongest possible terms.'

[وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَـبَ فَلاَ تَكُن فِى مِرْيَةٍ مِّن لِّقَآئِهِ وَجَعَلْنَـهُ هُدًى لِّبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ - وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ - إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقَيَـمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ]

(23. And indeed We gave Musa the Scripture. So, be not you in doubt of meeting him. And We made it a guide to the Children of Israel.) (24. And We made from among them, leaders, giving guidance under Our command, when they were patient and used to believe with certainty in Our Ayat.) (25. Verily, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection, concerning that wherein they used to differ.)

9. The Book of Musa and the Leadership of the Children of Israel

Allah tells us that He gave the Book -- the Tawrah -- to His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him.

[فَلاَ تَكُن فِى مِرْيَةٍ مِّن لِّقَآئِهِ]

(So, be not you in doubt of meeting him.) Qatadah said, "This refers to the Night of Isra','' then he narrated that Abu Al-`Aliyah Ar-Riyahi said, "The cousin of your Prophet, meaning Ibn `Abbas, told me that the Messenger of Allah said:

أُرِيتُ لَيْلَةَ أُسْرِيَ بِي مُوسى بْنَ عِمْرَانَ رَجُلًا آدَمَ طِوَالًا جَعْدًا كَأَنَّهُ مِنْ رِجَالِ شَنُوءَةَ، وَرَأَيْتُ عِيسى رَجُلًا مَرْبُوعَ الْخَلْقِ إِلَى الْحُمْرَةِ وَالْبَيَاضِ، سَبْط الرَّأْسِ، وَرَأَيْتُ مَالِكًا خَازِنَ النَّارِ وَالدَّجَّال

(On the night of Isra', I saw Musa bin `Imran, a tall, brown-skinned man with curly hair, looking like the men of Shanu'ah; and I saw `Isa, a man of medium stature and ruddy white skin, and with lank hair. And I saw Malik the Keeper of Hell, and the Dajjal.) Among the signs which Allah showed him were:

[فَلاَ تَكُن فِى مِرْيَةٍ مِّن لِّقَآئِهِ]

(So, be not you in doubt of meeting him.) i.e., he saw Musa and met with him on the Night of Isra'.''

[وَجَعَلْنَـهُ]

(And We made it) means, `the Book which We gave to him, '

[هُدًى لِّبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ]

(a guide to the Children of Israel.) This is similar to what Allah says in Surat Al-Isra':

[وَءَاتَيْنَآ مُوسَى الْكِتَـبَ وَجَعَلْنَاهُ هُدًى لِّبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ أَلاَّ تَتَّخِذُواْ مِن دُونِى وَكِيلاً ]

(And We gave Musa the Scripture and made it a guidance for the Children of Israel (saying): "Take none other than Me as Trustee.'') (17:2)

[وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ ]

(And We made from among them, leaders, giving guidance under Our command, when they were patient and used to believe with certainty in Our Ayat.) means, because they were patient in adhering to the commands of Allah and avoiding what He prohibited, and they believed in His Messengers and followed what they brought, there were among them leaders who guided others to the truth by the command of Allah, calling for goodness, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong. Then when they changed [the Words of Allah], twisting and distorting them, they lost that position and their hearts became hard. They change the words from their places, so they do no righteous deeds and have no correct beliefs. Allah says:

[وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُواْ]

(And We made from among them (Children of Israel), leaders, giving guidance under Our command, when they were patient) Qatadah and Sufyan said: "When they patiently shunned the temptations of this world.'' This was also the view of Al-Hasan bin Salih. Sufyan said, "This is how these people were. A man cannot be an example to be followed unless he shuns the temptation of this world.'' Allah says:

[وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَـهُمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَـتِ وَفَضَّلْنَـهُمْ عَلَى الْعَـلَمينَ وَءاتَيْنَـهُم بَيِّنَـتٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ]

(And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things, and preferred them above the nations. And We gave them clear proofs in matters.) (45:16-17). And He says here:

[إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقَيَـمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ]

(Verily, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection, concerning that wherein they used to differ.) meaning, with regard to beliefs and actions.

[أَوَلَمْ يَهْدِ لَهُمْ كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَبْلِهِمْ مِّنَ الْقُرُونِ يَمْشُونَ فِى مَسَاكِنِهِمْ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَاتٍ أَفَلاَ يَسْمَعُونَ - أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا نَسُوقُ الْمَآءَ إِلَى الاٌّرْضِ الْجُرُزِ فَنُخْرِجُ بِهِ زَرْعاً تَأْكُلُ مِنْهُ أَنْعَـمُهُمْ وَأَنفُسُهُمْ أَفَلاَ يُبْصِرُونَ ]

(26. Is it not a guidance for them: how many generations We have destroyed before them in whose dwellings they do walk about Verily, therein indeed are signs. Would they not then listen) (27. Have they not seen how We drive water to the dry land that has no vegetation, and therewith bring forth crops providing food for their cattle and themselves Will they not then see)

10. Learning the Lessons of the Past

Allah says: will these people who deny the Messengers not learn from the nations who came before them, whom Allah destroyed for their rejection of His Messengers and their opposition to what the Messengers brought them of the straight path No trace is left of them whatsoever.

[هَلْ تُحِسُّ مِنْهُمْ مِّنْ أَحَدٍ أَوْ تَسْمَعُ لَهُمْ رِكْزاً]

(Can you find a single one of them or hear even a whisper of them) (19:98). Allah says:

[يَمْشُونَ فِى مَسَـكِنِهِمْ]

(in whose dwellings they do walk about) meaning, these disbelievers walk about in the places where those disbelievers used to live, but they do not see any of those who used to live there, for they have gone --

[كَأَن لَّمْ يَغْنَوْاْ فِيهَآ]

(As if they had never lived there) (11:68) This is like the Ayat:

[فَتِلْكَ بُيُوتُهُمْ خَاوِيَةً بِمَا ظَلَمُواْ]

(These are their houses in utter ruin, for they did wrong) (27:52).

[فَكَأَيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَـهَا وَهِىَ ظَالِمَةٌ فَهِىَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَى عُرُوشِهَا وَبِئْرٍ مُّعَطَّلَةٍ وَقَصْرٍ مَّشِيدٍ أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ]

(And many a township did We destroy while they were given to wrongdoing, so that it lie in ruins, and (many) a deserted well and lofty castle! Have they not traveled through the land) until:

[وَلَـكِن تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِى فِى الصُّدُورِ]

(but it is the hearts which are in the breasts that grow blind.) (22:45-46) Allah says here:

[إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَاتٍ]

(Verily, therein indeed are signs.) meaning, in the fact that these people are gone and have been destroyed, and in what happened to them because they disbelieved the Messengers, and how those who believed in them were saved, there are many signs, proofs and important lessons.

[أَفَلاَ يَسْمَعُونَ]

(Would they not then listen) means, to the stories of those who came before and what happened to them.

11. The Revival of the Earth with Water is Proof of the Resurrection to come

[أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا نَسُوقُ الْمَآءَ إِلَى الاٌّرْضِ الْجُرُزِ]

(Have they not seen how We drive water to the dry land) Here Allah explains His kindness and goodness towards them by His sending water to them, whether from the sky or from water flowing through the land, water carried by rivers down from the mountains to the lands that need it at particular times. Allah says:

[إِلَى الاٌّرْضِ الْجُرُزِ]

(to the dry land) which means the land where nothing grows, as in the Ayah,

[وَإِنَّا لَجَاعِلُونَ مَا عَلَيْهَا صَعِيداً جُرُزاً ]

(And verily, We shall make all that is on it a bare dry soil.) (18:8) i.e., barren land where nothing grows. Allah says here:

[أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا نَسُوقُ الْمَآءَ إِلَى الاٌّرْضِ الْجُرُزِ فَنُخْرِجُ بِهِ زَرْعاً تَأْكُلُ مِنْهُ أَنْعَـمُهُمْ وَأَنفُسُهُمْ أَفَلاَ يُبْصِرُونَ ]

(Have they not seen how We drive water to the dry land that has no vegetation, and therewith bring forth crops providing food for their cattle and themselves Will they not then see) This is like the Ayah,

[فَلْيَنظُرِ الإِنسَـنُ إِلَى طَعَامِهِ أَنَّا صَبَبْنَا الْمَآءَ صَبّاً ]

(Then let man look at his food: We pour forth water in abundance.) (80:24-25). Allah says here:

[أَفَلاَ يُبْصِرُونَ]

(Will they not then see)

[وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هَـذَا الْفَتْحُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ - قُلْ يَوْمَ الْفَتْحِ لاَ يَنفَعُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِيَمَـنُهُمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ - فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَانتَظِرْ إِنَّهُمْ مُّنتَظِرُونَ ]

(28. They say: "When will this Fath be, if you are telling the truth'') (29. Say: "On the Day of Al-Fath, no profit will it be to those who disbelieve if they (then) believe! Nor will they be granted a respite.'') (30. So turn aside from them and await, verily, they (too) are awaiting.)

12. How the Disbelievers sought to hasten on the Punishment, and what happened to Them

Allah tells us how the disbelievers sought to hasten on the punishment, and to bring the wrath and vengeance of Allah upon themselves, because they thought this punishment would never happen, and because of their disbelief and stubbornness.

[وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هَـذَا الْفَتْحُ]

(They say: "When will this Fath be...'') meaning, `when will you prevail over us, O Muhammad, since you claim that there will be a time when you will gain the upper hand over us and take your revenge on us, so when will that happen All we see of you and your companions is that you are hiding, afraid and humiliated.' Allah says:

[قُلْ يَوْمَ الْفَتْحِ]

(Say: "On the Day of Al-Fath...'') meaning, `when the wrath and punishment of Allah befall you, in this world and the next,'

[لاَ يَنفَعُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِيَمَـنُهُمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ]

(no profit will it be to those who disbelieve if they (then) believe! Nor will they be granted a respite.) This is like the Ayah,

[فَلَمَّا جَآءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ فَرِحُواْ بِمَا عِندَهُمْ مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ]

(Then when their Messengers came to them with clear proofs, they were glad with that which they had of the knowledge...) (40:83-85) Those who claim that this refers to the conquest of Makkah go too far, and have made a grievous mistake, for on the day of the conquest of Makkah, the Messenger of Allah accepted the Islam of the freed Makkan prisoners-of-war, who numbered nearly two thousand. If what was meant by this Ayah was the conquest of Makkah, he would not have accepted their Islam, because Allah says:

[قُلْ يَوْمَ الْفَتْحِ لاَ يَنفَعُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِيَمَـنُهُمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ ]

(Say: "On the Day of Al-Fath, no profit will it be to those who disbelieve if they (then) believe! Nor will they be granted a respite.'') What is meant by Al-Fath here is Judgement, as in the Ayat:

[فَافْتَحْ بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَهُمْ فَتْحاً]

([Nuh said:] So Aftah (judge) between me and them) (26:118). and:

[قُلْ يَجْمَعُ بَيْنَنَا رَبُّنَا ثُمَّ يَفْتَحُ بَيْنَنَا بِالْحَقِّ]

(Say: "Our Lord will assemble us all together, then He will judge between us with truth'') (34:26).

[وَاسْتَفْتَحُواْ وَخَابَ كُلُّ جَبَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ ]

(And they sought judgement and every obstinate, arrogant dictator was brought to a complete loss and destruction. ) (14:15)

[وَكَانُواْ مِن قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ]

(although aforetime they had invoked Allah to pass judgement over those who disbelieved) (2:89)

[إِن تَسْتَفْتِحُواْ فَقَدْ جَآءَكُمُ الْفَتْحُ]

(If you ask for a judgement, now has the judgement come unto you) (8:19). Then Allah says:

[فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَانتَظِرْ إِنَّهُمْ مُّنتَظِرُونَ ]

(So turn aside from them and await, verily, they (too) are awaiting.) meaning, `turn away from these idolators, and convey that which has been revealed to you from your Lord.' This is like the Ayah,

[اتَّبِعْ مَآ أُوحِىَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ]

(Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord, there is no God but Him.) (6:106) `Wait until Allah fulfills that which He has promised you, and grants you victory over those who oppose you, for He never breaks His promise.'

[عَنْهُمْ وَانتَظِرْ]

(verily, they (too) are awaiting.) means, `you are waiting, and they are waiting and plotting against you,'

[أَمْ يَقُولُونَ شَاعِرٌ نَّتَرَبَّصُ بِهِ رَيْبَ الْمَنُونِ ]

(Or do they say: "A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!'') (52:30). `You will see the consequences of your patience towards them, and the fulfillment of the promise of your Lord in your victory over them, and they will see the consequences of their wait for something bad to befall you and your Companions, in that Allah's punishment will come upon them.' Sufficient unto us is Allah, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat As-Sajdah.


The Tafsir of Surah Al-Ahzab (De Bondgenoten) (Chapter 33)
Top Index

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

1. Which was revealed in Al-Madinah
2. The Command to defy the Disbelievers and Hypocrites by following the Revelation of Allah and putting One's Trust in Him
3. Abolition of Adoption
4. An Adopted Child should be named after His Real Father
5. Loyalty to the Prophet ; and his wives are Mothers of the Believers
6. The Covenant of the Prophets
7. The Campaign of the Confederates (Al-Ahzab)
8. How the Believers were tested, and the Position of the Hypocrites during the Battle of Al-Khandaq
9. The Command to follow the Messenger
10. The Attitude of the Believers towards the Confederates
11. Praise for the Believers' Attitude, and leaving the ultimate Fate of the Hypocrites to Allah
12. Allah drove back the Confederates disappointed and lost
13. The Campaign against Banu Qurayzah
14. Giving the Wives of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم the Choice
15. The Wives of the Prophet are not like Other Women
16. Enjoining certain Manners so that the Mothers of the Believers may be an Example; and the Prohibition of Tabarruj
17. The Wives of the Prophet are Members of His Household (Ahl Al-Bayt)
18. The Command to follow the Qur'an and Sunnah
19. The Reason for Revelation 1
20. The Reason for Revelation 2
21. Allah's rebuke to His Messenger and the Story of Zayd and Zaynab
22. Praise for Those Who convey the Message
23. The Messenger is not the Father of any Man
24. He is the Last of the Prophets
25. Another Hadith 1
26. Another Hadith 2
27. Another Hadith 3
28. Another Hadith 4
29. Another Hadith 5
30. Another Hadith 6
31. Another Hadith 7
32. The Virtue of remembering Allah much
33. The Meaning of Salah
34. The Attributes of the Messenger of Allah
35. A Gift and no (Iddah) for Women Who are divorced before Consummation of the Marriage
36. The Women who are Lawful for the Prophet
37. The Prophet has the Choice of either accepting or rejecting Women who offer Themselves to Him
38. The Reward of His Wives for choosing to stay with the Messenger
39. The Etiquette of entering the Houses of the Prophet and the Command of Hijab
40. Prohibition of annoying the Messenger and the Statement that His Wives are Unlawful for the Muslims
41. Relatives before Whom a Woman does not need to observe Hijab
42. The Command to say Salah upon the Prophet
43. Another Hadith 8
44. Another Hadith 9
45. Another Hadith 10
46. Saying Salah upon the Prophet before the Supplication
47. The Virtue of saying Salah upon the Prophet
48. Another Hadith 12
49. Another Chain of Narration
50. Another Hadith 13
51. Another Hadith 14
52. Another Hadith 15
53. Another Hadith 16
54. Occasions for saying Salah upon Him
55. It is recommended to conclude supplications with Salah upon the Prophet
56. Whoever annoys Allah and His Messenger , is cursed in this World and the Hereafter Here
57. The Threat to Those Who fabricate Slander
58. The Command of Hijab
59. A Stern Warning to the Evil Hypocrites
60. No One knows when the Day of Resurrection will come except Allah
61. The Curse on the Disbelievers and its Eternity and their Regret
62. The Fabrications of the Jews against Musa
63. The Command to the Believers to have Taqwa and speak the Truth
64. How Man bore the Amanah
65. The Result of taking on the Amanah


1. Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[يأَيُّهَا النَّبِىِّ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ وَلاَ تُطِعِ الْكَـفِرِينَ وَالْمُنَـفِقِينَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً - وَاتَّبِعْ مَا يُوحَى إِلَـيْكَ مِن رَبِّكَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيراً - وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلاً ]

(1. O Prophet! Have Taqwa of Allah, and obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.) (2. And follow that which is revealed to you from your Lord. Verily, Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.) (3. And put your trust in Allah, and sufficient is Allah as a Trustee.)

2. The Command to defy the Disbelievers and Hypocrites by following the Revelation of Allah and putting One's Trust in Him

Here Allah points out something lower by referring to something higher. When He commands His servant and Messenger to do this, He is also commanding those who are lower than him, and the command is addressed to them more so. Talq bin Habib said: "Taqwa means obeying Allah in the light of the guidance of Allah and in hope of earning the reward of Allah, and refraining from disobeying Allah in the light of the guidance of Allah and fearing the punishment of Allah.''

[وَلاَ تُطِعِ الْكَـفِرِينَ وَالْمُنَـفِقِينَ]

(and obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites.) means, do not listen to what they say and do not consult them.

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً]

(Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise) means, He is more deserving of your following His commandments and obeying Him, for He knows the consequences of all things and is Wise in all that He says and does. Allah says:

[وَاتَّبِعْ مَا يُوحَى إِلَـيْكَ مِن رَبِّكَ]

(And follow that which is revealed to you from your Lord.) meaning, of the Qur'an and Sunnah.

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيراً]

(Verily, Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.) means, nothing at all is hidden from Him, and put your trust in Allah, i.e., in all your affairs and situations.

[وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلاً]

(and sufficient is Allah as a Wakil.) means, sufficient is He as a Trustee for the one who puts his trust in Him and turns to Him.

[مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَزْوَجَكُمُ اللاَّئِى تُظَـهِرُونَ مِنْهُنَّ أُمَّهَـتِكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُم بِأَفْوَهِكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ - ادْعُوهُمْ لاًّبَآئِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ فَإِن لَّمْ تَعْلَمُواْ ءَابَاءَهُمْ فَإِخوَانُكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ وَمَوَلِيكُمْ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَآ أَخْطَأْتُمْ بِهِ وَلَـكِن مَّا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً ]

(4. Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body. Neither has He made your wives whom you declare to be like your mothers' backs, your real mothers nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons. That is but your saying with your mouths. But Allah says the truth, and He guides to the way.) (5. Call them by their fathers, that is more just with Allah. But if you know not their father's, your brothers in faith and Mawalikum (your freed servants). And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

3. Abolition of Adoption

Before Allah discusses ideas and theoretical matters, He gives tangible examples: one man cannot have two hearts in his body, and a man's wife does not become his mother if he says the words of Zihar to her: "You are to me like the back of my mother.'' By the same token, an adopted child does not become the son of the man who adopts him and calls him his son. Allah says:

[مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَزْوَجَكُمُ اللاَّئِى تُظَـهِرُونَ مِنْهُنَّ أُمَّهَـتِكُمْ]

(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body. Neither has He made your wives whom you declare to be like your mothers' backs, your real mothers...) This is like the Ayah:

[مَّا هُنَّ أُمَّهَـتِهِمْ إِنْ أُمَّهَـتُهُمْ إِلاَّ اللاَّئِى وَلَدْنَهُمْ]

(They cannot be their mothers. None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth) (58:2).

[وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ]

(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons.) This was revealed concerning Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, the freed servant of the Prophet . The Prophet had adopted him before prophethood, and he was known as Zayd bin Muhammad. Allah wanted to put an end to this naming and attribution, as He said:

[وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ]

(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons. ) This is similar to the Ayah later in this Surah:

[مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَآ أَحَدٍ مّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً ]

(Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.) (33:40). And Allah says here:

[ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُم بِأَفْوَهِكُمْ]

(That is but your saying with your mouths.) meaning, `your adoption of him is just words, and it does not mean that he is really your son,' for he was created from the loins of another man, and a child cannot have two fathers just as a man cannot have two hearts in one body.

[وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ]

(But Allah says the truth, and He guides to the way.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said:

[يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ]

(But Allah says the truth,) means, justice. Qatadah said:

[وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ]

(and He guides to the way) means, the straight path. Imam Ahmad said that Hasan told them that Zuhayr told them from Qabus, meaning Ibn Abi Zibyan, that his father told him: "I said to Ibn `Abbas, `Do you know the Ayah,

[مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ]

(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.) What does this mean' He said that the Messenger of Allah stood up one day to pray, and he trembled. The hypocrites who were praying with him said, `Do you not see that he has two hearts, one heart with you and another with them' Then Allah revealed the words:

[مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ]

(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.)'' This was also narrated by At-Tirmidhi, who said, "It is a Hasan Hadith''. It was also narrated by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from the Hadith of Zuhayr.

4. An Adopted Child should be named after His Real Father

[ادْعُوهُمْ لاًّبَآئِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ]

(Call them (adopted sons) by their fathers, that is more just with Allah.) This is a command which abrogates the state of affairs that existed at the beginning of Islam, when it was permitted to call adopted sons after the man who adopted them. Then Allah commanded that they should be given back the names of their real fathers, and states that this was more fair and just. Al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said: "Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, the freed servant of the Messenger of Allah , was always called Zayd bin Muhammad, until (the words of the) Qur'an were revealed:

[ادْعُوهُمْ لاًّبَآئِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ]

(Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allah.)'' This was also narrated by Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. They used to deal with them as sons in every respect, including being alone with them as Mahrams and so on. Hence Sahlah bint Suhayl, the wife of Abu Hudhayfah, may Allah be pleased with them both, said: "O Messenger of Allah! We used to call Salim our son, but Allah has revealed what He has revealed. He used to enter upon me, but I feel that Abu Hudhayfah does not like that. The Prophet said:

أَرْضِعِيهِ تَحْرُمِي عَلَيْه

(Breastfeed him and he will become your Mahram. )'' Hence when this ruling was abrogated, Allah made it permissible for a man to marry the ex-wife of his adopted son, and the Messenger of Allah married Zaynab bint Jahsh, the divorced wife of Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, Allah said:

[لِكَىْ لاَ يَكُونَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَرَجٌ فِى أَزْوَاجِ أَدْعِيَآئِهِمْ إِذَا قَضَوْاْ مِنْهُنَّ وَطَراً]

(So that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them) (33:37). And Allah says in Ayat At-Tahrim:

[وَحَلَـئِلُ أَبْنَآئِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَـبِكُمْ]

(The wives of your sons from your own loins) (4:23). The wife of an adopted son is not included because he was not born from the man's loins. A "foster'' son through breastfeeding is the same as a son born from one's own loins, from the point of view of Shari`ah, because the Prophet said in the Two Sahihs:

حَرَّمُوا مِنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ مَا يُحَرَّمُ مِنَ النَّسَب

(Suckling makes unlawful as lineage does.) As for calling a person "son'' as an expression of honor and endearment, this is not what is forbidden in this Ayah, as is indicated by the report recorded by Imam Ahmad and the Sunan compilers -- apart from At-Tirmidhi -- from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: "We young boys of Banu `Abd Al-Muttalib came to the Messenger of Allah at the Jamarat; he slapped us on the thigh and said,

(أُبَيْنِيَّ) لَا تَرْمُوا الْجَمْرَةَ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْس

(O my sons, do not stone the Jamarah until the sun has risen.) This was during the Farewell Pilgrimage in 10 AH.

[ادْعُوهُمْ لاًّبَآئِهِمْ]

(Call them by their fathers.) This is concerning Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him. He was killed in 8 AH at the battle of Mu'tah. In Sahih Muslim it is reported that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah said:

يَابَنِي

(O my son.)'' It was also reported by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi.

[فَإِن لَّمْ تَعْلَمُواْ ءَابَاءَهُمْ فَإِخوَانُكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ وَمَوَلِيكُمْ]

(But if you know not their father's then they are your brothers in the religion and Mawalikum (your freed servants).) Here Allah commands that adopted sons should be given back their fathers' names, if they are known; if they are not known, then they should be called brothers in faith or freed servants, to compensate for not knowing what their real lineage is. When the Messenger of Allah left Makkah after performing his `Umrat Al-Qada', the daughter of Hamzah, may Allah be pleased with her, started following him, calling, "O uncle, O uncle!'' `Ali took her and said to Fatimah, may Allah be pleased with her, "Take care of your uncle's daughter,'' so she picked her up. `Ali, Zayd and Ja`far -- may Allah be pleased with them -- disputed over of which of them was going to take care of her, and each of them gave his reasons. `Ali said, "I have more right, because she is the daughter of my paternal uncle.'' Zayd said, "She is the daughter of my brother.'' Ja`far bin Abi Talib said: "She is the daughter of my paternal uncle and I am married to her maternal aunt -- meaning Asma' bint `Umays.'' The Prophet ruled that she should stay with her maternal aunt, and said:

الْخَالَةُ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْأُم

(The maternal aunt has the same status as the mother.) He said to `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him,

أَنْتَ مِنِّي وَأَنَا مِنْك

(You belong to me and I belong to you.) He said to Ja`far, may Allah be pleased with him,

أَشْبَهْتَ خَلْقِي وَخُلُقِي

(You resemble me both in your looks and in your attitude.) And he said to Zayd, may Allah be pleased with him,

أَنْتَ أَخُونَا وَمَوْلَانَا

(You are our brother and our freed servant.) This Hadith contains a number of rulings, the most important of which is that the Prophet ruled according to the truth, and that he sought to appease all the disputing parties. His saying to Zayd, may Allah be pleased with him,

أَنْتَ أَخُونَا وَمَوْلَانَا

(You are our brother and our freed servant.) is as Allah says in this Ayah:

[فَإِخوَانُكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ وَمَوَلِيكُمْ]

(your brothers in faith and your freed servants. ) Then Allah says:

[وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَآ أَخْطَأْتُمْ بِهِ]

(And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake,) meaning, if you call one of them after someone who is not in fact his father, by mistake, after trying your best to find out his parentage, then Allah will not attach any sin to this mistake. This is like the Ayah in which Allah commands His servants to say:

[رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَآ إِن نَّسِينَآ أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا]

(Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error) (2:286). It was reported in Sahih Muslim that the Messenger of Allah said:

قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: قَدْ فَعَلْت

(Allah says, "Certainly I did (so).'') In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it was recorded that `Amr bin Al-`As, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah said:

إِذَا اجْتَهَدَ الْحَاكِمُ فَأَصَابَ فَلَهُ أَجْرَانِ، وَإِنِ اجْتَهَدَ فَأَخْطَأَ فَلَهُ أَجْر

(If the judge makes Ijtihad and reaches the right decision, he will have two rewards; if he makes Ijtihad and reaches the wrong decision, he will have one reward.) In another Hadith:

إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالى رَفَعَ عَنْ أُمَّتِي الْخَطَأَ وَالنِّسْيَانَ وَمَا يُكْرَهُونَ عَلَيْه

(Allah will forgive my Ummah for mistakes, forgetfulness and what they are forced to do.) And Allah says here:

[وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَآ أَخْطَأْتُمْ بِهِ وَلَـكِن مَّا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً]

(And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) meaning, the sin is on the person who deliberately does something wrong, as Allah says elsewhere:

[لاَّ يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِالَّلغْوِ فِى أَيْمَـنِكُمْ]

(Allah will not call you to account for that which is unintentional in your oaths) (2:225). Imam Ahmad narrated from Ibn `Abbas that `Umar said: "Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed to him the Book. One of the things that was revealed in it was the Ayah of stoning, so the Messenger of Allah stoned [adulterers] and we stoned [them] after he died.'' Then he said, "We also used to recite, `Do not attribute yourselves to anyone other than your fathers, for this is disbelief, to attribute yourselves to anyone other than your fathers.''' The Messenger of Allah said:

لَا تُطْرُونِي كَمَا أُطْرِيَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ، فَإِنَّمَا أَنَا عَبْدُاللهِ، فَقُولُوا: عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُه

(Do not exaggerate in praising me as `Isa bin Maryam was praised upon him be peace and blessings. I am just a servant of Allah. Say, "He is His servant and Messenger.'') Or Ma`mar may have said:

كَمَا أَطْرَتِ النَّصَارَى ابْنَ مَرْيَم

(As the Christians praised the son of Maryam. ) This was also narrated in another Hadith:

ثَلَاثٌ فِي النَّاسِ كُفْرٌ: الطَّعْنُ فِي النَّسَبِ، وَالنِّيَاحَةُ عَلَى الْمَيِّتِ، وَالْاسْتِسْقَاءُ بِالنُّجُوم

(Three things that people do are parts of disbelief: slandering a person's lineage, wailing over the dead and seeking rain by the stars.)

[النَّبِىُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَأَزْوَجُهُ أُمَّهَـتُهُمْ وَأُوْلُو الاٌّرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَى بِبَعْضٍ فِى كِتَـبِ اللَّهِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُهَـجِرِينَ إِلاَّ أَن تَفْعَلُواْ إِلَى أَوْلِيَآئِكُمْ مَّعْرُوفاً كَانَ ذَلِكَ فِى الْكِتَـبِ مَسْطُوراً ]

(6. The Prophet is closer to the believers than themselves, and his wives are their mothers. And blood relations among each other have closer personal ties in the decree of Allah than the believers and the Muhajirin, except that you do kindness to those brothers. This has been written in the Book.)

5. Loyalty to the Prophet ; and his wives are Mothers of the Believers

Allah tells us how His Messenger is merciful and sincere towards his Ummah, and how he is closer to them than they are to themselves. His judgement or ruling takes precedence over their own choices for themselves, as Allah says:

[فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُواْ فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجاً مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيماً ]

(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept with full submission.) (4:65) In the Sahih it says:

وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَا يُؤْمِنُ أَحَدُكُمْ حَتَّى أَكُونَ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ وَمَالِهِ وَوَلَدِهِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِين

(By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, none of you truly believes until I am dearer to him than his own self, his wealth, his children and all the people.) It was also reported in the Sahih that `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "O Messenger of Allah, by Allah, you are dearer to me than everything except myself.'' He said,

لَا، يَا عُمَرُ حَتَّى أَكُونَ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ نَفْسِك

(No, O `Umar, not until I am dearer to you than yourself.) `Umar said: "O Messenger of Allah, by Allah, now you are dearer to me than everything, even myself.'' He said,

الْآنَ يَاعُمَر

(Now, O `Umar [you have got it right].) Allah says in this Ayah:

[النَّبِىُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ]

(The Prophet is closer to the believers than themselves,) Concerning this Ayah, Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet said:

مَا مِنْ مُؤْمِنٍ إِلَّا وَأَنَا أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِهِ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ، اقْرَؤُوا إِنْ شِئْتُمْ:

[النَّبِىُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ]

(There is no believer except I am the closest of all people to him in this world and in the Hereafter. Recite, if you wish: (The Prophet is closer to the believers than themselves.)

فَأَيُّمَا مُؤْمِنٍ تَرَكَ مَالًا فَلْيَرِثْهُ عُصْبَتُهُ مَنْ كَانُوا، وَإِنْ تَرَكَ دَيْنًا أَوْ ضِيَاعًا فَلْيَأْتِنِي فَأَنَا مَوْلَاه

If any believer leaves behind any wealth, let his own relatives inherit it, but if he leaves behind any debt or orphans, bring them to me and I will take care of them.) This was recorded only by Al-Bukhari, and he also recorded it in the Book of Loans.

[وَأَزْوَجُهُ أُمَّهَـتُهُمْ]

(and his wives are their mothers.) means, they are unlawful for marriage. In terms of honor, respect and veneration, it is not permissible for them to be alone with them, and the prohibition of marriage to them does not extend to their daughters and sisters, according to scholarly consensus.

[وَأُوْلُو الاٌّرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَى بِبَعْضٍ فِى كِتَـبِ اللَّهِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُهَـجِرِينَ]

(And blood relations among each other have closer personal ties in the decree of Allah than the believers and the Muhajirin, ) This is an abrogation of the rule that existed previously, whereby they could inherit from one another by virtue of the oath of brotherhood among them. Ibn `Abbas and others said: "A Muhajir would inherit from an Ansari even though they were not related by blood, because of the brotherhood established between them by the Messenger of Allah .'' This was also stated by Sa`id bin Jubayr and others among scholars of the earlier and later generations.

[إِلاَّ أَن تَفْعَلُواْ إِلَى أَوْلِيَآئِكُمْ مَّعْرُوفاً]

(except that you do kindness to those brothers.) means, the idea of inheriting from one another has gone, but there remains the duty to offer support and kindness, to uphold ties of brotherhood and to offer good advice.

[كَانَ ذلِك فِى الْكِتَـبِ مَسْطُورًا]

(This has been written in the Book.) This ruling, which is that those who are blood relatives have closer personal ties to one another, is a ruling which Allah has decreed and which is written in the First Book which cannot be altered or changed. This is the view of Mujahid and others. (This is the case) even though Allah legislated something different at certain times, and there is wisdom behind this, for He knew that this would be abrogated and the original ruling that was instituted an eternity ago would prevail, and this is His universal and legislative decree. And Allah knows best.

[وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِنَ النَّبِيِّيْنَ مِيثَاقَهُمْ وَمِنْكَ وَمِن نُّوحٍ وَإِبْرَهِيمَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُمْ مِّيثَاقًا غَلِيظاً - لِّيَسْأَلَ الصَّـدِقِينَ عَن صِدْقِهِمْ وَأَعَدَّ لِلْكَـفِرِينَ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً ]

(7. And when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you, and from Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, and `Isa son of Maryam. We took from them a strong covenant.) (8. That He may ask the truthful about their truth. And He has prepared for the disbelievers a painful torment.)

6. The Covenant of the Prophets

Allah tells us about the five Mighty Messengers with strong resolve and the other Prophets, how He took a covenant from them to establish the religion of Allah and convey His Message, and to cooperate and support one another, as Allah says:

[وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَـقَ النَّبِيِّيْنَ لَمَآ ءَاتَيْتُكُم مِّن كِتَـبٍ وَحِكْمَةٍ ثُمَّ جَآءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مُّصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ لَتُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهِ وَلَتَنصُرُنَّهُ قَالَ ءَأَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَخَذْتُمْ عَلَى ذلِكُمْ إِصْرِى قَالُواْ أَقْرَرْنَا قَالَ فَاشْهَدُواْ وَأَنَاْ مَعَكُمْ مِّنَ الشَّـهِدِينَ ]

(And when Allah took the covenant of the Prophets, saying: "Take whatever I gave you from the Book and Hikmah, and afterwards there will come to you a Messenger confirming what is with you; you must, then, believe in him and help him.'' Allah said: "Do you agree, and will you take up My covenant'' They said: "We agree.'' He said: "Then bear witness; and I am with you among the witnesses.'') (3:81) This covenant was taken from them after their missions started. Elsewhere in the Qur'an, Allah mentions five by name, and these are the Mighty Messengers with strong resolve. They are also mentioned by name in this Ayah and in the Ayah:

[شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ الِدِينِ مَا وَصَّى بِهِ نُوحاً وَالَّذِى أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى أَنْ أَقِيمُواْ الدِّينَ وَلاَ تَتَفَرَّقُواْ فِيهِ]

(He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion which He ordained for Nuh, and that which We have revealed to you, and that which We ordained for Ibrahim, Musa and `Isa saying you should establish religion and make no divisions in it.) (42:13) This is the covenant which Allah took from them, as He says:

[وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِنَ النَّبِيِّيْنَ مِيثَاقَهُمْ وَمِنْكَ وَمِن نُّوحٍ وَإِبْرَهِيمَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ]

(And when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you, and from Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, and `Isa son of Maryam.) This Ayah begins with the last Prophet, as a token of respect, may the blessings of Allah be upon him, then the names of the other Prophets are given in order, may the blessings of Allah be upon them. Ibn `Abbas said: "The strong covenant is Al-`Ahd (the covenant).

[لِّيَسْأَلَ الصَّـدِقِينَ عَن صِدْقِهِمْ]

(That He may ask the truthful about their truth.) Mujahid said: "This refers to, those who convey the Message from the Messengers.''

[وَأَعَدَّ لِلْكَـفِرِينَ]

(And He has prepared for the disbelievers) i.e., among their nations,

[عَذَاباً أَلِيماً]

(a painful torment.) i.e., agonizing. We bear witness that the Messengers did indeed convey the Message of their Lord and advised their nations, and that they clearly showed them the truth in which there is no confusion, doubt or ambiguity, even though they were rejected by the ignorant, stubborn and rebellious wrongdoers. What the Messengers brought is the truth, and whoever opposes them is misguided. As the people of Paradise will say:

[لَقَدْ جَآءَتْ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِالْحَقِّ]

(Indeed, the Messengers of our Lord did come with the truth.) (7:43)

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَآءَتْكُمْ جُنُودٌ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِيحاً وَجُنُوداً لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيراً - إِذْ جَآءُوكُمْ مِّن فَوْقِكُمْ وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ وَإِذْ زَاغَتِ الاٌّبْصَـرُ وَبَلَغَتِ الْقُلُوبُ الْحَنَاجِرَ وَتَظُنُّونَ بِاللَّهِ الظُّنُونَاْ ]

(9. O you who believe! Remember Allah's favor to you, when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces that you saw not. And Allah is Ever All-Seer of what you do.) (10. When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harboring doubts about Allah.)

7. The Campaign of the Confederates (Al-Ahzab)

Allah tells us of the blessings and favors He bestowed upon His believing servants when He diverted their enemies and defeated them in the year when they gathered together and plotted. That was the year of Al-Khandaq, in Shawwal of the year 5 AH according to the well-known correct view. Musa bin `Uqbah and others said that it was in the year 4 AH. The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Jews of Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah where they met with the leaders of Quraysh and incited them to make war against the Prophet . They promised that they would give them help and support, and Quraysh agreed to that. Then they went to the Ghatafan tribe with the same call, and they responded too. The Quraysh came out with their company of men from various tribes and their followers, under the leadership of Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb. The Ghatafan were led by `Uyaynah bin Hisn bin Badr. In all they numbered nearly ten thousand. When the Messenger of Allah heard that they had set out, he commanded the Muslims to dig a ditch (Khandaq) around Al-Madinah from the east. This was on the advice of Salman Al-Farisi, may Allah be pleased with him. So the Muslims did this, working hard, and the Messenger of Allah worked with them, carrying earth away and digging, in the process of which there occurred many miracles and clear signs. The idolators came and made camp to the north of Al-Madinah, near Uhud, and some of them camped on the high ground overlooking Al-Madinah, as Allah says:

[إِذْ جَآءُوكُمْ مِّن فَوْقِكُمْ وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ]

(When they came upon you from above you and from below you,) The Messenger of Allah came out with the believers, who numbered nearly three thousand, or it was said that they numbered seven hundred. They had their backs towards (the mountain of) Sal` and were facing the enemy, and the ditch, in which there was no water, was between the two groups, preventing the cavalry and infantry from reaching them. The women and children were in the strongholds of Al-Madinah. Banu Qurayzah, who were a group among the Jews, had a fortress in the south-east of Al-Madinah, and they had made a treaty with the Prophet and were under his protection. They numbered nearly eight hundred fighters. Huyay bin Akhtab An-Nadari went to them and kept trying to persuade them until they broke the treaty and went over to the side of the Confederates against the Messenger of Allah . The crisis deepened and things got worse, as Allah says:

[هُنَالِكَ ابْتُلِىَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَزُلْزِلُواْ زِلْزَالاً شَدِيداً ]

(There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking.) [33: 11] They besieged the Prophet and his Companions for almost a month, but they did not reach them and there was no fighting between them, except for when `Amr bin `Abd Wadd Al-`Amiri, who was one of the most famous and bravest horsemen of the Jahiliyyah, came with some other horsemen, and crossed the ditch to the Muslim side. The Messenger of Allah called for the Muslim cavalry, and it was said that no one came forward. Then he called `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, who came forward and they fought in single combat until Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, killed him, and this was a sign of imminent victory. Then Allah sent an intensely cold wind with strong gusts against the Confederates, and they were left with no tents or anything else; they could not light any fires or do anything, and so they departed, disappointed and defeated, as Allah says:

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَآءَتْكُمْ جُنُودٌ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِيحاً وَجُنُوداً]

(O you who believe! Remember Allah's favor to you, when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces) Mujahid said: "This was the easterly wind.'' This view is supported by another Hadith:

نُصِرْتُ بِالصَّبَا، وَأُهْلِكَتْ عَادٌ بِالدَّبُور

(I was given victory by the easterly wind, and `Ad were destroyed by the westerly wind.)

[وَجُنُوداً لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا]

(and forces that you saw not.) This refers to the angels who shook them and cast fear and terror into their hearts. The chief of each tribe said, "O Banu so-and-so, to me!'' So they gathered around him, and he said, "Let us save ourselves,'' when Allah cast fear and terror into their hearts. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Ibrahim At-Taymi said that his father said: "We were with Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman, may Allah be pleased with him, and a man said to him: `If I had met the Messenger of Allah I would have fought alongside him and I would have striven my utmost.' Hudhayfah said to him: `Would you really have done that I was present with the Messenger of Allah during (the campaign) against the Confederates on a very cold and windy night, and the Messenger of Allah said:

أَلَا رَجُلٌ يَأْتِي بِخَبَرِ الْقَوْمِ يَكُونُ مَعِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة

(Is there any man who will bring me news of the people He will be with me on the Day of Resurrection.) None of us answered him, and he repeated it a second and a third time. Then he said:

يَاحُذَيْفَةُ قُمْ فَأْتِنَا بِخَبَرٍ مِنَ الْقَوْم

(O Hudhayfah, get up and bring us news of the people.) When he called me by name, I had no choice but to get up. He said,

ائْتِنِي بِخَبَرِ الْقَوْمِ وَلَاتَذْعَرْهُمْ عَلَي

(Bring us news of the people, but do not alarm them.) So I went, walking as if I were walking among pigeons, until I came to them. I saw Abu Sufyan warming his back by the fire, and I put an arrow in my bow, wanting to shoot it at him, then I remembered what the Messenger of Allah said,

وَلَاتَذْعَرْهُمْ عَلَي

(Do not alarm them.) If I shot the arrow, I would have hit him. So I came back, again walking as if I were walking among pigeons, and I came to the Messenger of Allah . After my returning I began to feel very cold. I told the Messenger of Allah and he gave me to wear a spare cloak of his which he used to pray in. I slept until morning came, and when morning came, the Messenger of Allah said,

قُمْ يَانَوْمَان

(Get up, O sleepy one!)'''

[إِذْ جَآءُوكُمْ مِّن فَوْقِكُمْ]

(When they came upon you from above you) refers to the Confederates,

[وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ]

(and from below you.) We have already noted the report from Abu Hudhayfah that these were Banu Qurayzah.

[وَإِذْ زَاغَتِ الاٌّبْصَـرُ وَبَلَغَتِ الْقُلُوبُ الْحَنَاجِرَ]

(and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats,) means, from intense fear and terror.

[وَتَظُنُّونَ بِاللَّهِ الظُّنُونَاْ]

(and you were harboring doubts about Allah.) Ibn Jarir said: "Some of those who were with the Messenger of Allah , had doubts and thought that the outcome would be against the believers, and that Allah would allow that to happen.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq said concerning the Ayah:

[وَإِذْ زَاغَتِ الاٌّبْصَـرُ وَبَلَغَتِ الْقُلُوبُ الْحَنَاجِرَ وَتَظُنُّونَ بِاللَّهِ الظُّنُونَاْ]

(when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harboring doubts about Allah.) "The believers had all kinds of doubts, and hypocrisy emerged to such an extent that Mu`attib bin Qushayr, the brother of Banu `Amr bin `Awf said: `Muhammad was promising us that we would win the treasure of Chosroes and Caesar, but one of us cannot even go and relieve himself.''' Al-Hasan said concerning the Ayah:

[وَتَظُنُّونَ بِاللَّهِ الظُّنُونَاْ]

(and you were harboring doubts about Allah.) "There were different kinds of thoughts; the hypocrites thought that Muhammad and his Companions would be eliminated, while the believers were certain that what Allah and His Messenger promised was true, and that He would cause the religion to prevail even if the idolators hated it.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Sa`id, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "On the day of Al-Khandaq, we said: `O Messenger of Allah, is there anything we should say, for our hearts have reached our throats' He said:

نَعَمْ، قُولُوا: اللَّهُمَّ اسْتُرْ عَوْرَاتِنَا وَآمِنْ رَوْعَاتِنَا

(Yes, say: O Allah, cover our weak points and calm our fears.) Then [Allah] struck the faces of the enemy with the wind, and defeated them with the wind. This was also recorded by Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal from Abu `Amir Al-`Aqadi.

[هُنَالِكَ ابْتُلِىَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَزُلْزِلُواْ زِلْزَالاً شَدِيداً - وَإِذْ يَقُولُ الْمُنَـفِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ مَّا وَعَدَنَا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ إِلاَّ غُرُوراً وَإِذْ قَالَت طَّآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ يأَهْلَ .يَثْرِبَ لاَ مُقَامَ لَكُمْ فَارْجِعُواْ وَيَسْتَأْذِنُ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمُالنَّبِىَّ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ بُيُوتَنَا عَوْرَةٌ وَمَا هِىَ بِعَوْرَةٍ إِن يُرِيدُونَ إِلاَّ فِرَاراً]

(11. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking. ) (12. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease said: "Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion!'') (13. And when a party of them said: "O people of Yathrib! There is no postition for you. Therefore go back!'' And a band of them ask for permission of the Prophet saying: "Truly, our homes lie open.'' And they lay not open. They but wished to flee.)

8. How the Believers were tested, and the Position of the Hypocrites during the Battle of Al-Khandaq

Allah tells us what happened when the Confederates surrounded Al-Madinah and the Muslims were besieged and found themselves in straitened circumstances, with the Messenger of Allah in their midst. They were tried and tested, and were shaken with a mighty shaking. At this time hypocrisy emerged, and those in whose hearts was a disease spoke about what they really felt.

[وَإِذْ يَقُولُ الْمُنَـفِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ مَّا وَعَدَنَا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ إِلاَّ غُرُوراً ]

(And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease said: "Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion!'') Their hypocrisy became apparent, while the one in whose heart was doubt became weak, and he expressed the ideas that were in his heart because of the weakness of his faith and the difficulty of the situation. And other people said, as Allah tells us:

[وَإِذْ قَالَت طَّآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ يأَهْلَ .يَثْرِبَ]

(And when a party of them said: "O people of Yathrib...'') meaning Al-Madinah, as it was reported in the Sahih:

أُرِيتُ فِي الْمَنَامِ دَارَ هِجْرَتِكُمْ، أَرْضٌ بَيْنَ حَرَّتَيْنِ، فَذَهَبَ وَهَلِي أَنَّهَا هَجَرُ فَإِذَا هِيَ يَثْرِب

(I was shown in a dream the place to which you will migrate, a land between two lava fields. At first I thought it was Hajar, but it turned out to be Yathrib.) According to another narration:

الْمَدِينَة

(Al-Madinah. ) It was said that the origin of its name Yathrib was that a man settled there from (the people of) Al-`Amaliq whose name was Yathrib bin `Ubayd bin Mahlayil bin `Aws bin `Amlaq bin Lawudh bin Iram bin Sam bin Nuh. This was the view of As-Suhayli. He said: "And it was narrated from some of them that he said, `It is given eleven names in the Tawrah: Al-Madinah, Tabah, Tayyibah, Al-Miskinah, Al-Jabirah, Al-Muhibbah, Al-Mahbubah, Al-Qasimah, Al-Majburah, Al-`Adhra' and Al-Marhumah.''' r

[لاَ مُقَامَ لَكُمْ]

(There is no position for you.) means, `here, with the Prophet , you cannot stand guard,'

[فَارْجِعُواْ]

(Therefore go back) means, `to your houses and dwellings'.

[وَيَسْتَأْذِنُ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمُ النَّبِىَّ]

(And a band of them ask for permission of the Prophet) Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him said, "These were Banu Harithah, who said, `We fear for our homes, that they may be robbed.''' This was also stated by others. Ibn Ishaq mentioned that the one who said this was `Aws bin Qayzi. They were using as an excuse to go back to their houses the claim that they were lying open and had nothing to protect them from the enemy, so they were afraid for their homes. But Allah said:

[وَمَا هِىَ بِعَوْرَةٍ]

(And they lay not open.) meaning, it is not as they claim.

[إِن يُرِيدُونَ إِلاَّ فِرَاراً]

(They but wished to flee.) means, they wanted to run away from the battlefield.

[وَلَوْ دُخِلَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّنْ أَقْطَارِهَا ثُمَّ سُئِلُواْ الْفِتْنَةَ لاّتَوْهَا وَمَا تَلَبَّثُواْ بِهَآ إِلاَّ يَسِيراً - وَلَقَدْ كَانُواْ عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ مِن قَبْلُ لاَ يُوَلُّونَ الاٌّدْبَـرَ وَكَانَ عَهْدُ اللَّهِ مَسْئُولاً - قُل لَّن يَنفَعَكُمُ الْفِرَارُ إِن فَرَرْتُمْ مِّنَ الْمَوْتِ أَوِ الْقَتْلِ وَإِذاً لاَّ تُمَتَّعُونَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً - قُلْ مَن ذَا الَّذِى يَعْصِمُكُمْ مِّنَ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ سُوءاً أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ رَحْمَةً وَلاَ يَجِدُونَ لَهُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيّاً وَلاَ نَصِيراً ]

(14. And if the enemy had entered from all sides, and they had been exhorted to Al-Fitnah, they would surely have committed it and would have hesitated thereupon but little.) (15. And indeed they had already made a covenant with Allah not to turn their backs, and a covenant with Allah must be answered for.) (16. Say: "Flight will not avail you if you flee from death or killing and then you will enjoy no more than a little while!'') (17. Say: "Who is he who can protect you from Allah if He intends to harm you, or intends mercy on you'' And they will not find, besides Allah, for themselves any protector or any helper.) Allah tells us about those who said:

[يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ بُيُوتَنَا عَوْرَةٌ وَمَا هِىَ بِعَوْرَةٍ إِن يُرِيدُونَ إِلاَّ فِرَاراً]

("Truly, our homes lie open.'' And they lay not open. They but wished to flee.) If the enemy had entered upon them from every side of Al-Madinah and from every direction, then demanded that they become disbelievers, they would have promptly done so. They would not have adhered to their faith or remained steadfast in it if they were faced with the slightest fear. This is how it was interpreted by Qatadah, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd and Ibn Jarir. This is a condemnation of them in the clearest terms. Then Allah reminds them of the promise they had made to Him before this fear struck them, that they would not turn their backs or flee from the battlefield.

[وَكَانَ عَهْدُ اللَّهِ مَسْئُولاً]

(and a covenant with Allah must be answered for.) means, Allah will inevitably ask them about that covenant. Then Allah tells them that fleeing from battle will not delay their appointed demise or make their lives any longer; on the contrary, it may be the cause of their being taken sooner, and in a sudden manner. Allah says:

[وَإِذاً لاَّ تُمَتَّعُونَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً]

(and then you will enjoy no more than a little while!) meaning, `after you run away and flee from battle.'

[قُلْ مَتَـعُ الدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالاٌّخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقَى]

(Say: "Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is better for him who have Taqwa'') (4:77). Then Allah says:

[قُلْ مَن ذَا الَّذِى يَعْصِمُكُمْ مِّنَ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ سُوءاً أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ رَحْمَةً وَلاَ يَجِدُونَ لَهُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيّاً وَلاَ نَصِيراً ]

(Say: "Who is he who can protect you from Allah if He intends to harm you, or intends mercy on you'' And they will not find, besides Allah, for themselves any protector or any helper.) meaning, they have no one else except Allah to respond to their cries.

[قَدْ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ الْمُعَوِّقِينَ مِنكُمْ وَالْقَآئِلِينَ لإِخْوَنِهِمْ هَلُمَّ إِلَيْنَا وَلاَ يَأْتُونَ الْبَأْسَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً - أَشِحَّةً عَلَيْكُمْ فَإِذَا جَآءَ الْخَوْفُ رَأَيْتَهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ تَدورُ أَعْيُنُهُمْ كَالَّذِى يُغْشَى عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ فَإِذَا ذَهَبَ الْخَوْفُ سَلَقُوكُم بِأَلْسِنَةٍ حِدَادٍ أَشِحَّةً عَلَى الْخَيْرِ أوْلَـئِكَ لَمْ يُؤْمِنُواْ فَأَحْبَطَ اللَّهُ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيراً ]

(18. Allah already knows those among you who keep back (men) from fighting (in Allah's cause), and those who say to their brethren, "Come here towards us,'' while they come not to the battle except a little,) (19. Being miserly towards you. Then when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes revolving like one over whom hovers death; but when the fear departs, they will smite you with sharp tongues, miserly towards good. Such have not believed. Therefore, Allah makes their deeds fruitless and that is ever easy for Allah.) Allah tells us that His knowledge encompasses those who sought to tell others not to go out and who said to their brethren, meaning their companions, friend and acquaintances,

[هَلُمَّ إِلَيْنَا]

(Come here towards us,) meaning, come to where we are in the shade and enjoying fruits. But in spite of that,

[وَلاَ يَأْتُونَ الْبَأْسَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً]

أَشِحَّةً

[عَلَيْكُمْ]

(they come not to the battle except a little, being miserly towards you.) i.e., `they are mean and have no love or mercy towards you.' As-Suddi said:

[أَشِحَّةً عَلَيْكُمْ]

(Being miserly towards you.) means, with the booty.

[فَإِذَا جَآءَ الْخَوْفُ رَأَيْتَهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ تَدورُ أَعْيُنُهُمْ كَالَّذِى يُغْشَى عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ]

(Then when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes revolving like one over whom hovers death;) means, because of the intensity of their fear and terror; this is how afraid these cowards are of fighting.

[فَإِذَا ذَهَبَ الْخَوْفُ سَلَقُوكُم بِأَلْسِنَةٍ حِدَادٍ]

(but when the fear departs, they will smite you with sharp tongues,) means, when security is restored, they will speak eloquently and nicely, claiming that they were the bravest and most chivalrous of men, but they are lying. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

[سَلَقُوكُم]

(they will smite you) means, "they will start to talk about you.'' Qatadah said: "But when it comes to the booty, the most miserly of people and the worst to have to share the booty with are those who say, `Give us, give us, we were there with you,' but during battle they were the most cowardly and the most likely to fail to support the truth.'' They are miserly towards good, meaning that there is no goodness in them, for they have combined cowardice with lies and little good. Allah says:

[أوْلَـئِكَ لَمْ يُؤْمِنُواْ فَأَحْبَطَ اللَّهُ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيراً]

(Such have not believed. Therefore Allah makes their deeds fruitless and that is ever easy for Allah.)

[يَحْسَبُونَ الاٌّحْزَابَ لَمْ يَذْهَبُواْ وَإِن يَأْتِ الاٌّحْزَابُ يَوَدُّواْ لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ بَادُونَ فِى الاٌّعْرَابِ يَسْأَلُونَ عَنْ أَنبَآئِكُمْ وَلَوْ كَانُواْ فِيكُمْ مَّا قَاتَلُواْ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً ]

(20. They think that the Confederates have not yet withdrawn; and if the Confederates should come, they would wish they were in the deserts among the bedouins, seeking news about you; and if they were to be among you, they would not fight but little.) This is another aspect of their abhorrent attribute of cowardice and fear:

[يَحْسَبُونَ الاٌّحْزَابَ لَمْ يَذْهَبُواْ]

(They think that the Confederates have not yet withdrawn;) and that they are still close by and will return.

[وَإِن يَأْتِ الاٌّحْزَابُ يَوَدُّواْ لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ بَادُونَ فِى الاٌّعْرَابِ يَسْأَلُونَ عَنْ أَنبَآئِكُمْ]

(and if the Confederates should come, they would wish they were in the deserts among the bedouins, seeking news about you;) means, `if the Confederates should come back, they hope that they will not be present with you in Al-Madinah, but that they will be in the desert, asking about news of you and what happened to you with your enemy.'

[وَلَوْ كَانُواْ فِيكُمْ مَّا قَاتَلُواْ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً]

(and if they were to be among you, they would not fight but little.) means, `if they are among you, they will not fight alongside you very much,' because they are so cowardly and weak, and have so little faith, but Allah knows best about them.

[لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الاٌّخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً - وَلَمَّا رَأَى الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الاٌّحْزَابَ قَالُواْ هَـذَا مَا وَعَدَنَا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَصَدَقَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَمَا زَادَهُمْ إِلاَّ إِيمَانًا وَتَسْلِيماً ]

(21. Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.) (22. And when the believers saw the Confederates, they said: "This is what Allah and His Messenger had promised us; and Allah and His Messenger had spoken the truth.'' And it only added to their faith and to their submissiveness.)

9. The Command to follow the Messenger

This Ayah is an important principle, to follow the Messenger of Allah in all his words, and deeds, etc. Hence Allah commanded the people to take the Prophet as an example on the day of Al-Ahzab, with regard to patience, guarding, striving and waiting for Allah to provide the way out; may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him forever, until the Day of Judgement. Allah says to those who were anxious and impatient and were shaken by feelings of panic on the day of Al-Ahzab:

[لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ]

(Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example to follow) meaning, `why do you not take him as an example and follow his lead' Allah says:

[لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الاٌّخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً]

(for him who hopes in Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.)

10. The Attitude of the Believers towards the Confederates

Then Allah tells us about His believing servants who believed Allah's promise to them and how He will make the consequences good for them in this world and in the Hereafter. He says:

[وَلَمَّا رَأَى الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الاٌّحْزَابَ قَالُواْ هَـذَا مَا وَعَدَنَا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَصَدَقَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ]

(And when the believers saw the Confederates, they said: "This is what Allah and His Messenger had promised us; and Allah and His Messenger had spoken the truth.'') Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and Qatadah said: "They mean what Allah said in Surat Al-Baqarah:

[أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُم مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْاْ مِن قَبْلِكُم مَّسَّتْهُمُ الْبَأْسَآءُ وَالضَّرَّآءُ وَزُلْزِلُواْ حَتَّى يَقُولَ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَعَهُ مَتَى نَصْرُ اللَّهِ أَلاَ إِنَّ نَصْرَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ ]

(Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said,"When (will come) the help of Allah'' Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near!)(2:214) meaning, `this is the trial and test that Allah and His Messenger promised us would be followed by the help and victory of Allah that is near.' Allah says:

[وَصَدَقَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ]

(and Allah and His Messenger had spoken the truth. )

[وَمَا زَادَهُمْ إِلاَّ إِيمَانًا وَتَسْلِيماً]

(And it only added to their faith and to their submissiveness.) This indicates that faith can increase and strengthen in accordance with people's circumstances, as the majority of scholars stated: faith can increase and decrease. We have stated this at the beginning of our commentary on Al-Bukhari, praise be to Allah.

[وَمَا زَادَهُمْ]

(And it only added) means, at that time of stress and difficulty

[إِلاَّ إِيمَانًا]

(to their faith) in Allah,

[وَتَسْلِيماً]

(and to their submissiveness.) means their submission to His commands and their obedience to His Messenger .

[مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبْدِيلاً لِّيَجْزِىَ اللَّهُ الصَّـدِقِينَ بِصِدْقِهِمْالْمُنَـفِقِينَ إِن شَآءَ أَوْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً]

(23. Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah; of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah; and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed in the least.) (24. That Allah may reward the men of truth for their truth, and punish the hypocrites, if He wills, or accept their repentance by turning to them. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

11. Praise for the Believers' Attitude, and leaving the ultimate Fate of the Hypocrites to Allah

When Allah mentions how the hypocrites broke their promise to Him that they would not turn their backs, He describes the believers as firmly adhering to their covenant and their promise:

[صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ]

([they] have been true to their covenant with Allah; of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah;) Some of them said: "Met their appointed time (i.e., death).'' Al-Bukhari said, "Their covenant, and refers back to the beginning of the Ayah.''

[وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبْدِيلاً]

(and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed in the least.) means, they have never changed or broken their covenant with Allah. Al-Bukhari recorded that Zayd bin Thabit said: "When we wrote down the Mushaf, an Ayah from Surat Al-Ahzab was missing, which I used to hear the Messenger of Allah reciting. I did not find it with anyone except Khuzaymah bin Thabit Al-Ansari, may Allah be pleased with him, whose testimony the Messenger of Allah counted as equal to that of two other men. (The Ayah in question was:)

[مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ]

(Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah;)'' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari but not by Muslim, It was also recorded by Ahmad in his Musnad, and by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i in the chapters on Tafsir in their Sunans. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih. Al-Bukhari also recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "We think that this Ayah was revealed concerning Anas bin An-Nadr, may Allah be pleased with him:

[مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ]

(Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah.)'' This was reported only by Al-Bukhari, but there are corroborating reports with other chains of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said: "My paternal uncle Anas bin Al-Nadr, may Allah be pleased with him, after whom I was named, was not present with this Messenger of Allah at Badr, and this distressed him. He said: `The first battle at which the Messenger of Allah was present, and I was absent; if Allah shows me another battle with the Messenger of Allah , Allah will see what I will do!' He did not want to say more than that. He was present with the Messenger of Allah at Uhud, where he met Sa`d bin Mu`adh, may Allah be pleased with him. Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said to him, `O Abu `Amr! Where are you going' He replied, `I long for the fragrance of Paradise and I have found it near the mountain of Uhud.' He fought them until he was killed, may Allah be pleased with him. Eighty-odd stab wounds and spear wounds were found on his body, and his sister, my paternal aunt Ar-Rabayyi` bint Al-Nadr said, `I only recognized my brother by his fingertips.' Then this Ayah was revealed:

[مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبْدِيلاً ]

(Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah; of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah; and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed in the least.) They used to think that it had been revealed concerning him and his companions, may Allah be pleased with them.'' This was also recorded by Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. Ibn Jarir narrated that Musa bin Talhah said: "Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan, may Allah be pleased with him, stood up and said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

طَلْحَةُ مِمَّنْ قَضَى نَحْبَه

(Talhah is one of those who have fulfilled their Nahbah.)''' Mujahid said concerning the Ayah:

[فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ]

(of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah;) "Their covenant,

[وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَنتَظِرُ]

(and some of them are still waiting) they are waiting for battle so that they can do well. '' Al-Hasan said:

[فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ]

(of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah;) "They died true to their covenant and loyal, and some are still waiting to die in a similar manner, and some of them have never changed in the least.'' This was also the view of Qatadah and Ibn Zayd. Some of them said that the word Nahbah means a vow.

[وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبْدِيلاً]

(but they have never changed in the least.) means, they never changed their covenant or were disloyal or committed treachery, but they persisted in what they had promised and did not break their vow, unlike the hypocrites who said:

[إِنَّ بُيُوتَنَا عَوْرَةٌ وَمَا هِىَ بِعَوْرَةٍ إِن يُرِيدُونَ إِلاَّ فِرَاراً]

("Truly, our homes lie open.'' And they lay not open. They but wished to flee.) [33:13]

[وَلَقَدْ كَانُواْ عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ مِن قَبْلُ لاَ يُوَلُّونَ الاٌّدْبَـرَ]

(And indeed they had already made a covenant with Allah not to turn their backs,) [33:15]

[لِّيَجْزِىَ اللَّهُ الصَّـدِقِينَ بِصِدْقِهِمْالْمُنَـفِقِينَ إِن شَآءَ أَوْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ]

(That Allah may reward the men of truth for their truth, and punish the hypocrites, if He wills, or accept their repentance by turning to them.) Allah tests His servants with fear and shaking so as to tell the evil from the good, as each will be known by his deeds. Although Allah knows what the outcome will be before anything happens, still He does not punish anyone on the basis of His knowledge until they actually do what He knows they will do. As Allah says:

[وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَـهِدِينَ مِنكُمْ وَالصَّـبِرِينَ وَنَبْلُوَ أَخْبَـرَكُمْ ]

(And surely, We shall try you till We test those who strive hard and patient, and We shall test your facts.) (47:31). This refers to knowing something after it happens, even though Allah knows it before it comes to pass. Allah says:

[مَّا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَذَرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى مَآ أَنتُمْ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى يَمِيزَ الْخَبِيثَ مِنَ الطَّيِّبِ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُطْلِعَكُمْ عَلَى الْغَيْبِ]

(Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good. Nor will Allah disclose to you the secrets of the Unseen) (3:179). Allah says here:

[لِّيَجْزِىَ اللَّهُ الصَّـدِقِينَ بِصِدْقِهِمْ]

(That Allah may reward the men of truth for their truth,) meaning, for their patience in adhering to the covenant they had made with Allah and keeping their promise.

[الْمُنَـفِقِينَ]

(and punish the hypocrites, ) who are the ones who broke the covenant and went against the commands of Allah, for which they deserve to be punished, but they are subject to His will in this world. If He wills, He will leave them as they are until they meet Him [in the Hereafter], when He will punish them, or if He wills, He will guide them to give up their hypocrisy and to believe and do righteous deeds after they had been wrongdoers and sinners. Since His mercy and kindness towards His creation prevail over His wrath, He says:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً]

(Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

[وَرَدَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِغَيْظِهِمْ لَمْ يَنَالُواْ خَيْراً وَكَفَى اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْقِتَالَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ قَوِيّاً عَزِيزاً ]

(25. And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage: they gained no advantage. Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting. And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty.)

12. Allah drove back the Confederates disappointed and lost

Allah tells us how he drove the Confederates away from Al-Madinah by sending against them a wind and troops of angels. If Allah had not made his Messenger a Mercy to the Worlds, this wind would have been more severe than the barren wind which He sent against `Ad, but Allah says:

[وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمْ وَأَنتَ فِيهِمْ]

(And Allah would not punish them while you are amongst them) (8:33). So, Allah sent them a wind which dispersed them after they had gathered on the basis of their whims. They were a mixture of tribes and parties with a variety of opinions, so it was befitting that a wind should be sent against them that would scatter them and break up their gathering, driving them back disappointed and lost in their hatred and enmity. They did not achieve any worldly good such as the victory and booty that they had hoped for, nor did they achieve any good in the Hereafter, because of their sin of declaring enmity against the Messenger and seeking to kill him and destroy his army. Whoever wants and seriously intends to do a thing is the same as one who actually does it.

[وَكَفَى اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْقِتَالَ]

(Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting.) means, they did not have to fight them in order to expel them from their land, but Allah Alone sufficed them and helped His servant and granted victory to His troops. Hence the Messenger of Allah used to say,

لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ، صَدَقَ وَعْدَهُ، وَنَصَرَ عَبْدَهُ وَأَعَزَّ جُنْدَهُ، وَهَزَمَ الْأَحْزَابَ وَحْدَهُ، فَلَا شَيْءَ بَعْدَه

(None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, Alone, He was true to His promise, and He helped His servant, and He gave might to His soldiers and defeated the Confederates alone and there is nothing after Him.) This was reported from a Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him. In the Two Sahihs it was recorded that `Abdullah bin Abi `Awfa, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah invoked Allah against the Confederates and said:

اللَّهُمَّ مُنْزِلَ الْكِتَابِ سَرِيعَ الْحِسَابِ، اهْزِمِ الْأَحْزَابَ، اللَّهُمَّ اهْزِمْهُمْ وَزَلْزِلْهُم

(O Allah, Who revealed the Book and is swift in bringing to account, defeat the Confederates, O Allah defeat them and shake them.)

[وَكَفَى اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْقِتَالَ]

(Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting.) This Ayah indicates that there would be a cessation of war between them and Quraysh; after this, the idolators did not attack the Muslims, on the contrary, the Muslims attacked them in their own land. Imam Ahmad recorded that Sulayman bin Surad, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "On the day of Al-Ahzab, the Messenger of Allah said:

الْآنَ نَغْزُوهُمْ وَلَا يَغْزُونَا

(Now we will attack them and they will not attack us.) This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari in his Sahih.

[وَكَانَ اللَّهُ قَوِيّاً عَزِيزاً]

(And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty.) means, by His power and might He drove them back disappointed and lost, and they did not achieve anything, and Allah granted victory to Islam and its followers, and fulfilled His promise and helped His servant and Messenger; to Him be blessings and praise.

[وَأَنزَلَ الَّذِينَ ظَـهَرُوهُم مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ مِن صَيَاصِيهِمْ وَقَذَفَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ الرُّعْبَ فَرِيقاً تَقْتُلُونَ وَتَأْسِرُونَ فَرِيقاً - وَأَوْرَثَكُمْ أَرْضَهُمْ وَدِيَـرَهُمْ وَأَمْوَلَهُمْ وَأَرْضاً لَّمْ تَطَئُوهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيراً ]

(26. And those of the People of the Scripture who backed them, Allah brought them down from their forts and cast terror into their hearts; a group you killed, and a group you made captives.) (27. And He caused you to inherit their lands, and their houses, and their riches, and a land which you had not trodden. And Allah is able to do all things.)

13. The Campaign against Banu Qurayzah

We have already noted that when the Confederates came and camped outside Al-Madinah, Banu Qurayzah broke the covenant that existed between them and the Messenger of Allah . This happened by the agency of Huyay bin Akhtab An-Nadari, may Allah curse him, who entered their stronghold and would not leave their leader, Ka`b bin Asad, alone until he agreed to break the covenant. Among the things that he said to him was, "Woe to you! This is the opportunity for glory. The Quraysh and their company of men from various tribes, and the Ghatafan and their followers, have come to you, and they will stay here until they eliminate Muhammad and his companions.'' Ka`b said to him, "No, by Allah, this is the opportunity for humiliation. Woe to you, O Huyay, you are a bad omen. Leave us alone.'' But Huyay kept trying to persuade him until he agreed to his request. He laid down the condition that if the Confederates went away without doing anything, he [Huyay] would join them in their stronghold and would share their fate. When Banu Qurayzah broke their covenant and news of this reached the Messenger of Allah , he and the Muslims were very distressed by that. When Allah helped him by suppressing his enemy and driving them back disappointed and lost, having gained nothing, the Messenger of Allah returned to Al-Madinah in triumph and the people put down their weapons. While the Messenger of Allah was washing off the dust of battle in the house of Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her, Jibril, upon him be peace, came to him wearing a turban of brocade, riding on a mule on which was a cloth of silk brocade. He said, "Have you put down your weapons, O Messenger of Allah'' He said, "Yes.'' He said, "But the angels have not put down their weapons. I have just now come back from pursuing the people.'' Then he said: "Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, commands you to get up and go to Banu Qurayzah.'' According to another report, "What a fighter you are! Have you put down your weapons'' He said, "Yes.'' He said, "But we have not put down our weapons yet, get up and go to these people.'' He said: "Where'' He said, "Banu Qurayzah, for Allah has commanded me to shake them.'' So the Messenger of Allah got up immediately, and commanded the people to march towards Banu Qurayzah, who were a few miles from Al-Madinah. This was after Salat Az-Zuhr. He said,

لَا يُصَلِّيَنَّ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمُ الْعَصْرَ إِلَّااِفي بَنِي قُرَيْظَة

(No one among you should pray `Asr except at Banu Qurayzah.) So, the people set out, and the time for the prayer came while they were still on the road. Some of them prayed on the road, saying, "The Messenger of Allah only wanted to make us march quickly.'' Others said, "We will not pray it until we reach Banu Qurayzah.'' Neither of the two groups were rebuked for what they did. The Messenger of Allah followed them. He left Ibn Umm Maktum, may Allah be pleased with him, in charge of Al-Madinah, and he had given the flag to `Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him. Then the Messenger of Allah went to them (Banu Qurayzah) laying seige to them for twenty-five days. When this had gone on for too long, they agreed to accept the judgement of Sa`d bin Mu`adh, the leader of `Aws because they had been their allies during the Jahiliyyah, so they thought that he would treat them kindly as `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul had done for his allies of Banu Qaynuqa` when he had asked the Messenger of Allah to set them free. So, these people thought that Sa`d would do the same for them as Ibn Ubayy had done for those people. They did not know that Sa`d had been struck by an arrow in his medial arm vein during the campaign of Al-Khandaq. The Messenger of Allah had had his vein cauterized and had brought him to stay in a tent in the Masjid so that he could keep a close eye on him. One of the things that Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, said in his supplication was, "O Allah, if there is still anything that has to do with the war against Quraysh, then keep me alive for it, and if You decree that the war between us and them is over, then let the bleeding be renewed, but do not let me die until I get my satisfaction with regard to Banu Qurayzah.'' Allah answered his prayer and decreed that they would agree to be referred to him for judgement, and this was their own free choice. When this happened, the Messenger of Allah called him to come from Al-Madinah to pass judgement on them. When he arrived, riding on a donkey that had been specially equipped for him to ride, some of the `Aws began to urge him not to be too harsh, saying, "O Sa`d, they are your clients so be kind to them, trying to soften his heart.'' But he kept quiet and did not answer them. When they persisted in their request, he said, "Now it is time for Sa`d to make sure that no rebuke or censure will divert him from the path of Allah.'' Then they knew that he would not let them live. kWhen he reached the tent where the Messenger of Allah was, the Messenger of Allah said:

قُومُوا إِلَى سَيِّدِكُم

(Stand up for your leader.) So the Muslims stood up for him, and welcomed him with honor and respect as befitted his status and so that his judgement would have more impact. When he sat down, the Messenger of Allah said:

إِنَّ هَؤُلَاءِ وَأَشَارَ إِلَيْهِمْ قَدْ نَزَلُوا عَلَى حُكْمِكَ، فَاحْكُمْ فِيهِمْ بِمَا شِئْت

(These people) -- and he pointed to them -- (have agreed to accept your judgement, so pass judgement on them as you wish.) Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "My judgement will be carried out'' The Messenger of Allah said: "Yes.'' He said, "And it will be carried out on those who are in this tent'' He said, "Yes.'' He said, "And on those who are on this side'' -- and he pointed towards the side where the Messenger of Allah was, but he did not look directly at the Messenger of Allah out of respect for him. The Messenger of Allah said to him: "Yes.'' So Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "My judgement is that their fighters should be killed and their children and wealth should be seized.'' The Messenger of Allah said:

لَقَدْ حَكَمْتَ بِحُكْمِ اللهِ تَعَالَى مِنْ فَوْقِ سَبْعِ أَرْقَعَة

(You have judged according to the ruling of Allah from above the seven heavens.) According to another report:

لَقَدْ حَكَمْتَ بِحُكْمِ الْمَلِك

(You have judged according to the ruling of the Sovereign.) Then the Messenger of Allah commanded that ditches should be dug, so they were dug in the earth, and they were brought tied by their shoulders, and were beheaded. There were between seven hundred and eight hundred of them. The children who had not yet reached adolescence and the women were taken prisoner, and their wealth was seized. All of this is stated both briefly and in detail, with evidence and Hadiths, in the book of Sirah which we have written, praise and blessings be to Allah. Allah said:

[وَأَنزَلَ الَّذِينَ ظَـهَرُوهُم]

(And those who backed them, Allah brought them down) means, those who helped and supported them in their war against the Messenger of Allah .

[مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ]

(of the People of the Scripture) means, Banu Qurayzah, who were Jews from one of the tribes of Israel. Their forefathers had settled in the Hijaz long ago, seeking to follow the Unlettered Prophet of whom they read in the Tawrah and Injil.

[فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُواْ كَفَرُواْ بِهِ]

(then when there came to them that which they had recognized, they disbelieved in it) (2:89). May the curse of Allah be upon them.

[مِن صَيَاصِيهِمْ]

(from their forts) means, from their strongholds. This was the view of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata', Qatadah, As-Suddi and others of the Salaf.

[وَقَذَفَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ الرُّعْبَ]

(and cast terror into their hearts;) means fear, because they had supported the idolators in their war against the Messenger of Allah and the one who knows is not like the one who does not know. They had terrified the Muslims and intended to kill them so as to gain earthly power, but their plans backfired; the idolators ran away and the believers were victorious while the disbelievers were losers; where they had aimed for glory, they were humiliated. They wanted to eradicate the Muslims but they were themselves eradicated. In addition to all this, they are doomed in the Hereafter, so by all acounts they are counted as losers. Allah says:

[فَرِيقاً تَقْتُلُونَ وَتَأْسِرُونَ فَرِيقاً]

(a group you killed, and a group you made captives.) Those who were killed were their warriors, and the prisoners were their children and women. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Atiyah Al-Qurazi said, "I was shown to the Prophet on the day of Qurayzah, because they were not sure about me. The Prophet told them to look at me to see whether I had grown any body hair yet. They looked and saw that I had not grown any body hair, so they let me go and I was put with the other prisoners.'' This was also recorded by the Sunan compilers, and At-Tirmidhi said it is Hasan Sahih.'' An-Nasa'i also recorded something similar from `Atiyah.

[وَأَوْرَثَكُمْ أَرْضَهُمْ وَدِيَـرَهُمْ وَأَمْوَلَهُمْ]

(And He caused you to inherit their lands, and their houses, and their riches,) means, `He gave these things to you after you killed them.'

[وَأَرْضاً لَّمْ تَطَئُوهَا]

(and a land which you had not trodden.) It was said that this was Khaybar, or that it was the lands of the Persians and Romans. Ibn Jarir said, "It could be that all of these are referred to

[وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيراً]

(And Allah is able to do all things.)''

[يأَيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ قُل لاٌّزْوَجِكَ إِن كُنتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ الْحَيَوةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتَهَا فَتَعَالَيْنَ أُمَتِّعْكُنَّ وَأُسَرِّحْكُنَّ سَرَاحاً جَمِيلاً - وَإِن كُنتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالدَّارَ الاٌّخِرَةَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْمُحْسِنَـتِ مِنكُنَّ أَجْراً عَظِيماً ]

(28. O Prophet! Say to your wives: "If you desire the life of this world, and its glitter, then come! I will make a provision for you and set you free in a handsome manner.'') (29. "But if you desire Allah and His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter, then verily, Allah has prepared for the doers of good among you an enormous reward.'')

14. Giving the Wives of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم the Choice

Here Allah commands His Messenger to give his wives the choice of separating from him so that they may go to someone else with whom they can find what they want of the life of this world and its attractions, or of patiently bearing the straitened circumstances with the Prophet for which they will have a great reward with Allah. They chose Allah and His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter, may Allah be pleased with them. Then Allah gave them the best both of this world and of the Hereafter. Al-Bukhari narrated from `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, the wife of the Prophet that the Messenger of Allah came to her when Allah commanded him to give his wives the choice. She said, "The Messenger of Allah started with me, and said,

إِنِّي ذَاكِرٌ لَكِ أَمْرًا فَلَا عَلَيْكِ أَنْ تَسْتَعْجِلِي حَتْى تَسْتَأْمِرِي أَبَوَيْك

(I am going to tell you about something and you do not have to hasten to respond until you consult your parents.)'' He knew that my parents would never tell me to leave him. Then he said:

إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى قَالَ:

[يأَيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ قُل لاٌّزْوَجِكَ]

(Allah says: ("O Prophet! Say to your wives...'')) and he recited the two Ayat. I said to him, "Concerning what do I need to consult my parents I choose Allah and His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter.'' He also narrated it without a chain of narrators, and added, "She said, then all the wives of the Prophet did the same as I.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: "The Messenger of Allah gave us the choice, and we chose him, so giving us that choice was not regarded as divorce.'' It was recorded by (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) from the Hadith of Al-A`mash. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, came to ask permission to see the Messenger of Allah and the people were sitting at his door, and the Prophet was sitting, but he did not give him permission. Then `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, came and asked permission to see him, but he did not give him permission. Then he gave Abu Bakr and `Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both, permission, and they entered. The Prophet was sitting with his wives around him, and he was silent. `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `I will tell the Prophet something to make him smile.' `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `O Messenger of Allah, if only you had seen the daughter of Zayd -- the wife of `Umar -- asking me to spend on her just now; I broke her neck!' The Messenger of Allah smiled so broadly that his molars could be seen, and he said,

هُنَّ حَوْلِي يَسْأَلْنَنِي النَّفَقَة

(They are around me asking me to spend on them.) Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, got up to deal with `A'ishah; and `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, got up to deal with Hafsah, and both of them were saying, `You are asking the Prophet for that which he does not have!' But the Messenger of Allah stopped them, and they (his wives) said, `By Allah, after this we will not ask the Messenger of Allah for anything that he does not have.' Then Allah revealed the Ayah telling him to give them the choice, and he started with `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her. He said,

إِنِّي أَذْكُرُ لَكِ أَمْرًا مَا أُحِبُّ أَنْ تَعْجَلِي فِيهِ حَتَّى تَسْتَأْمِرِي أَبَوَيْك

(I am going to tell you something, and I would like you not to hasten to respond until you consult your parents.) She said, `What is it' He recited to her:

[يأَيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ قُل لاٌّزْوَجِكَ]

(O Prophet! Say to your wives...) `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, `Do I need to consult my parents concerning you I choose Allah and His Messenger, but I ask you not to tell of my choice to your other wives.' He said:

إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى لَمْ يَبْعَثْنِي مُعَنِّفًا، وَلَكِنْ بَعَثَنِي مُعَلِّمًا مُيَسِّرًا، لَا تَسْأَلُنِي امْرَأَةٌ مِنْهُنَّ عَمَّا اخْتَرْتِ إِلَّا أَخْبَرْتُهَا

(Allah did not send me to be harsh, but He sent me to teach in a gentle and easy manner. If any of them asks me what your decision was, I will tell her.)'' This was also recorded by Muslim, but not Al-Bukhari; An-Nasa'i also recorded it. `Ikrimah said: "At that time he was married to nine women, five of them were from Quraysh -- `A'ishah, Hafsah. Umm Habibah, Sawdah and Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with them. And he was also married to Safiyyah bint Huyay An-Nadariyyah, Maymunah bint Al-Harith Al-Hilaliyyah, Zaynab bint Jahsh Al-Asadiyyah and Juwayriyyah bint Al-Harith Al-Mustalaqiyyah, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

[ينِسَآءَ النَّبِىِّ مَن يَأْتِ مِنكُنَّ بِفَـحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ يُضَاعَفْ لَهَا الْعَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيراً - وَمَن يَقْنُتْ مِنكُنَّ للَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتَعْمَلْ صَـلِحاً نُؤْتِهَـآ أَجْرَهَا مَرَّتَيْنِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لَهَا رِزْقاً كَرِيماً ]

(30. O wives of the Prophet! Whoever of you commits an open Fahishah, the torment for her will be doubled, and that is ever easy for Allah.) (31. And whosoever of you is obedient to Allah and His Messenger, and does righteous good deeds, We shall give her, her reward twice over, and We have prepared for her a noble provision.)

15. The Wives of the Prophet are not like Other Women

This Ayah is addressed to the wives of the Prophet who chose Allah and His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter, and remained married to the Messenger of Allah . Thus it was befitting that there should be rulings which applied only to them, and not to other women, in the event that any of them should commit open Fahishah. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "This means Nushuz (rebellion) and a bad attitude.'' Whatever the case, this is a conditional phrase and it does not imply that what is referred to would actually happen. This is like the Ayat:

[وَلَقَدْ أُوْحِىَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ]

(And indeed it has been revealed to you, as it was to those before you: "If you join others in worship with Allah, surely your deeds will be in vain.'') (39:65)

[وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُواْ لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ]

(But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.) (6:88)

[قُلْ إِن كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ وَلَدٌ فَأَنَاْ أَوَّلُ الْعَـبِدِينَ ]

(Say: "If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of (Allah's) worshippers.'') (43:81)

[لَّوْ أَرَادَ اللَّهُ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَداً لاَّصْطَفَى مِمَّا يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَآءُ سُبْحَـنَهُ هُوَ اللَّهُ الْوَحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ ]

(Had Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He willed out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (39:4). Because their status is so high, it is appropriate to state that the sin, if they were to commit it, would be so much worse, so as to protect them and their Hijab. Allah says:

[مَن يَأْتِ مِنكُنَّ بِفَـحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ يُضَاعَفْ لَهَا الْعَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ]

(Whoever of you commits an open Fahishah, the torment for her will be doubled,) Malik narrated from Zayd bin Aslam:

[يُضَاعَفْ لَهَا الْعَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ]

(the torment for her will be doubled,) "In this world and the next.'' Something similar was narrated from Ibn Abi Najih, from Mujahid.

[وَكَانَ ذلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيراً]

(and that is ever easy for Allah.) it is very easy indeed. Then Allah mentions His justice and His bounty, in the Ayah:

[وَمَن يَقْنُتْ مِنكُنَّ للَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ]

(And whosoever of you is obedient to Allah and His Messenger,) i.e., obeys Allah and His Messenger ,

[نُؤْتِهَـآ أَجْرَهَا مَرَّتَيْنِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لَهَا رِزْقاً كَرِيماً]

(We shall give her, her reward twice over, and We have prepared for her a noble provision.) i.e., in Paradise, for they will be in the dwellings of the Messenger of Allah in the highest reaches of `Illiyin, above the dwellings of all the people, in Al-Wasilah which is the closest of the dwellings of Paradise to the Throne.

[ينِسَآءَ النَّبِىِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَآءِ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلاَ تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِى فِى قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفاً - وَقَرْنَ فِى بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلاَ تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَـهِلِيَّةِ الاٍّولَى وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَوةَ وَءَاتِينَ الزَّكَـوةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُـمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيــراً - وَاذْكُـرْنَ مَا يُتْـلَى فِى بُيُوتِكُـنَّ مِنْ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ وَالْحِكْــمَةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ لَطِيفاً خَبِيراً ]

h(32. O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep you have Taqwa, then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire, but speak in an honorable manner.) (33. And stay in your houses, and do not Tabarruj yourselves like the Tabarruj of the times of ignorance, and perform the Salah, and give Zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah wishes only to remove the Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.) (34. And remember, that which is recited in your houses of the Ayat of Allah and Al-Hikmah. Verily, Allah is Ever Most Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things.)

16. Enjoining certain Manners so that the Mothers of the Believers may be an Example; and the Prohibition of Tabarruj

These are the good manners which Allah enjoined upon the wives of the Prophet so that they would be an example for the women of the Ummah to follow. Allah said, addressing the wives of the Prophet that they should fear Allah as He commanded them, and that no other woman is like them or can be their equal in virtue and status. Then Allah says:

[فَلاَ تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ]

(then be not soft in speech,) As-Suddi and others said, this means, do not be gentle in speech when addressing men. Allah says:

[فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِى فِى قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ]

(lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire,) means, something unclean.

[وَقُلْنَ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفاً]

(but speak in an honorable manner.) Ibn Zayd said: "Decent and honorable talk that is known to be good.'' This means that she should address non-Mahram men in a manner in which there is no softness, i.e., a woman should not address a non-Mahram man in the same way that she addresses her husband.

[وَقَرْنَ فِى بُيُوتِكُنَّ]

(And stay in your houses,) means, stay in your houses and do not come out except for a purpose. One of the purposes mentioned in Shari`ah is prayer in the Masjid, so long as the conditions are fulfilled, as the Messenger of Allah said:

لَا تَمْنَعُوا إِمَاءَ اللهِ مَسَاجِدَ اللهِ وَلْيَخْرُجْنَ وَهُنَّ تَفِلَات

(Do not prevent the female servants of Allah from the Masjids of Allah, but have them go out without wearing fragrance.) According to another report:

وَبُيُوتُهُنَّ خَيْرٌ لَهُن

(even though their houses are better for them.)

[وَلاَ تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَـهِلِيَّةِ الاٍّولَى]

(and do not Tabarruj yourselves like the Tabarruj of the times of ignorance,) Mujahid said: "Women used to go out walking in front of men, and this was the Tabarruj of Jahiliyyah.'' Qatadah said:

[وَلاَ تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَـهِلِيَّةِ الاٍّولَى]

(and do not Tabarruj yourselves like the Taburruj of the times of ignorance,) "When they go out of their homes walking in a shameless and flirtatious manner, and Allah, may He be exalted, forbade that.'' Muqatil bin Hayyan said:

[وَلاَ تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَـهِلِيَّةِ الاٍّولَى]

(and do not Tabarruj yourselves like the Tabarruj of the times of ignorance,) "Tabarruj is when a woman puts a Khimar on her head but does not tie it properly.'' So her necklaces, earrings and neck, and all of that can be seen. This is Tabarruj, and Allah addresses all the women of the believers with regard to Tabarruj.

[وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَوةَ وَءَاتِينَ الزَّكَـوةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ]

(and perform the Salah, and give Zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger.) Allah first forbids them from evil, then He enjoins them to do good by establishing regular prayer, which means worshipping Allah alone with no partner or associate, and paying Zakah, which means doing good to other people.

[وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ]

(and obey Allah and His Messenger.) This is an instance of something specific being followed by something general.

17. The Wives of the Prophet are Members of His Household (Ahl Al-Bayt)

[إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُـمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيــراً]

(Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.) This is a clear statement that the wives of the Prophet are included among the members of his family (Ahl Al-Bayt) here, because they are the reason why this Ayah was revealed, and the scholars are unanimously agreed that they were the reason for revelation in this case, whether this was the only reason for revelation or there was also another reason, which is the correct view. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Ikrimah used to call out in the marketplace:

[إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُـمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيــراً]

(Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.) "This was revealed solely concerning the wives of the Prophet.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said concerning the Ayah:

[إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُـمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ]

(Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family,) "It was revealed solely concerning the wives of the Prophet .'' `Ikrimah said: "Whoever disagrees with me that it was revealed solely concerning the wives of the Prophet , I am prepared to meet with him and pray and invoke the curse of Allah upon those who are lying.'' So they alone were the reason for revelation, but others may be included by way of generalization. Ibn Jarir narrated that Safiyyah bint Shaybah said: "`A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, `The Prophet went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of black camel's hair. Al-Hasan, may Allah be pleased with him, came and he wrapped him in the cloak with him. Then Al-Husayn, may Allah be pleased with him, came and he wrapped him in the cloak with him. Then Fatimah, may Allah be pleased with her, came and he wrapped her in the cloak with him. Then `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, came and he wrapped him in the cloak with him, then he said:

[إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُـمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيــراً]

(Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.) This was recorded by Muslim. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Yazid bin Hayyan said: "Husayn bin Sabrah, `Umar bin Muslim and I went to Zayd bin Arqam, may Allah be pleased with him, and when we had sat down with him, Husayn said: `You are so fortunate, O Zayd! You saw the Messenger of Allah and heard his speeches, and you went on military campaigns with him, and you prayed behind him. You are so fortunate, O Zayd! Tell us what you heard from the Messenger of Allah .' He said, `O son of my brother, by Allah, I have grown old and it has been a long time, and I have forgotten some of the things that I used to know from the Messenger of Allah . Whatever I tell you, accept it, and whatever I do not tell you, do not worry about it.' Then he said, `One day, the Messenger of Allah stood up to address us by the well of Khumm, between Makkah and Al-Madinah, and he praised Allah and thanked Him, and he preached and reminded us. Then he said:

أَمَّا بَعْدُ، أَلَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فَإِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَنِي رَسُولُ رَبِّي فَأُجِيبَ، وَأَنَا تَارِكٌ فِيكُمْ ثَقَلَيْنِ: أَوَّلُهُمَا كِتَابُ اللهِ تَعَالَى، فِيهِ الْهُدَى وَالنُّورُ فَخُذُوا بِكِتَابِ اللهِ وَاسْتَمْسِكُوا بِه

(Thereafter! O people, I am merely a human being and soon the messenger of my Lord will come and I will answer him. I am leaving behind two things with you, the first of which is the Book of Allah in which is guidance and light, so seize the Book of Allah and hold fast to it.) He urged them to cling to the Book of Allah, then he said:

وَأَهْلُ بَيْتِي أُذَكِّرُكُمُ اللهَ فِي أَهْلِ بَيْتِي، أُذَكِّرُكُمُ اللهَ فِي أَهْلِ بَيْتِي

(And the members of my family (Ahl Al-Bayt): Remember Allah with regard to the members of my family, remember Allah with regard to the members of my family.) saying it three times.' Husayn said to him, `Who are the members of his family (Ahl Al-Bayt), O Zayd Are not his wives members of his family' He said, `His wives are members of his family, but the members of his family are those who are not permitted to receive charity after he died.' He said, `Who are they' He said, `They are the family of `Ali, the family of `Aqil, the family of Ja`far and the family of `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them.' He said, `Were all of these forbidden to receive charity after his death' He said, `Yes.''' This Commentary is from Zayd bin Arqam and is not Marfu`

18. The Command to follow the Qur'an and Sunnah

The one who ponders the meaning of the Qur'an will have no doubt that the wives of the Prophet are included among those who are referred to in the Ayah:

[إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُـمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيــراً]

(Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.) The context clearly refers to them. Allah then says:

[وَاذْكُـرْنَ مَا يُتْـلَى فِى بُيُوتِكُـنَّ مِنْ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ وَالْحِكْــمَةِ]

(And remember, that which is recited in your houses of the Ayat of Allah and Al-Hikmah.) meaning, `act in accordance with that of the Qur'an and Sunnah which Allah revealed to His Messenger in your houses.' This was the view of Qatadah and others. `And remember this blessing with which you alone of all the people have been favored, that the revelation comes down in your houses and not those of other people.' `A'ishah As-Siddiqah bint As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with them, was foremost among them with in this blessing and was the most fortunate, and the most favored with this mercy. For the revelation did not come to the Messenger of Allah in the bed of any of his wives except hers, as he stated. Some of the scholars, may Allah have mercy on them, said: "This was because he did not marry any other virgin besides her, and no man slept with her in her bed before him , may Allah be pleased with her.'' So it was befitting that she should be singled out for this blessing and high status. But if his wives are members of his household, then this title is even more fitting for his own relatives. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Jamilah said: "Al-Hasan bin `Ali, may Allah be pleased with them both, was appointed as Khalifah when `Ali was killed.'' He said: "While he was praying, a man leapt on him and stabbed him with a dagger.'' Husayn claimed that he heard that the one who stabbed him was a man from Banu Asad, and Al-Hasan, may Allah be pleased with him, was prostrating at the time. He said, "They claimed that he received the wound in his hip. He was ill as a result for many months, then he recovered. He ascended the Minbar and said: `O people of `Iraq! Have Taqwa of Allah concerning us, for we are your leaders and your guests, and we are members of the family (Ahl Al-Bayt) concerning whom Allah said:

[إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُـمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيــراً]

(Allah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs from you, O members of the family, and to purify you with a thorough purification.)' He kept saying this until there was no one left in the Masjid who was not weeping and sobbing.''

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ لَطِيفاً خَبِيراً]

(Verily, Allah is Ever Most Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things.) means, `by His kindness towards you, you have reached this status, and by His knowledge of you and that you are qualified for that status, He has given this to you and singled you out for it.' Ibn Jarir, may Allah have mercy on him, said: "And remember how Allah blessed you by causing the Ayat of Allah and Al-Hikmah to be recited in your houses, so give thanks to Allah for that and praise Him.

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ لَطِيفاً خَبِيراً]

(Verily, Allah is Ever Most Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things.) means, `He is kind towards you, for He has caused the Ayat of Allah and Al-Hikmah to be recited in your houses,' and Al-Hikmah means the Sunnah. And He is Well-Acquainted with you means, `He chose you as wives for His Messenger.' Qatadah said:

[وَاذْكُـرْنَ مَا يُتْـلَى فِى بُيُوتِكُـنَّ مِنْ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ وَالْحِكْــمَةِ]

(And remember, that which is recited in your houses of the Ayat of Allah and Al-Hikmah.) "He is reminding them of His favor.'' This was narrated by Ibn Jarir. `Atiyah Al-`Awfi commented on the Ayah:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ لَطِيفاً خَبِيراً]

(Verily, Allah is Ever Most Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things.) "He knows when and where to reveal Al-Hikmah.'' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim, then he said: "This was also narrated from Ar-Rabi` bin Anas from Qatadah. ''

[إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَـتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ وَالْقَـنِتِينَ وَالْقَـنِتَـتِ وَالصَّـدِقِينَ وَالصَّـدِقَـتِ وَالصَّـبِرِينَ وَالصَّـبِرَتِ وَالْخَـشِعِينَ وَالْخَـشِعَـتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَـتِوالصَّـئِمِينَ والصَّـئِمَـتِ وَالْحَـفِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَـفِـظَـتِ وَالذَكِـرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً وَالذَكِرَتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْراً عَظِيماً]

(35. Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women, the Qanit: men and the women, the men and women who are truthful, the men and the women who are patient, the Khashi`: men and the women, the men and the women who give Sadaqat, the men and the women who fast, the men and the women who guard their chastity and the men and the women who remember Allah much with their hearts and tongues, Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward.)

19. The Reason for Revelation

Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her, the wife of the Prophet said, "I said to the Prophet , `Why is it that we are not mentioned in the Qur'an as men are' Then one day without my realizing it, he was calling from the Minbar and I was combing my hair, so I tied my hair back then I went out to my chamber in my house, and I started listening out, and he was saying from the Minbar:

يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ:

[إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَـتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ]

(O people! Verily Allah says: (Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women...)) to the end of the Ayah.'' This was also recorded by An-Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir.

[إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَـتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ]

(Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women...) indicates that Iman is something other than Islam, and that it is more specific, because Allah says:

[قَالَتِ الاٌّعْرَابُ ءَامَنَّا قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُواْ وَلَـكِن قُولُواْ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الايمَـنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ]

(The bedouins say: "We believe.'' Say: "You believe not but you only say, `We have surrendered (in Islam),' for faith has not yet entered your hearts.'') (49:14). In the Two Sahihs, it says:

لَا يَزْنِي الزَّانِي حِينَ يَزْنِي وَهُوَ مُؤْمِن

(The adulterer does not commit adultery at the time when he is a believer.) For it snatches away his Iman, although that does not mean he is a disbeliever, according to the consensus of the Muslims. This indicates that Iman is more specific than Islam, as we have stated at the beginning of our commentary on Al-Bukhari.

[وَالْقَـنِتِينَ وَالْقَـنِتَـتِ]

(the Qanit: men and the women,) Al-Qunut means obedience during quite time.

[أَمَّنْ هُوَ قَانِتٌ ءَانَآءَ الَّيْلِ سَـجِداً وَقَآئِماً يَحْذَرُ الاٌّخِرَةَ وَيَرْجُواْ رَحْمَةَ رَبِّهِ]

(Is one who is (Qanit,) prostrating himself or standing in the middle of the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the mercy of his Lord...) (39:9)

[وَلَهُ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَـنِتُونَ ]

(To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. All are Uqnuti (Qanitun) to Him.) (30:26)

[يمَرْيَمُ اقْنُتِى لِرَبِّكِ وَاسْجُدِى وَارْكَعِى مَعَ الرَكِعِينَ ]

(O Maryam! "Uqnuti to your Lord and prostrate, and bow with Ar-Raki`in (those who bow).'') (3:43)

[وَقُومُواْ لِلَّهِ قَـنِتِينَ]

(And stand before Allah Qanitin) (2: 238). So, beyond Islam there is a higher level to be reached, which is Iman, and Qunut stems from them both.

[وَالصَّـدِقِينَ وَالصَّـدِقَـتِ]

(the men and women who are truthful,) This refers to their speech, for truthfulness is a praiseworthy attribute. Some of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, were never known to have lied even once, neither during Jahiliyyah nor in Islam. Truthfulness is a sign of faith, just as lying is a sign of hypocrisy. Whoever is truthful will be saved:

عَلَيْكُمْ بِالصِّدْقِ فَإِنَّ الصِّدْقَ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْبِرِّ، وَإِنَّ الْبِرَّ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَالْكَذِبَ، فَإِنَّ الْكَذِبَ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْفُجُورِ، وَإِنَّ الْفُجُورَ يَهْدِي إِلَى النَّارِ، وَلَا يَزَالُ الرَّجُلُ يَصْدُقُ وَيَتَحَرَّى الصِّدْقَ حَتَّى يُكْتَبَ عِنْدَ اللهِ صِدِّيقًا، وَلَا يَزَالُ الرَّجُلُ يَكْذِبُ وَيَتَحَرَّى الْكَذِبَ حَتَّى يُكْتَبَ عِنْدَ اللهِ كَذَّابًا

(You have to be truthful, for truthfulness leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise. And beware of lying, for lying leads to immorality and immorality leads to Hell. A man will keep telling the truth and striving to do so until he will be recorded with Allah as a truthful. And a man will keep telling lies and will persist in doing so until he will be recorded with Allah as a liar.) And there are many Hadiths on this topic.

[وَالصَّـبِرِينَ وَالصَّـبِرَتِ]

(the men and the women who are patient,) This is the attribute of those who are steadfast, which is patience in the face of adversity and knowing that what is decreed will inevitably come to pass. So, they face it with patience and steadfastness. Patience is the most difficult when disaster first strikes, then after that it becomes easier, and this is true steadfastness.

[وَالْخَـشِعِينَ وَالْخَـشِعَـتِ]

(the Khashi`: men and the women,) Khushu` means serenity and tranquillity, deliberation and dignity and humility. What motivates a person to be like this is the fear of Allah and the awareness that He is constantly watching, as mentioned in the Hadith:

اعْبُدُ اللهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاك

(Worship Allah as if you can see Him, for if you cannot see Him, He can see you.)

[وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَـتِ]

(the men and the women who give Sadaqat,) As-Sadaqah (charity) means doing good to people who are in need or who are weak and have no means of earning a living and none to financially support them. They give them from the excess of their wealth in obedience to Allah and as a good deed to His creation. It was recorded in the Two Sahihs:

سَبْعَةٌ يُظِلُّهُمُ اللهُ فِي ظِلِّهِ يَوْمَ لَا ظِلَّ إِلَّا ظِلُّهُ فَذَكَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَرَجُلٌ تَصَدَّقَ بِصَدَقَةٍ فَأَخْفَاهَا حَتَّى لَاتَعْلَمَ شِمَالُهُ مَا تُنْفِقُ يَمِينُه

(There are seven whom Allah will shade with His Shade on the Day when there will be no shade except His Shade -- and among them he mentioned -- . ..a man who gave in charity and concealed it to the extent that his left hand did not know what his right hand was giving.) According to another Hadith:

وَالصَّدَقَةُ تُطْفِىءُ الْخَطِيئَةَ كَمَا يُطْفِىءُ الْمَاءُ النَّار

(Sadaqah extinguishes bad deeds just as water extinguishes fire.) There are many Hadiths which encourage charitable giving; this topic is discussed in detail elsewhere.

[والصَّـئِمِينَ والصَّـئِمَـتِ]

(the men and the women who fast,) According to a Hadith narrated by Ibn Majah:

وَالصَّوْمُ زَكَاةُ الْبَدَن

(Fasting is the Zakah of the body.) In other words, it purifies it and cleanses it of things that are bad in both physical and Shar`i terms. Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "Whoever fasts Ramadan and three days of each month, is included in the Ayah,

[والصَّـئِمِينَ والصَّـئِمَـتِ]

(the men and the women who fast,)'' Fasting is also one of the greatest means of overcoming one's desires, as the Messenger of Allah said:

يَامَعْشَرَ الشَّبَابِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْكُمُ الْبَاءَةَ فَلْيَتَزَوَّجْ، فَإِنَّهُ أَغَضُّ لِلْبَصَرِ وَأَحْصَنُ لِلْفَرْجِ، وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَعَلَيْهِ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لَهُ وِجَاء

(O young men! Whoever among you can afford to get married, let him do so, for it is most effective in lowering the gaze and protecting the chastity. And whoever cannot get married, then let him fast, for it will be a protection for him.) It is quite apt that next should be mentioned:

[وَالْحَـفِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَـفِـظَـتِ]

(the men and the women who guard their chastity) i.e., they protect their private parts from forbidden and sinful things, except for that which is permitted. Allah says:

[وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِفُرُوجِهِمْ حَـفِظُونَ - إِلاَّ عَلَى أَزْوَجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـنُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُومِينَ - فَمَنِ ابْتَغَى وَرَآءَ ذلِكَ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُونَ ]

(And those who guard their chastity. Except from their wives or the whom their right hands possess -- for they are not blameworthy. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then it is those who are trespassers.) (70:29-31)

[وَالذَكِـرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً وَالذَكِرَتِ]

(and the men and the women who remember Allah much) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

إِذَا أَيْقَظَ الرَّجُلُ امْرَأَتَهُ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَصَلَّيَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ كُتِبَا تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةَ مِنَ الذَّاكِرِينَ اللهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَات

(If a man wakes his wife at night and they pray two Rak`ahs, they will recorded that night as being among the men and the women who remember Allah much.) This was recorded by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah from the Hadith of Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with them both, from the Prophet . Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah was walking along a road in Makkah, and he came to (the mountain of) Jumdan, and said,

هَذَا جُمْدَانُ، سِيرُوا، فَقَدْ سَبَقَ الْمُفَرِّدُون

(This is Jumdan, go ahead, for the Mufarridun have gone ahead.(The men and the women who remember Allah much) Then he said,

اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُحَلِّقِين

(O Allah, forgive those who shaved their hair.) They said, `And those who shortened.' He said,

اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُحَلِّقِين

(O Allah, forgive those who shaved their hair.) They said, `And those who shortened.'

وَالْمُقَصِّرِين

(And those who shortened.) This was recorded by Imam Ahmad with this chain of narration. It was also recorded by Muslim, except for the last part of it.

[أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْراً عَظِيماً]

(Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward.) Here Allah tells us that for all of those mentioned in this Ayah, He has prepared for them forgiveness of their sins and a great reward, meaning, Paradise.

[وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلاَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَـلاً مُّبِيناً ]

(36. It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plain error.)

20. The Reason for Revelation

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Barzah Al-Aslami said: "Julaybib was a man who used to enter upon women and joke with them. I said to my wife, `Do not let Julaybib enter upon you, for if he enters upon you I shall do such and such.' If any of the Ansar had a single female relative, they would not arrange a marriage for her until they found out whether the Prophet wanted to marry her or not. The Prophet said to one of the Ansar:

زَوِّجْنِي ابْنَتَك

(Give me your daughter for marriage.) He said, `Yes, O Messenger of Allah, it would be an honor and a blessing.' He said,

إِنِّي لَسْتُ أُرِيدُهَا لِنَفْسِي

(I do not want her for myself.) He said, `Then for whom, O Messenger of Allah' He said,

لِجُلَيْبِيب

(For Julaybib.) He said, `O Messenger of Allah, let me consult her mother.' So he went to the girl's mother and said, `The Messenger of Allah is proposing marriage for your daughter.' She said, `Yes, it would be a pleasure.' He said, `He is not proposing to marry her himself, he is proposing on behalf of Julaybib.' She said, `What! Julaybib No, by Allah, we will not marry her to him.' When he wanted to get up and go to the Messenger of Allah to tell him what the girl's mother had said, the girl asked, `Who is asking for my hand' So her mother told her, and she said, `Are you refusing to follow the command of the Messenger of Allah Follow his command, for I will not come to any harm.' So her father went to the Messenger of Allah and said, `Deal with her as you wish.' So he married her to Julaybib. Then the Messenger of Allah went out on one of his military campaigns, and after Allah had granted him victory, he said to his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them,

هَلْ تَفْقِدُونَ مِنْ أَحَد

(See whether there is anybody missing.) They said, `We have lost so-and-so, and so-and-so.' He said,

انْظُرُوا هَلْ تَفْقِدُونَ مِنْ أَحَد

(See if there is anybody missing.) They said, `No one.' He said:

لَكِنَّنِي أَفْقِدُ جُلَيْبِيبًا

(But I see that Julaybib is missing.) He said:

فَاطْلُبُوهُ فِي الْقَتْلَى

(Go and look for him among the dead.) So they looked for him, and found him beside seven of the enemy whom he had killed before he was himself killed. They said, `O Messenger of Allah, here he is, beside seven of the enemy whom he had killed before he was himself killed.' The Messenger of Allah came and stood beside him and said,

قَتَلَ سَبْعَةً وَقَتَلُوهُ، هَذَا مِنِّي وَأَنَا مِنْه

(He killed seven before he was himself killed. He belongs to me and I belong to him.) He said this two or three times, then the Messenger of Allah carried him in his arms and held him while his grave was dug, then he placed him in his grave. It was not mentioned that he washed him, may Allah be pleased with him.'' Thabit, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "There was no widow among the Ansar who was more sought after for marriage than that girl.'' Ishaq bin `Abdullah bin Abi Talhah asked Thabit, "Do you know how the Messenger of Allah prayed for that girl'' He told him: "He said,

اللَّهُمَّ صُبَّ عَلَيْهَا الْخَيْرَ صَبًّا وَلَا تَجْعَلْ عَيْشَهَا كَدًّا

(O Allah, pour blessings upon her and do not make her life hard.) And this is how it was; there was no widow among the Ansar who was more sought after for marriage than her.'' This is how it was recorded by Imam Ahmad, in full. Muslim and An-Nasa'i recorded the story of his death in Al-Fada'il. Al-Hafiz Abu `Umar bin `Abd Al-Barr mentioned in Al-Isti`ab that when the girl said in her seclusion, `Are you refusing to follow the command of the Messenger of Allah ' -- This Ayah was revealed:

[وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلاَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ]

(It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision.) It was narrated that Tawus asked Ibn `Abbas about praying two Rak`ahs after `Asr and he told him not to do that. Ibn `Abbas recited:

[وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلاَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ]

(It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision.) This Ayah is general in meaning and applies to all matters, i.e., if Allah and His Messenger decreed a matter, no one has the right to go against that, and no one has any choice or room for personal opinion in this case. Allah says: o

[فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُواْ فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجاً مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسْلِيماً ]

(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.) (4:65) Hence the issue of going against it is addressed in such strong terms, as Allah says:

[وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَـلاً مُّبِيناً]

(And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plain error.) This is like the Ayah:

[فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَـلِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَن تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ]

(And let those who oppose the Messenger's commandment, beware, lest some Fitnah should befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them) (24:63).

[وَإِذْ تَقُولُ لِلَّذِى أَنعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْسِكْ عَلَيْكَ زَوْجَكَ وَاتَّقِ اللَّهَ وَتُخْفِى فِى نِفْسِكَ مَا اللَّهُ مُبْدِيهِ وَتَخْشَى النَّاسَ وَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَن تَخْشَـهُ فَلَمَّا قَضَى زَيْدٌ مِّنْهَا وَطَراً زَوَّجْنَـكَهَا لِكَىْ لاَ يَكُونَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَرَجٌ فِى أَزْوَاجِ أَدْعِيَآئِهِمْ إِذَا قَضَوْاْ مِنْهُنَّ وَطَراً وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ مَفْعُولاً ]

(37. And (remember) when you said to him on whom Allah has bestowed grace and you have done a favor: "Keep your wife to yourself, and have Taqwa of Allah.'' But you did hide in yourself that which Allah will make manifest, you did fear the people whereas Allah had a better right that you should fear Him. So, when Zayd had completed his aim with her, We gave her to you in marriage, so that there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them. And Allah's command must be fulfilled.)

21. Allah's rebuke to His Messenger and the Story of Zayd and Zaynab

Allah tells what His Prophet said to his freed slave Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, who was the one on whom Allah had bestowed grace, i.e., through Islam and following the Messenger .

[وَأَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِ]

(and you have done a favor [to him]) means, by freeing him from slavery. And he was a great leader, held in high esteem and beloved by the Prophet . He was known as the beloved, and his son Usamah was known as the beloved son of the beloved. `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: "The Messenger of Allah never sent him on a campaign but he appointed him as its commander, and if he had lived after him he would have appointed him as his Khalifah.'' This was recorded by Imam Ahmad. The Messenger of Allah had given him in marriage to the daughter of his paternal aunt, Zaynab bint Jahsh Al-Asadiyyah, may Allah be pleased with her, whose mother was Umaymah bint `Abd Al-Muttalib. For her dowery he gave her ten Dinars, sixty Dirhams, a veil, a cloak and a shirt, fifty Mudds of food and ten Mudds of dates. This was stated by Muqatil bin Hayyan. She stayed with him for a year, more or less, then problems arose between them. Zayd complained about her to the Messenger of Allah , who told him, "Stay with your wife and have Taqwa of Allah.'' Allah says:

[وَتُخْفِى فِى نِفْسِكَ مَا اللَّهُ مُبْدِيهِ وَتَخْشَى النَّاسَ وَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَن تَخْشَـهُ]

(But you did hide in yourself that which Allah will make manifest, you did fear the people whereas Allah had a better right that you should fear Him.) Ibn Jarir narrated that `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, "If Muhammad were to have concealed anything that was revealed to him of the Book of Allah, he would have concealed this Ayah:

[وَتُخْفِى فِى نِفْسِكَ مَا اللَّهُ مُبْدِيهِ وَتَخْشَى النَّاسَ وَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَن تَخْشَـهُ]

(But you did hide in yourself that which Allah will make manifest, you did fear the people whereas Allah had a better right that you should fear Him.)''

[فَلَمَّا قَضَى زَيْدٌ مِّنْهَا وَطَراً زَوَّجْنَـكَهَا]

(So, when Zayd had completed his aim with her, We gave her to you in marriage,) meaning, `when her marriage to Zayd was over and he had separated from her, We married her to you,' and the One Who was her Wali (guardian) in this marriage was Allah Himself, in the sense that He revealed to the Prophet that he should go in unto her without any Wali, contractual agreement, dowery or witnesses among mankind. Imam Ahmad recorded that Thabit said that Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "When Zaynab's `Iddah finished, may Allah be pleased with her, the Messenger of Allah said to Zayd bin Harithah,

اذْهَبْ فَاذْكُرْهَا عَلَي

(Go to her and tell her about me (that I want to marry her).) So, he went to her and found her kneading dough. He (Zayd) said, `When I saw her I felt such respect for her that I could not even look at her and tell her what the Messenger of Allah had said, so I turned my back to her and stepped aside, and said, `O Zaynab! Rejoice, for the Messenger of Allah has sent me to propose marriage to you on his behalf.' She said, `I will not do anything until I pray to my Lord, may He be glorified.' So she went to the place where she usually prayed. Then Qur'an was revealed and the Messenger of Allah came and entered without permission. We were there when she entered upon the Messenger of Allah , and for the wedding feast we offered bread and meat. Then the people left, and some men stayed behind conversing in the house after they had eaten. The Messenger of Allah went out and I followed him. He started to go around all the apartments of his wives, greeting them, and they said, `O Messenger of Allah, how did you find your (new) wife' I do not know whether I or someone else told him that those people had left, so he went and entered the house, and I went to enter after him, but he drew the curtain between himself and I. The ruling of Hijab was revealed and he exhorted the people as Allah had exhorted them:

[لاَ تَدْخُلُواْ بُيُوتَ النَّبِىِّ إِلاَّ أَن يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ]

(Enter not the Prophet's houses, unless permission is given to you).'' This was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa'i. Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "Zaynab bint Jahsh, may Allah be pleased with her, used to boast to the other wives of the Prophet , saying, `Your families arranged your marriages, but Allah arranged my marriage from above the seven heavens.''' In (our Tafsir of) Surat An-Nur we mentioned that Muhammad bin `Abdullah bin Jahsh said: "Zaynab and `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with them, were boasting to one another; Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, said, `I am the one whose marriage was revealed from above the heaven.' `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, `I am the one whose innocence was revealed from heaven.' So, Zaynab conceded that, may Allah be pleased with her.''

[لِكَىْ لاَ يَكُونَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَرَجٌ فِى أَزْوَاجِ أَدْعِيَآئِهِمْ إِذَا قَضَوْاْ مِنْهُنَّ وَطَراً]

(so that there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them.) means, `We permitted you to marry her, and We did that so that there would no longer be any difficulty for the believers with regard to their marrying the ex-wives of their adopted sons.' Before prophethood, the Messenger of Allah had adopted Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, and he was known as Zayd, the son of Muhammad. Allah put a stop to this when He said:

[وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ]

(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons) until:

[ادْعُوهُمْ لاًّبَآئِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ]

(Call them after their fathers, that is more just with Allah) (33:4-5). Then this was confirmed and made even clearer by the marriage of the Messenger of Allah to Zaynab bint Jahsh, may Allah be pleased with her, when Zayd bin Harithah divorced her. Allah says in Ayat At-Tahrim:

[وَحَلَـئِلُ أَبْنَآئِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَـبِكُمْ]

(the wives of your sons from your own loins) (4:23) which specifically excludes adopted sons. This custom (of adopting sons) was widespread among them.

[وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ مَفْعُولاً]

(And Allah's command must be fulfilled.) means, `this that has happened was decreed by Allah and was inevitable.' Allah knew that Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her, would become one of the wives of the Prophet .

[مَّا كَانَ عَلَى النَّبِىِّ مِنْ حَرَجٍ فِيمَا فَرَضَ اللَّهُ لَهُ سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ فِى الَّذِينَ خَلَوْاْ مِن قَبْلُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قَدَراً مَّقْدُوراً ]

(38. There is no blame on the Prophet in that which Allah has made legal for him. That has been Allah's way with those who have passed away of old. And the command of Allah is a decree determined.)

[مَّا كَانَ عَلَى النَّبِىِّ مِنْ حَرَجٍ فِيمَا فَرَضَ اللَّهُ لَهُ]

(There is no blame on the Prophet in that which Allah has made legal for him.) means, in that which has been permitted for him and which he has been commanded to do, i.e. his marrying Zaynab, may Allah be pleased with her,, who had been divorced by his adopted son Zayd bin Harithah,

[سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ فِى الَّذِينَ خَلَوْاْ مِن قَبْلُ]

(That has been Allah's way with those who have passed away of old.) means this is the ruling of Allah for the Prophets who came before him. Allah would not command them to do anything for which they might be blamed. This is a refutation of those hypocrites who imagined that there was anything wrong with his marrying the ex-wife of Zayd, his freed slave and adopted son.

[وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قَدَراً مَّقْدُوراً]

(And the command of Allah is a decree determined.) means, His command which He has decreed must inevitably come to pass; nothing can prevent it or avert it, for whatever He wills happens, and whatever He does not decree, does not happen.

[الَّذِينَ يُبَلِّغُونَ رِسَالـتِ اللَّهِ وَيَخْشَوْنَهُ وَلاَ يَخْشَوْنَ أَحَداً إِلاَّ اللَّهَ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ حَسِيباً - مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَآ أَحَدٍ مّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً ]

(39. Those who convey the Message of Allah and fear Him, and fear none save Allah. And sufficient is Allah as a Reckoner.) (40. Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.)

22. Praise for Those Who convey the Message

Allah says:

[الَّذِينَ يُبَلِّغُونَ رِسَالـتِ اللَّهِ]

(Those who convey the Message of Allah) meaning, to His creation, and fulfil that with which they have been entrusted.

[وَيَخْشَوْنَهُ]

(and fear Him,) means, they fear Him and they do not fear any besides Him, so no threats on the part of anyone can prevent them from conveying the Message of Allah.

[وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ حَسِيباً]

(And sufficient is Allah as a Reckoner.) means, sufficient is Allah as a Helper and Supporter. The leader of all people in this regard and in all regards is Muhammad the Messenger of Allah , for he undertook to convey the Message to the people of the east and of the west, to all kinds of the sons of Adam, so Allah caused his word, his religion and his law to prevail over all other religions and laws. The Prophets before him were sent only to their own peoples, but he was sent to all of mankind, Arabs and non-Arabs alike.

[قُلْ يَأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا]

(Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah'') (7:158). Then his Ummah inherited the task of conveying from him, and the greatest of those who undertook this task after him were his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, who conveyed from him as he had commanded them, describing all his words, deeds and circumstances, night and day, when he was settled and when he was traveling, in private and in public, may Allah be pleased with them. Thereafter each generation inherited from their predecessors until our own time, so those who are guided, follow their example and their way. We ask Allah, the Most Generous Bestower, to make us among their heirs.

23. The Messenger is not the Father of any Man

Allah states:

[مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَآ أَحَدٍ مّن رِّجَالِكُمْ]

(Muhammad is not the father of any of your men,) After this it was not permitted to say Zayd bin Muhammad, i.e., he was not his father even though he had adopted him. No male child of the Prophet lived until puberty. Khadijah, may Allah be pleased with her, bore him Al-Qasim, At-Tayyib and At-Tahir, but they died in childhood. Mariyah Al-Qibtiyyah bore him Ibrahim, but he also died in infancy. He also had four daughters from Khadijah: Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah, may Allah be pleased with them all. Three of them died during his lifetime, Fatimah lived long enough to be bereaved of him, then she died six months later.

24. He is the Last of the Prophets

[وَلَـكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً]

(but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.) This is like the Ayah:

[اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ]

(Allah knows best with whom to place His Message) (6:124). This Ayah clearly states that there will be no Prophet after him. If there will be no Prophet after him then there will surely be no Messenger after him either, because the status of a Messenger is higher than that of a Prophet, for every Messenger is a Prophet but the reverse is not the case. This was reported in many Mutawatir Hadiths narrated from the Messenger of Allah via a group of his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them. Imam Ahmad recorded a narration from Ubayy bin Ka`b, from his father that the Prophet said:

مَثَلِي فِي النَّبِيِّينَ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ بَنَى دَارًا فَأَحْسَنَهَا وَأَكْمَلَهَا، وَتَرَكَ فِيهَا مَوْضِعَ لَبِنَةٍ لَمْ يَضَعْهَا، فَجَعَلَ النَّاسُ يَطُوفُونَ بِالْبُنْيَانِ وَيَعْجَبُونَ مِنْهُ وَيَقُولُونَ: لَوْ تَمَّ مَوْضِعُ هَذِهِ اللَّبِنَةِ، فَأَنَا فِي النَّبِيِّينَ مَوْضِعُ تِلْكَ اللَّبِنَة

(My parable among the Prophets is that of a man who built a house and did a good and complete job, apart from the space of one brick which he did not put in its place. The people started to walk around the building, admiring it and saying, "If only that brick were put in its place. '' Among the Prophets, I am like that brick.) It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said "Hasan Sahih.''

25. Another Hadith 1

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

إِنَّ الرِّسَالَةَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ قَدِ انْقَطَعَتْ فَلَا رَسُولَ بَعْدِي وَلَا نَبِي

(Messengership and Prophethood have come to an end, and there will be no more Messengers or Prophets.) This worried the people, then he said:

وَلَكِنِ الْمُبَشِّرَات

(But there will be Al-Mubashshirat.) They said, `O Messenger of Allah, what are Al-Mubashshirat' He said,

رُؤْيَا الرَّجُلِ الْمُسْلِمِ، وَهِيَ جُزْءٌ مِنْ أَجْزَاءِ النُّبُوَّة

(The dreams of a Muslim man, and they are one of the parts of prophethood.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said, "Sahih Gharib.''

26. Another Hadith 2

Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

مَثَلِي وَمَثَلُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ بَنَى دَارًا فَأَكْمَلَهَا وَأَحْسَنَهَا إِلَّا مَوْضِعَ لَبِنَةٍ، فَكَانَ مَنْ دَخَلَهَا فَنَظَرَ إِلَيْهَا قَالَ: مَا أَحْسَنَهَا إِلَّا مَوْضِعَ هَذِهِ اللَّبِنَةِ، فَأَنَا مَوْضِعُ اللَّبِنَةِ خُتِمَ بِي الْأَنْبِيَاءُ عَلَيْهِمُ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَام

(The parable of myself and the Prophets is that of a man who built a house and did a complete and good job, except for the space of one brick. Whoever entered it would look at that space and say, how good it is, apart from the space of that brick. My position is like that of that brick, and the Prophets -- blessings and peace be upon them -- end with me.) It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and At-Tirmidhi, who said, "It is Sahih Gharib with this chain of narrators.''

27. Another Hadith 3

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

مَثَلِي وَمَثَلُ النَّــبِيينَ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ بَنَى دَارًا فَأَتَمَّهَا إِلَّا لَبِنَةً وَاحِدَةً، فَجِئْتُ أَنَا فَأَتْمَمْتُ تِلْكَ اللَّبِنَة

(The parable of myself and the Prophets is that of a man who built a house and completed it apart from the space of one brick. I have come and completed that brick.) This was also recorded by Muslim.

28. Another Hadith 4

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

إِنَّ مَثَلِي وَمَثَلَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ مِنْ قَبْلِي كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ ابْتَنَى بُيُوتًا فَأَكْمَلَهَا وَأَحْسَنَهَا وَأَجْمَلَهَا إِلَّا مَوْضِعَ لَبِنَةٍ مِنْ زَاوِيَةٍ مِنْ زَوَايَاهَا، فَجَعَلَ النَّاسُ يَطُوفُونَ وَيُعْجِبُهُمُ الْبُنْيَانُ وَيَقُولُونَ: أَلَّا وَضَعْتَ ههُنَا لَبِنَةً فَيَتِمُّ بُنْيَانُك

(The parable of myself and the Prophets who came before me is that of a man who built houses and made them complete and beautiful apart from the space of a brick in one of the corners. The people started to walk around, admiring the construction and saying, If only you put a brick here, your construction will be complete.) The Messenger of Allah said:

فَكُنْتُ أَنَا اللَّبِنَة

(And I am that brick.) It was also recorded by (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

29. Another Hadith 5

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

فُضِّلْتُ عَلَى الْأَنْبِيَاءِ بِسِتَ : أُعْطِيتُ جَوَامِعَ الْكَلِمِ، وَنُصِرْتُ بِالرُّعْبِ وَأُحِلَّتْ لِيَ الْغَنَائِمُ، وَجُعِلَتْ لِيَ الْأَرْضُ مَسْجِدًا وَطَهُورًا، وَأُرْسِلْتُ إِلَى الْخَلْقِ كَافَّةً، وَخُتِمَ بِي النَّبِيُّون

(I have been given preference over the other Prophets in six ways: I have been given the ability to speak concisely; I have been aided by fear (cast into the hearts of my enemies); the spoils of war have been made permissible for me; the entire earth has been made a Masjid and a means of purification for me; I have been sent to all of mankind; and the Prophets end with me.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah; At-Tirmidhi said, "It is Hasan Sahih.''

30. Another Hadith 6

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

مَثَلِي وَمَثَلُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ مِنْ قَبْلِي كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ بَنَى دَارًا فَأَتَمَّهَا إِلَّا مَوْضِعَ لَبِنَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ، فَجِئْتُ أَنَا فَأَتْمَمْتُ تِلْكَ اللَّبِنَة

(The parable of myself and the Prophets who came before me is that of a man who built a house and completed it apart from the space of one brick. I have come and completed that brick.) It was also recorded by Muslim.

31. Another Hadith 7

Jubayr bin Mut`im, may Allah be pleased with him, said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:

إِنَّ لِي أَسْمَاءَ أَنَا مُحَمَّدٌ، وَأَنَا أَحْمَدُ، وَأَنَا الْمَاحِي الَّذِي يَمْحُو اللهُ تَعَالَى بِيَ الْكُفْرَ، وَأَنَا الْحَاشِرُ الَّذِي يُحْشَرُ النَّاسُ عَلَى قَدَمَيَّ وَأَنَا الْعَاقِبُ الَّذِي لَيْسَ بَعْدَهُ نَبِي

(I have several names: I am Muhammad, and I am Ahmad; I am Al-Mahi (the eradicator) through whom Allah will erase disbelief; I am Al-Hashir (the gatherer) at whose feet mankind will gather; and I am Al-`Aqib (the final one) after whom there will be no Prophet.) It was also recorded in the Two Sahihs. And there are many other Hadiths on this topic. Allah has told us in His Book, and His Messenger has told us in the Mutawatir Sunnah, that there will be no Prophet after him, so that it may be known that everyone who claims this status after him is a liar and fabricator who is misguided and is misguiding others. Even if he twists meanings, comes up with false claims and uses tricks and vagaries, all of this is false and is misguidance as will be clear to those who have understanding. This is what Allah caused to happen in the case of Al-Aswad Al-`Ansi in the Yemen and Musaylimah the Liar in Al-Yamamah, whose false miracles and nonsensical words showed everyone who was possessed of understanding that they were liars who were leading people astray; may the curse of Allah be upon them both. This is the case with every false prophet until the Day of Resurrection, until they end with Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal (the Antichrist). Each of these liars is given by Allah signs which show the people of knowledge and the believers that his message is false -- which is part of the perfect kindness of Allah towards His creation. These liars do not enjoin what is good, nor forbid what is evil, unless they do so by coincidence or because it serves an ulterior purpose. They are the utmost in falsehood and immorality, in all that they say and do, as Allah says:

[هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُمْ عَلَى مَن تَنَزَّلُ الشَّيَـطِينُ - تَنَزَّلُ عَلَى كُلِّ أَفَّاكٍ أَثِيمٍ ]

(Shall I inform you (O people!) upon whom the Shayatin descend They descend on every lying, sinful person.) (26:221-222) This is in contrast to the Prophets -- may blessings and peace be upon them -- for they are the utmost in righteousness, truthfulness, wisdom, uprightness and justice in all that they say and do, command and forbid. In addition to this they are supported with miracles and clear and obvious proof. May the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them always, as long as heaven and earth remain.

[يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ ذِكْراً كَثِيراً - وَسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلاً - هُوَ الَّذِى يُصَلِّى عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَـئِكَتُهُ لِيُخْرِجَكُمْ مِّنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيماً - تَحِيَّتُهُمْ يَوْمَ يَلْقَوْنَهُ سَلَـمٌ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ أَجْراً كَرِيماً ]

(41. O you who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance.) (42. And glorify His praises morning and Asila.) (43. He it is Who sends Salah on you, and His angels too, that He may bring you out from darkness into light. And He is Ever Most Merciful to the believers.) (44. Their greeting on the Day they shall meet Him will be "Salam (Peace!)'' And He has prepared for them a generous reward.)

32. The Virtue of remembering Allah much

Allah commands His believing servants to remember their Lord much, Who has bestowed upon them all kinds of blessings and favors, because this will bring them a great reward and a wonderful destiny. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Busr said: "Two bedouins came to the Messenger of Allah and one of them said: `O Messenger of Allah, which of the people is best' He said:

مَنْ طَالَ عُمْرُهُ وَحَسُنَ عَمَلُه

(The one whose life is long and whose deeds are good.) The other one said: `O Messenger of Allah, the laws of Islam are too much for us. Teach me something that I can adhere to.' He said,

لَايَزَالُ لِسَانُكَ رَطْبًا بِذِكْرِ اللهِ تَعَالَى

(Keep your tongue moist with the remembrance of Allah, may He be exalted.) At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded the second part of this report. At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan Gharib''. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said,

مَا مِنْ قَوْمٍ جَلَسُوا مَجْلِسًا لَمْ يَذْكُرُوا اللهَ تَعَالَى فِيهِ إِلَّا رَأَوْهُ حَسْرَةً يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة

(No people sit together without mentioning Allah, but they will see that as regret on the Day of Resurrection.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on the Ayah:

[اذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ ذِكْراً كَثِيراً]

(Remember Allah with much remembrance. ) "Allah did not enjoin any duty upon His servants without setting known limits and accepting the excuses of those who have a valid excuse -- apart from Dhikr, for Allah has not set any limits for it, and no one has any excuse for not remembering Allah unless he is oppressed and forced to neglect it. Allah says:

[فَاذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ قِيَـماً وَقُعُوداً وَعَلَى جُنُوبِكُمْ]

(Remember Allah standing, sitting down, and (lying down) on your sides) (4:103). By night and by day, on land and on sea, when traveling and when staying home, in richness and in poverty, in sickness and in health, in secret and openly, in all situations and circumstances. And Allah says:

[وَسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلاً ]

(And glorify His praises morning and Asila.) If you do this, He and His angels will send blessings upon you.'' There are very many Ayat, Hadiths and reports which encourage the remembrance of Allah, and this Ayah urges us to remember Him much. People such as An-Nasa'i and Al-Ma`mari and others have written books about the Adhkar to be recited at different times of the night and day.

[وَسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلاً ]

(And glorify His praises morning and Asila) in the morning and in the evening. This is like the Ayah:

[فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ - وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَعَشِيّاً وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ ]

(So glorify Allah, when you come up to the evening, and when you enter the morning. And His are all the praises and thanks in the heavens and the earth; and in the afternoon and when you come up to the time, when the day begins to decline.) (30:17-18).

[هُوَ الَّذِى يُصَلِّى عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَـئِكَتُهُ]

(He it is Who sends Salah on you, and His angels too,) This is encouragement to remember Allah, i.e., He will remember you, so remember Him. This is like the Ayah:

[كَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولاً مِّنْكُمْ يَتْلُواْ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَـتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُواْ تَعْلَمُونَ - فَاذْكُرُونِى أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَاشْكُرُواْ لِي وَلاَ تَكْفُرُونِ ]

(Similarly, We have sent among you a Messenger of your own, reciting to you Our Ayat and purifying you, and teaching you the Book and the Hikmah, and teaching you that which you used not to know. Therefore remember Me. I will remember you, and be grateful to Me and never be ungrateful to Me) (2:151-152) The Prophet said:

يَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالَى: مَنْ ذَكَرَنِي فِي نَفْسِهِ ذَكَرْتُهُ فِييَنفْسِي، وَمَنْ ذَكَرَنِي فِي مَلَإٍ ذَكَرْتُهُ فِي مَلَإٍ خَيْرٍ مِنْه

(Allah says: "Whoever remembers Me to himself, I will remember him to Myself, and whoever remembers Me in a gathering, I will remember him in a better gathering.'')

33. The Meaning of Salah

Allah's Salah means that He praises His servant before the angels, as Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Al-`Aliyah. This was recorded by Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi from Ar-Rabi` bin Anas from Anas. Others said: "Allah's Salah means mercy.'' It may be said that there is no contradiction between these two views. And Allah knows best. Salah from the angels means their supplication and seeking forgiveness for people, as Allah says:

[الَّذِينَ يَحْمِلُونَ الْعَرْشَ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَيُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُونَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ رَبَّنَا وَسِعْتَ كُـلَّ شَىْءٍ رَّحْمَةً وَعِلْماً فَاغْفِرْ لِلَّذِينَ تَابُواْ وَاتَّبَعُواْ سَبِيلَكَ وَقِهِمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ - رَبَّنَا وَأَدْخِلْهُمْ جَنَّـتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِى وَعَدْتَّهُمْ وَمَن صَـلَحَ مِنْ ءَابَآئِهِمْ وَأَزْوَجِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّـتِهِمْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْع َزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ]

وَقِهِمُ السَّيّئَـتِ]

(Those who bear the Throne and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for those who believe (saying): "Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who repent and follow Your way, and save them from the torment of the blazing Fire! Our Lord! And make them enter the `Adn Garden which you have promised them -- and to the righteous among their fathers, their wives, and their offspring! Verily, You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. And save them from the sins.'') (dua 40:7-8-9)

[لِيُخْرِجَكُمْ مِّنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ]

(that He may bring you out from darkness into light. ) means, by means of His mercy towards you, His praise of you and the supplication of His angels for you, He brings you forth from the darkness of ignorance and misguidance into the light of guidance and certain faith.

[وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيماً]

(And He is Ever Most Merciful to the believers.) means, in this world and in the Hereafter: in this world He guides them to the truth of which others are ignorant, and He shows them the path from which others have gone astray, those who call for disbelief and innovation, and their followers among the wrongdoers. His mercy towards them in the Hereafter means that He will save them from the greater terror (of the Day of Resurrection) and will command His angels to greet them with the glad tidings of Paradise and salvation from the Fire, which will only be because of His love for them and His kindness towards them. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah and a group of his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, passed by a young child in the road. When his mother saw the people, she feared that her child may be crushed by the crowd, so she rushed forward, crying, `My son, my son!' She ran and picked him up, and the people said, `O Messenger of Allah, she would never throw her child in the Fire.' The Messenger of Allah convincingly said:

لَا، وَاللهِ لَايُلْقِي حَبِيبَهُ فِي النَّار

(No, and Allah will not throw His beloved in the Fire.) Its chain of narrators meets the conditions of the Two Sahihs, although none of the authors of the Six Books recorded it. But in Sahih Al-Bukhari it is recorded from the Commander of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah saw a woman among the prisoners of war picking up her child, clasping the child to her breast and nursing him. The Messenger of Allah said:

أَتُرَوْنَ هَذِهِ تُلْقِي وَلَدَهَا فِي النَّارِ وَهِيَ تَقْدِرُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ؟

(Do you think that this woman would throw her child into the Fire even though she is (physically) able to do so) They said, "No.'' The Messenger of Allah said: